Participation and team quizzes-MD

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CPM Conference
Annapolis July 2008
Assessment: Participation Quiz, Team Quizzes and More
Barbara Reed
[email protected]
Handouts and Ideas given to you at session:
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*William Glasser: We learn…
* Team Roles and Norms
*Participation Quiz Observation Sheet
Participation Quiz Classroom Game
*Study Team Strategies
1*Marnie’s Information
2. *Jigsaw
3. *Pairs Check
What do we have to manage…?
Circulation-Some thoughts…
*Learning Log Response
*Skills Desired by Fortune 500 Companies
*Chinese Proverb: I hear and I forget…
Post its for students grading presentations-idea
TLs: The * can be found on your CPM flash drive.
CPM Conference
Annapolis July 2008
Assessment: Participation Quiz, Team Quizzes and More…
AGENDA
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William Glasser: We learn…
Team Roles and Norms
Team Tests Jigsaw/Share Ideas
Participation Quiz Jigsaw
Participation Quiz Observation Sheet/AC
Problems-Brainstorm
Participation Quiz Classroom Game
Study Team Strategies
 Marnie’s Information
 Jigsaw
 Pairs Check
What do we have to manage…?
Circulation-Some thoughts…
Learning Log Response
Skills Desired by Fortune 500 Companies
Chinese Proverb: I hear and I forget…
Barbara Reed
[email protected]
We learn …
10% of what we read,
20% of what we hear,
30% of what we see,
50% of what we both
see and hear,
70% of what is
discussed with others,
80% of what we
experience personally,
and
95% of what we teach
someone else.
William Glasser
Resource Managers get necessary supplies
and materials for the team and make sure
that the team has cleaned up its area at the
end of the day. They also manage the nonmaterial resources for the team, seeking
input from each person and then calling the
teacher over to ask a team question.
Typically, a teacher could expect to hear a
resource manager asking:
“Does anyone have an idea?”
“Who can answer that question? Should I call the
teacher?”
“What supplies do we need for this activity?”
Facilitators help their teams get started by
having someone in the team read the task
aloud. They make sure each person
understands the task and that the team helps
everyone know how to get started. Before
anyone moves on, the facilitator asks to make
sure each team member understands the
team’s answer. Typically, a teacher could
expect to hear a facilitator asking:
“Who wants to read?”
“Does anyone know how to get started?”
“What does the first question mean?”
“I’m not sure – What are we supposed to do?”
“Do we all agree?”
“I’m not sure I get it yet – can someone explain?”
Recorder/Reporters share the team’s results
with the class (as appropriate) and serve as a
liaison with the teacher when s/he has
additional information to share with the class
and calls for a “huddle” with all of the
recorder/reporters. In some activities, a
recorder/reporter may make sure that each
team member understands what information
s/he needs to record personally.
Recorder/reporters may also take
responsibility for organizing their team
members’ contributions as they prepare
presentations. Typically, a teacher could
expect to hear a recorder/reporter asking:
“Does everyone understand what to write down?”
“How should we show our answer on this poster?”
“Can we show this in a different way?”
“What does each person want to explain in the
presentation?”
The Task Manager keeps the team focused
on the assignment of the day. He or she
works to keep the team discussing the math
at hand and monitors if anyone is talking
outside of her/his team. Additionally, a task
manager helps the team focus on articulating
the reasons for the math statements they
make. Typically, a teacher could expect to
hear a task manager saying:
“Ok, let’s get back to work!”
“Let’s keep working.”
“What does the next question say?”
“Explain how you know that.”
“Can you prove that?”
“Tell me why!”
No talking outside your team.
Focusing students on working with their
team of four helps them to see each other
as resources and to find their own way of
solving a problem. It helps to prevent any
student from being excluded from
conversation by making students look to the
others in their team rather than friends in
other parts of the classroom. It also
minimizes cross-classroom conversations
that disrupt the learning environment.
Responsibility for monitoring this can be
assigned to the task manager, helping to
free the teacher to address questions from
teams.
Discuss questions with your
team before calling the teacher
over.
