mcc training manual - Global Aviation SA

advertisement
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
(in accordance with Part-FCL and Global Aviation Training Manual)
Produced by Global Aviation S.A ◊ September 2012
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
PREFACE
This MCC Training Manual is developed by Global Aviation in
accordance to PART-FCL. Its main objective is to assist
student pilots with Multi Crew Coordination Course and be
used by the students to prepare for their MCC training. The
MCC course aim is to train pilots to the level of proficiency in
multi-crew co-operation in order to operate safely multi-pilot
multi-engine aeroplanes under IFR. This manual is also
beneficial to pilots who have already completed the MCC
course but wishing to refresh their MCC theoretical
knowledge, and those pilots preparing for an interview for an
airline company.
The MCC training is conducted by Global Aviation team of synthetic flight instructors,
with an international experience of thousands of hours in airline environment. The flight
simulator used for the training is a FNPT II-MCC made by Elite Simulation Solutions AG,
and it represents a twin-turboprop aircraft Beechcraft B200 King Air. The student pilot
must spend at least a few hours preparing an MCC session before arriving at the
airport; this manual will assist him/her to be better prepared.
Special thanks to the team of people behind the making of this manual.
Marios Samprakos
The Head of Training
Global Aviation SA
Page 2 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Table of Contents
0
1
2
3
4
GENERAL DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................... 5
0.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 5
0.1.1
The aim and objectives of the MCC course ........................................................................... 5
0.2 OBJECTIVES OF MCC TRAINING .............................................................................................. 5
0.3 THE HUMAN ELEMENT .................................................................................................................... 5
0.3.1
The SHEL model .................................................................................................................... 5
0.3.2
COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................ 10
0.3.3
Decision Making .................................................................................................................. 14
0.3.4
Situational Awareness ....................................................................................................... 17
0.3.5
Teamwork ............................................................................................................................ 25
0.3.6
Leadership and Followership ............................................................................................ 26
0.3.7
Operation Of Multi- Crew Aircraft .................................................................................... 29
0.3.8
Task sharing and decision making....................................................................................... 33
0.3.9
Standardization .................................................................................................................... 34
AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS ........................................................................................... 44
1.1 INSTRUMENT PANEL ...................................................................................................................... 44
1.1.1
CM1 INSTRUMENTS PANEL ............................................................................................. 45
1.1.2
CM2 INSTRUMENTS PANEL ............................................................................................. 45
1.1.3
ENGINES INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................. 46
1.1.4
Pilot Fuel Control Side Panel.............................................................................................. 47
1.1.5
Copilot Circuit Panel ........................................................................................................... 48
1.1.6
Pilot Subpanel A .................................................................................................................. 48
1.1.7
Copilot Subpanel A .............................................................................................................. 49
1.1.8
Gear Control Panel ............................................................................................................. 49
1.1.9
NAVIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 50
1.1.10
PEDESTAL ..................................................................................................................... 51
PRACTICAL TRAINING ........................................................................................ 52
2.1 CALL OUTS ..................................................................................................................................... 52
2.2 ANNOUNCEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 52
2.3 INSTRUCTIONS ............................................................................................................................... 52
2.3.1
COMMAND ......................................................................................................................... 52
2.3.2
ORDER ................................................................................................................................ 53
2.3.3
REQUEST ............................................................................................................................ 53
2.4 MUTUAL SUPERVISION, INFORMATION AND SUPPORT. ................................................................... 53
SIMULATOR TASKS ............................................................................................. 54
3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................. 54
3.1.1
Proof of competency ............................................................................................................ 54
3.2 SPEED LIMITATION &. POWER SETTINGS BEECH 200 ..................................................................... 55
3.3 PITCH AND POWER SETTING FOR THE TRAINING ............................................................................. 55
3.4 SYLLABUS .................................................................................................................................. 56
3.4.1
MCC SIM SESSION 1 .......................................................................................................... 56
3.4.2
MCC SIM SESSION 2 .......................................................................................................... 58
3.4.3
MCC SIM SESSION 3 .......................................................................................................... 59
3.4.4
MCC SIM SESSION 4 .......................................................................................................... 61
3.4.5
MCC SIM SESSION 5 .......................................................................................................... 63
PROCEDURES ...................................................................................................... 66