This can be reinforced by how the teacher
responds to questions from a team. This
norm should not imply that the teacher
does not answer questions, but instead that
the other members of the team are a
student’s first resource. While this can be
as difficult for the teacher as for the
student, you must develop the habit of
asking, “Is this a team question?” or “Does
everyone in the study team want the
question answered?” This norm will help
students work on answering their own
questions.
Within your team, keep your
conversation on math.
This norm reminds students that their
conversations in study teams have an
intellectual, rather than social, purpose.
Explain and justify your ideas;
give statements and reasons.
This norm links directly to one of the
learning themes of the course and
underscores the expectation that there are
multiple valid ways of solving different
problems.
You must try to help anyone in
your study team who asks.
While this is one of the more difficult
ideas for competitive students to accept, it
is critical to effective team functioning.
Over time, students will begin to see that
explaining something to someone else is one
of the best ways to assure that they
understand the idea themselves. Explaining
is also a means of deepening understanding
and increasing long-term retention.
Helping your teammate does not
mean giving answers. Help by
giving hints and asking good
questions.
This helps to set a tone of community
support rather than individual competition
and challenges students to help a teammate
understand and discover for themselves
rather than simply having an answer to
write down.
No one alone is as smart as all
of us together. Do not leave
anyone behind or let anyone
work ahead. Your team is not
done until everyone is done.
Again, this norm emphasizes that the
process is just as important as the answer
and that understanding others’ approaches
improves an individual’s understanding.
Clear off tables (or desks)
before getting to work so you
can see everyone’s paper.
This emphasizes the importance of creating
an uncluttered space to share ideas and
converse openly about the mathematics.
You must use study team voices.
The volume of students’ voices should
remain within the hearing range of their
study team only. You will need to develop
signals to indicate the end of team
discussion, such as turning the lights out,
clapping, ringing a bell, or raising a hand.
Participation Quiz Observation Sheet
State your primary focus: team roles, questions, group skills, following rules
Team 1
Team 2
Team 3
Team 4
Team 5
Team 6
Team 7
Team 8
Participation Quiz
 Pick a group worthy task
 Tell students which norm you are focusing on
 Show teams how you are keeping track (overhead, posters,
chalkboard)
 Record comments while students are working
 Debrief
(Do not need to record everything)
STRATEGIES FOR CREATING POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE
Goal Set a group goal:
Each member scores 90% or higher on the next test.
The group average is 90% or higher.
The total score for the group is at least 300.
All members complete their homework for 1 day, week,...
Each member does better on the next quiz than on the last one.
All members agree on one answer and each one must be able to explain the work.
The group prepares one paper signed by all members.
One paper is collected at random; if correct, all group members get credit.
Outside Enemy Set a group goal:
Beat the highest group average from last week.
Beat the total class score made on the last test.
Beat last week's record for homework completed.
Reward and Recognition Everyone is rewarded or no one is.
Give bonus points that are added to all members' scores when everyone in the group meets the
criterion.
Give nonacademic rewards (see list under Recognition, Privileges, and Rewards)
Give praise, round of applause, standing ovation.
Resource
Give each group one pencil, ruler, calculator, etc. Use the jigsaw strategy so each student has a
part of the necessary information.
Role
Assign or ask group members to assign group roles, for example; reader, recorder, encourager,
checker, timekeeper, observer, traveler, summarizer, materials handier, reporter, facilitator,
praiser, paraphraser, etc.
* FACE-TO-FACE INTERACTION *
Cooperative learning requires face-to-face interaction among students so that they can promote each other's
learning and success. Such positive interaction has a number of effects.
Students are encouraged to explain how to solve problems, discuss concepts, ask questions, explain what they
know to others, and discuss how the present learning is connected with past learning. They can influence each
other's thinking, provide help and assistance, and give important feedback concerning each other's performance.
Social support and interpersonal rewards increase. Opportunities are there to pressure less motivated group
members to achieve.
It is the face-to-face interaction involved in working together that allows students to get to know each other as
individuals, and this forms the basis for caring.
To obtain meaningful face-to-face interaction:
The size of the groups needs to be small (2 to 6 members). The smaller the group, the greater the
perception that one's participation and efforts are needed. As the group size increases, however,
the amount of pressure peers may put on their less motivated members also increases.
Group members need to sit close enough so that they can make eye contact easily, hear, be
heard, and see what's going on.
* INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY *
Cooperative learning groups are successful only when every member has learned the material or has helped
with and understood the assignment. It is important to emphasize and evaluate individual learning so group
members can appropriately support and help one another.
Strategies
Give individual tests or quizzes
Collect a paper from each student
Collect 1 group paper signed by all members
Collect 1 paper at random
Call on 1 person to explain the group's work during or after the task
Monitor group work carefully
Assign an in-group observer to monitor group participation
Assign each student a group role
Ask students to demonstrate on the blackboard
Conduct random interviews with groups regarding content and/or participation
Make video or audio tapes of groups working
Ask groups to do peer and self evaluations
Have students initial the items they completed on a worksheet
Use similar assignments - group works together on an assignment then each member is given a
similar assignment to complete individually
Use "learning" tests - practice tests group members write test and pass to another group; one person
is test taker, partner is researcher and helper, then switch roles
* SOCIAL SKILLS *
(INTERPERSONAL AND SMALL GROUP SKILLS)
Social skills are the skills necessary for successful cooperative work. All students need to develop skill in
communicating, building and maintaining trust, providing leadership, making decisions, and managing conflict.
We need to teach these skills directly and provide opportunities and motivation for using them.
Steps in Teaching Social Skills;
1.
Help students see the need for the skill.
2.
Help students understand what the skill is and when to use it.
3.
Set up regular opportunities for students to practice the skill.
4.
Ask students to process their use of the skill and provide feedback on how well they are doing.
5.
Have students continue practicing the skill until its use becomes automatic and routine.
* GROUP PROCESSING *
Group processing means giving students both the time and the procedures for analyzing their group work. It
involves looking at how they are completing their assigned task and how well they are using the necessary
social skills. Processing helps all group members be successful and maintains good working relationships
within the group. Processing also involves receiving feedback from the teacher and/or student observers.
Types of Processing
1. Analysis - Students look at the group experience just completed to analyze what helped and what
didn't in completing their assigned task. The focus is on "I", "you", or “we”.
2. Application - Students look at what they learned from the group experience that could be applied in
other situations to help them make connections between classroom cooperation and cooperative
experiences in the rest of their lives.
3. Goal Setting - Students choose a specific social skill to work on
in their next cooperative group activity. The focus can be on
goals for individual group members or for the group as a whole.
Strategies for Processing
1. Discussion - whole class or individual group
2. Written - individual or group
3. Signals
4. Rating scales
5. Visuals e.g. thermometer
6. Thank you notes
7. Autograph book
SPARC - Getting Groups to Work Together-A Five-Finger Check List
Here are five things YOU can do to get your CPM class off to a good start.
After each period, do a quick mental check on how well each of these guidelines worked.
Start promptly. Groups get organized quickly, quietly, and tightly so that students can begin
working right away.
Be firm and consistent all year in insisting that the desks be tightly configured so that all group
members can make eye contact with and talk to (and hear) each other with walking space left
between adjacent groups. Expect students to arrange their desks and have materials out and ready
for use within 20-40 seconds of your signal. It takes practice to “quickly and quietly” make the
transition from a seating arrangement for individuals to one for groups, and vice versa, but the
time spent practicing at the beginning of the year is well worth it. After at most a few minutes of
socializing, groups should begin working on mathematics.
Peer support. Group members consult each other before consulting you.
Students are used to having teachers transmit information, not facilitate thinking. It takes time for
them to learn to work together, to trust and support each other, and to feel comfortable as
generators of knowledge. Although you may empathize with their frustrations and find it difficult
yourself to follow this group guideline, do it! It takes at least two months for student to accept this
responsibility, but your early diligence will pay-off for the rest of the year.
Assignments. All students should attempt to do the assignment each day.
Be especially vigilant at the beginning of the year that your students develop a sense of
responsibility and make a serious attempt to do their assigned work every day. You will probably
need to grade the work daily for some period of time. You will also need to guard against
“covering” yesterday’s assignment for students before they begin the day’s lesson; otherwise, you
foster dependence on you.