4.1 NORMAL PROCEDURES .................................................................................................................. 66
4.1.1
Work distribution and sequence on ground ......................................................................... 66
4.1.2
Cockpit Preparation ............................................................................................................ 67
4.1.3
AUTO PILOT CHECK: ....................................................................................................... 70
4.1.4
Departure Briefing............................................................................................................... 70
4.1.5
Take off & Emergency Briefing ........................................................................................... 71
4.1.6
TAKEOFF DATA CALCULATION ..................................................................................... 73
4.1.7
Engine Start ......................................................................................................................... 73
4.1.8
ENGINE START-UP PROCEDURE.................................................................................... 75
4.1.9
AFTER START PROCEDURES........................................................................................... 76
Page 3 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.10
BEFORE T.O. CHECKLIST ........................................................................................... 77
4.1.11
Normal Takeoff Procedure.............................................................................................. 78
4.1.12
After Takeoff Checklist .................................................................................................... 80
4.1.13
Climb Procedure ............................................................................................................. 80
4.1.14
Levelling Off ................................................................................................................... 80
4.1.15
Descent procedure .......................................................................................................... 82
4.1.16
Approach Preparation .................................................................................................... 83
4.1.17
Approach Briefing ........................................................................................................... 83
4.1.18
Approach......................................................................................................................... 84
4.1.19
VISUAL APPROACHES ................................................................................................. 85
4.1.20
NON PRECISION APPROACHES ................................................................................. 87
4.1.21
CIRCLING ...................................................................................................................... 87
4.1.22
PRECISION APPROACHES .......................................................................................... 89
4.1.23
GO-AROUND ................................................................................................................. 90
4.1.24
LANDING ....................................................................................................................... 91
4.1.25
PARKING........................................................................................................................ 92
4.2 ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .................................................................. 93
4.2.1
TASK SHARING .................................................................................................................. 93
4.2.2
MEMORY ITEMS ................................................................................................................ 93
4.2.3
INITIATION OF PROCEDURES ........................................................................................ 93
4.2.4
PROCEDURES IN FLIGHT ................................................................................................ 94
4.2.5
CREW COORDINATION .................................................................................................... 94
4.2.6
REJECTED TAKEOFF ....................................................................................................... 95
4.2.7
DECISION MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................... 96
4.2.8
ENGINE FAILURE AT TAKE-OFF .................................................................................... 97
4.2.9
PILOTS INCAPACITATION................................................................................................ 97
4.3 ABNORMAL/EMERGENCY CHECKLISTS ............................................................................. 98
Page 4 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
0 General Description
0.1 Introduction
0.1.1 The aim and objectives of the MCC course
The aim of the course is to become proficient in multi-crew co-operation (MCC) in order to
operate safely multi-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes under IFR. The MCC course shall comprise at
least 25 hours of theoretical instruction/ self-study and exercises 20 hours on a MCC trainingdevice. The MCC training shall be accomplished within six months under the supervision of the
Head of Training of GLOBAL Aviation S.A.
0.2 OBJECTIVES OF MCC TRAINING
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
task sharing
decision making
communication
use of checklists
mutual supervision
teamwork and support throughout all phases of flight under normal,
abnormal and emergency conditions .
The training emphasizes the development of non-technical skills applicable to work It is
assumed, that all students are familiar with IFR, use of Jeppesen-Charts and basic
operation of a dual engine airplane
The training will focus on teaching students the basics on the functioning of crew
members as teams in a multi-crew environment, not simply as a collection of technically
competent individuals.
Furthermore, the course should provide students with opportunities to practice the skills
that are necessary to be effective team leaders and members. This requires training
exercises which include students as crew members in the PF and PM roles.
Students should be made familiar with inter-personal interfaces and how to make best use of
crew co-operation techniques and their personal and leadership styles in a way that fosters crew
effectiveness. Students should be made aware that their behaviour during normal circumstances
could have a powerful impact on crew functioning during high workload and stressful situations.
0.3 The Human Element
Objective
By the end of this section you will have:
Reviewed the SHEL model and will understand the interfaces that will exist
Investigate the effects of the-multi-crew environment and the added difficulties of
a 'close proximity' liveware interface.
Considered some basic approaches to allowing that interface to be effective.
0.3.1 The SHEL model
The name being derived from the initial letters of its componentsSoftware, Hardware, Environment, and Liveware. It is intended
as a basic aid to understanding of some Human Factors aspects.
The Imperfect person
In the centre of the model is a person (PILOT), the most critical as well
as the most flexible component in the system, Yet people are subject
to considerable variations in performance and suffer many limitations,
most of which are not predictable in general terms. The edges of this
block are not simple and straight, the other components of the system must be carefully
matched to them if stress in the system and eventual breakdown is to be avoided. In order
Page 5 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
to achieve this matching, an understanding of the characteristics of this component is
essential. Some of the more important characteristics are the following:
Physical size and shape
In the design of any workplace and most equipment, a vital role is played by the body
measurements
and movements, which will vary according to age, ethnic and gender
groups. Decisions must be made at an early stage in the design process.
Personality and attitude
Our "personality" is largely fixed by the age of 5 years. We can do nothing to substantially
change it but we can recognize our own personality deficiencies and by doing so can behave
in a way that compensates for any negative personality features. Our "attitude"
is our
public image, how we behave. This is within our control Physical needs. People's requirement
for food, water and oxygen
Input characteristics
Humans have been provided with a sensory system for collecting information from the
world around them; enabling them to respond to external events and then carry out the
required task. But all senses are subject to degradation for one reason or another.
Information processing
These human capabilities have severe limitations. Poor instrument
and warning system
design has frequently resulted from a failure to take into account the capabilities and
limitations of the human information processing system. Short and long-term memory is
involved, as well as motivation and stress.
Output characteristics
Once information is sensed and processed, messages are sent to the muscles to initiate the
desired response, whether it is a physical control movement or the initiation of some
form of communication.
Environment factors
Temperatures, pressure, humidity, noise, time of day, light and darkness can all be reflected in
performance and also in well being. Here are some other factors that can also be expected to
influence behaviour and performance.
Enclosed spaces
Unusual positions (e.g. standing at the edge of a precipice, A working environment which is
boring
stressful.
The person is the hub of the SHEL model of Human Factors. The remaining components must
be adapted and matched to this central component.
In the jargon adopted by Human Performance specialists, the person is known as the Liveware element.
Hardware
Interaction between human beings and the other elements of the SHEL model are at the heart
of Human Factors. It involves considerations such as the design of seats to fit the sitting
characteristics
of the human body, of displays to match the sensory and information
processing characteristics of the human model. The user may never be aware of a livewarehardware (L-H) deficiency, even where it finally leads to disaster, because the natural
human characteristic of automatically adjusting to L-H mismatches will mask such a
deficiency. But it will not remove its existence. This constitutes a potential hazard to which
designers should be alert.
The L-H interface addresses the mismatch in the human-machine design relationship and
the source of confusion and error caused by poorly designed or located equipment. Many
elements and skills can affect the L-H interface. During this course we will discuss those
elements that can affect MCC.
The following list contains some examples:
Hardware elements.
Controls and displays.
Design (movement, size scales, color, illumination, etc,).
Common errors in interpretation and control.
Glass cockpits, information
selection. Habit pattern interference,
design and
standardisation.
Page 6 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Alerting and warning systems:
Appropriate selection and set-up
False indications
Distractions and response.
Personal comfort:
Temperature, illumination, etc.
Adjustment of seat position and controls.
Cockpit visibility and eye reference position.
Liveware-hardware interface skills
Human skills and considerations that are needed for liveware-hardware
Scanning
Detection
Decision making
Cockpit adjustment
Instrument interpretation
Situational awareness
Manual skills.
Selection of alternative procedures
Reaction to breakdown/failures/defects
Emergency warnings
Workload, physical allocation of task Vigilance.
interface include:
Software
Liveware/software interaction his encompasses humans and the non-physical aspects of the
system such as procedures, manual and checklist layout, symbology and computer
programmes. The problems are often less tangible in this interface and are consequently
more difficult to resolve (e.g., misinterpretation of checklists or symbology).
Many elements and skills can affect the liveware-software interface. During this course we
will discuss the elements that can affect MCC. The following list contains some examples of
software interface elements and skills:
Software elements:
Standard Operating Procedures
Written materials/computer
software
Maps/charts
Checklists and manuals
Operational aspects of automation(overload/under load and phase of flight,
complacency and boredom)
Automated in-flight equipment; appropriate use
Liveware-software interface:
Self discipline and procedural behaviour
Interpretation
Time management
Self motivation
Task allocation
Computer literacy
Environment
The human-environment
interface was one of the earliest recognised in flying. Initially,
the measures taken were all aimed at adapting the human to the environment (helmets,
flying suits, oxygen masks, anti-G suits). Later, the trend was to reverse this process by
adapting the environment to match the human requirements (pressurisation and airconditioning systems, soundproofing).