Respond to group. You address your responses to the whole group, not just the individual who
voices the question.
One of the most effective ways to facilitate cooperative group work is to address responses or
questions to the entire group. One way to do this is to stand opposite the student who has a hand
raised, and try to make eye contact with each group member while you talk. If all group members
are not listening because they do not all share the same question, get them talking to each other.
Circulate. You visit all groups regularly, not just those with raised hands.
Your circulation pattern about the classroom should include pauses to make sure all groups are
talking about mathematics. You should make contact, even if it is only a quick "Any problems?" at
least three times every period. While it is important to respond to groups who have questions,
waving hands should not determine your circulation pattern. Acknowledge raised hands by
making eye contact with group members, or by saying, “I’ll be right with you” and then continue
your classroom “cruise.” Get back to the group whose raised hands you acknowledged within one
or two minutes. If your interactions with the groups is solely reactive – responding to signals for
help – you will reinforce the students’ dependence on you and undermine your goal of fostering
student-centered learning.
What do we have to manage while students are doing Math? Behavior Content discussions On task Participation Time Materials Asking and answering questions Fixing errors Deciphering solutions Intervention Environment Pacing Learning styles Meeting needs Correcting misconceptions Redirecting/clarifying/refocusing How can we use team roles to manage the above? For example: Have the facilitator sit back and take notes of how everything is working, who is doing the questioning, or whatever the focus is. Use the “Huddle” to refocus or apply status. What kind of questions can we use to manage teams? For example: “What is your team doing to make sure that everyone is involved?” Questions to ask yourself. Are you happy/satisfied with how you run your class? Do students know what is expected of them? How? Do students know what to do when stuck? Does the teacher observe every side of each group? How do students know that their work is correct? How do you know if your students are on task? How do you get students to ask each other questions? Do you talk to the whole team when asking/answering questions? Circulation – Some thoughts
Circulation needs to be purposeful not random. By that, I mean that just walking around the room means
nothing unless each trip has a purpose.
After telling students AT THE VERY BEGINNING OF CLASS to get out their books, homework, etc, the teacher
needs to circulate the classroom just to see if they have done what has been requested. This is not the time to take
roll or check for homework completion. This is just to make sure that everyone has the materials they need and to
encourage them to do so.
After giving students answers to the homework (on the overhead, with answer/solution sheets for
their group, group answer discussion), the teacher do a quick round of circulating to make sure that
everyone is checking their work. Then the teacher can take the time to collect or stamp or grade
the homework or to check for homework completion. This is an added opportunity to do formative
assessment of student progress. Which problems will need to be done as an entire class? Which
student questions can be ironed out in groups through discussion?
After beginning the lesson/class problems, the teacher should circulate once quickly to see if everyone is beginning
the work. Then circulate to see if the students have questions about the task. Sometimes students are reluctant to say
they do not understand the directions in front of the class but will tell you while you are circulating.
Once the students have started on the classwork, the teacher can do a circulation to record homework completion, if it
wasn’t done earlier. If your students do their work on separate sheets of paper, ask them to put their work on the
corner of the desk so that you will not interrupt their group work. If your students do their work in a spiral notebook,
ask if it is a good time to interrupt the group. Sometimes you will interrupt their thought processes on a problem if
you are checking homework.
The remaining circulations are to listen to what they are saying and to watch what they are doing. This is the time to
ask leading questions or questions to get understanding of their thought processes.
Rules for Circulation:
At the beginning of the day:
First time: Move around to make sure that everyone is on task/following directions. Do not answer
questions. Do not check homework.
Second time: Make sure everyone is working. Ask/Answer questions. Check homework.
After the classwork has been assigned:
Third time: Ask/answer questions, listen, encourage students to move on to the next problems by correcting
their problems as you circulate.
Fourth time: Continue listening, correcting, and ask higher order thinking or extension or reflective
questions.
Name: ______________________________________
Period: ______
Date: _____________ Problem #: _______
Title: __________________________________________________
Learning Log Response:
Date: _____________ Problem #: _______
Title: __________________________________________________
Learning Log Response:
Date: _____________ Problem #: _______
Title: __________________________________________________
Learning Log Response:
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