Illusions and disorientation are at the root of many aviation accidents. Examples of this are
the illusions which may be encountered during approach and landing phases. The L-E
interface must therefore consider perceptual errors induced by environmental conditions.
Many elements and skills can affect the liveware/environment interface.
New challenges arise as new advances are made in our industry (e.g. ozone concentrations
and radiation hazards at higher flight levels). The problems associated with disturbed
Page 7 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
biological rhythms and related sleep disturbance and deprivation as a consequence of the
increased speed of trans meridian travel. The aviation system operates within the context of
broad political and economical constraints and those aspects of the environment will interact
in this interface. Although the possibility of modifying these influences is beyond Human
Factors practitioners, their incidence is central and should be properly considered and
addressed by those in management who have the authority, position and facility to do so.
The following list contains some examples of environment interface elements and skills.
Environmental elements:
Temperature, pressure and humidity
Noise and vibration
Lighting
Radiation
Pollutants, contaminants and carbon monoxide poisoning
Terrain: mountains, water, desert, "white-out" and "black-hole"
Weather: turbulence, wind shear and icing
Other air traffic
Time of day
Take-off and landing conditions: density altitude, snow and runway conditions
Legal and regulatory factors
Company organisational structure and economic climate
Employer operating pressures
Employer/employee relations/unions
Family relationships
Peer groups and professionalism
Pairing of inexperienced crews (experience in the operational context).
Liveware-environment
interface:
Adaptation
Observation
Situational awareness
Stress management
Risk management
Prioritisation and attention management
Coping/emotional control
Decision-making.
Liveware
Liveware/ Liveware interaction
is the interface between people. On a single crew
operation, with which you have been familiar, this workplace interface is generally 'distant'
and consists of interactions with other groups or individuals such as:
Air traffic control
Operations staff and management
Airport ground staff (loaders, fuellers, marshallers).
Most of these interactions are conducted without prolonged close proximity and seldom
involve tasks that are perceived to be 'shared', even although the activities of all contribute
to the 'team' effect.
Elements that affect liveware are:
Breathing: hypoxia and hyperventilation
Pressure effects on ears, sinuses and trapped or evolved gases
Limitations of the visual, aural and vestibular senses
Disorientation and illusions
Fatigue
Sleep disturbances and jet lag
Nutrition
Alcohol
Drugs (including nicotine/caffeine)
Medications (prescribed over the counter)
Blood donations
Ageing
Pregnancy
Page 8 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
General fitness
Liveware psychological elements:
Human errors and reliability
Workload
Information
processing, mindsets and habit patterns, attention,
vigilance,
perceptual imitations and memory
Attitudinal factors, personality, motivation, boredom, complacency and culture
Perceptual and situational awareness
Judgment and decision making
Stress and coping mechanisms
Skills, experience, currency and proficiency
For effective liveware/liveware
interfaces some liveware skills will have been developed.
These include:
Communication skills
Listening skills
Observation skills
Operational management skills, leadership and followership
Problem solving
Decision-making
Stress recognition/coping
Disorientation
Fatigue prevention and coping techniques
Pressure effects
Self discipline/control/tolerance
Perception
Attitudes and the application of knowledge
Exercise of judgment
The Multi Crew environment can result in added complications, which are highlighted by
considering the dual nature of the MCC SHEL model. The obvious first consideration is that
there is an additional liveware
interface.
Unlike other liveware interfaces this one is a "close encounter" and will last from the preflight briefing until the post flight activities. In this situation it is important that the
interface, rather than becoming a barrier, should become the conduit for exchanging
information, sharing experience and providing mutual support and monitoring. In order
for this to be effective, allowances must be made for personality, attitude,
experience
gradient, knowledge gradient and differences in perception of the outside world.
Hardware interfaces
Because of physical differences, each pilot will experience a different interface. Instruments
and/or warning are sometimes misinterpreted
(even by the most experienced and careful
pilot) while selections of controls, radios, FMS input, etc., are notoriously prone to error.
The liveware interface should be tactfully used whenever such an error is believed to have
been made.
Software interfaces
Manuals, maps, checklists etc., are all capable of being misread or misunderstood. Different
people may well read them differently.
Conflicts are possible in the case of such an
occurrence. These must be resolved calmly and rapidly.
Environmental Interfaces
As individuals we will be affected in different ways by the environment, both immediate
and distant from the flight deck. It is necessary to be aware of this and to be prepared to
make allowances for how the other person is feeling, both physically and mentally.
Think of your own personal life and see if you can find instances where such interfaces
have caused problems. Certainly, without too much searching,
you will find some. With a little thought and diplomacy, could these problems have been
avoided or resolved?
Page 9 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
0.3.2
COMMUNICATION
Objective
By the end of this section you will have reviewed the process of communication, will be able
to identify the skills and components for effective communication and will be fully aware of the
necessity of perfecting and practicing these skills within effective communication loops.
Content
Communication is a fundamental component of life.
Effective communication is essential in life but is
critical to the safety and efficiency of operating in a
multi-crew environment.
Effective communication is a transmission of a message
from one brain to another with a minimum
of
change. Communication can be described as a cycle of
activities. To be effective the cycle must be closed.
The sender is the communication source. The cycle,
which progresses from this source, is made up of the
following elements:
The sender
This person develops the message, selects the medium, and transmits the message. In
developing the message, the sender makes a choice of words and, consciously or
unconsciously, adds 'non-verbal1 content, body language, eye contact. Influencing factors
that may distort the message, such as voice, noise and workload should be taken into
account when selecting the medium.
The Medium
There are a range of mediums and factors affecting their effectiveness. Some of the
mediums are non-verbal, e.g., body language, signs or gestures, touch, written word. We
"say" a lot with our bodies - studies have shown that about 55% of normal communications
take place through body language. In the flight deck environment, body language effect is
diminished. Signs or gestures can be used to convey information or instruction (marshalling
signals) but can easily be misinterpreted,
e.g., sender pointing to a control (flap selector)
and the receiver thinks that the landing gear lever has been indicated. Touch can be useful
as an "attention getter" but does not normally convey much information.
Written word and diagrams can be very explicit but there is no immediate feed back.
Our most effective means of communication in a team environment is the voice, which can
convey information
and meaning by using carefully selected and arranged words
expressed in a suitable tone and transmitted at a suitable time.
The Message
The message can be short and easy to understand, or long and complicated. Whenever
possible, and especially during high workloads, use short common words. Examples of this
include: using the words "keep" or "hold" instead of "let us try to maintain"; using the
word "start" instead of "let us go ahead and do the," and using the word "stop" instead of
"it is time to terminate ..."
Casual communication is part of our everyday lives and it is more "cosy" to use it. However do
keep in mind the fact that casual words, slang and long sentences have caused several
accidents.
Short and simple commands works better during high workload and prevent misunderstandings.
The phraseology used in SOP's has been made with this in mind.lt is recommended that
instructions should be given in the imperative form. For example:
"Set heading 250 degrees - set speed 190 knots" is preferable to:
"Can you set the heading bug to 250 and the speed bug needs to be set to 190." Apply a
"KISS" rule - Keep It Short & Simple.
This also applies when we deal with ATC. Do not give too much information at the same
time. It is safer to break it up a bit.
Consider this transmission:
Page 10 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
"Approach, Steal 235 at FL 250, pilots discretion to FL lBO, speed restricted to 250 knots,
estimating to start descent in five miles, requesting a right turn to avoid weather, we have
information Alpha, and could you tell us what runway to expect".
The controller's short-term memory was just overloaded. The message should have been
broken down. It was too much in one transmission.
Use the words and phrases on the radio as contained in the ICAO publications as appropriate
to the region. Some examples of the correct usage are restrictions' in the use of the words
"clear", "clearance" and "take-off"
(in order to prevent repeats of disasters such as
Tenerife). The word "take-off" is used only for the single case of the take-off itself. The only
situations in which the word "clear" may be used are the route, take-off, approach and
landing clearances. Introducing the word "affirm" to replace affirmative prevents possible
confusion between negative and affirmative responses.
Communication with non-pilots or with ATC personnel can sometimes create problems caused
by different vocabulary.
Timing of Transmission
It is of little use to start a briefing of an approach chart when the other crewmember is
still looking for the chart in his binder. The timing of transmission of a message is important.
Is the receiver ready? This needs to be verified.
Voice and noise
Is there a lot of noise in the cockpit? Are you talking at the same time as ATC or visitors
from the cabin? Is your voice loud enough? Do you use clear language or do you have an
accent that the other pilot is not used to?
Workload
If the workload is high, the message should, if possible, be delayed. Examples of this would
be to call for the after take-off checklist when the PM is changing frequencies and looking for
essential traffic. Keep in mind that humans cannot do too many things at one time. Would it
be safer to delay the message for a short time to avoid missing altitude restrictions etc.?
How effective communication is, depends heavily on the sender. It is up to you the sender to
ensure that your message is not only transmitted, but also received and understood.
Ask yourself the question - Is the message received and understood? This is the sole purpose
of the entire process and needs to be verified. The question remains how to do that. Step
one is to look at the receiver:
Does he/she acknowledge?
What body signals can be read?
Does it look like he/she understands?
Is he/she busy and making the common mistake of just replying yes, when he/she
really was not paying attention?
If you are not sure, challenge by asking a follow-up question.
The good transmitter:
Constructs a clear, easy to understand message.
Uses a loud and clear voice.
Ensures a good timing of transmission.
Looks at the receiver, if duties permit, in order to see what reaction is shown.
Challenges understanding or feedback.
The good receiver:
Pays attention.
Notifies if unable to pay attention (e.g., if not ready for a checklist).
Acknowledges the receipt and understanding of a message verbally or by gesture.
In short, the good receiver gives a feedback to the sender.
Communication assumptions
We have discussed how barriers in the communication process should be respected. Let us
take a look at some common assumptions.
I.
Assumption
Do you assume that the message sent is the same as the message received? Or do you
consider that the message sent is rarely the same as the message received? If you operate
under the first assumption, you would be correct if you were communicating
with a
machine. However, almost all communication
in organisational settings involves the
sending of messages from one human to another. Consequently, the message sent is rarely
Page 11 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
the same as the message received. Each of us has our own unique set of attitudes,
motivations and perceptual frames and we filter incoming messages to some extent. The
message we think we are sending may be substantially different from the message that is
received.
II.
Assumption
Do you assume that you communicate only when you consciously choose to do so? Or do you
assume that communication is often unplanned and unconscious? The truth is, you cannot
stop communicating. Simply being in the presence of another person is to communicate
with that person, even if you choose not to say or do anything. Such non-verbal stimuli as
physical stature, dress and gestures may all serve as unintended
messages in the
communication process.
Furthermore, what others have heard about you and their mental image of you often
contradicts the message you hope to transmit. The total image sent incorporates not only
the intended message, but the unintended message as well.
Remember that it is impossible not to communicate.
III.
Assumption
Do you assume that meanings are inherent in words? Or do you assume that meanings
originate in people? When structuring
messages we often assume that the words
constituting the message have a fixed, predictable meaning. We are surprised when others
do not understand what we believe to be obvious. If we assume that others may attach
their own definitions to words, then we are not so surprised when confusion arises. For
example, "impending layoff" may mean, "tomorrow I get axed" to one person, and "I
wonder who will be cut" to another. Words have a fixed meaning only when one machine
communicates with another.
IV.
Assumption
Do you assume that the communication process ceases after the message has been received?
Or do you assume that feedback is an essential element of the communication process? Many
people assume that the communication
process ends when the message reaches its
destination. Unfortunately, this assumption ignores the fact that feedback is necessary if
the sender is at all concerned about the impact of that message. Has the message been
understood? Has action been taken? How should the message have been structured in
order to achieve the desired results?
Each of these questions can be answered only by feedback from the receiver. Sending the
message is only part of the communication process; the other part is being responsive to
feedback from the receiver.
V.
Assumption
Do you assume that if a communication breakdown occurs, it is invariably the recipient's
fault? Or do you assume that a communication breakdown may be a function of your own
communication style? There is a popular saying among public speaking teachers, "if the
audience is falling asleep, someone should wake up the speaker." Is the communication
problem with the sender's behaviour rather than with the receiver's behaviour? How can
the message best be adapted to the receiver's attitudes,
motivations
and perceptual
frame?
Routine communication
So far we have focused mostly on the sender, the message and the receiver in a technical
operational way.
I.
Listening
Now look at the receiver. The sender could be exercising the highest levels of
communication skills but if the receiver is not listening the communication will fail. How
often have you heard but not listened? We all do it. If you have a partner how often have
you been conscious of a message being sent by him/her but not listened? If you are busy or
distracted, you may respond to a communication
without actually listening to it. Car
drivers do this to passengers.
The active listener attends to the words and projects their mind into that of the speaker,
so that they can align their thoughts and feelings more closely to those of the speaker.
Active listening consists of the following two skills:
II.
Non-verbal attending
Face the speaker, smile and look relaxed.
Page 12 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Maintain eye contact.
Encourage the other to speak
III.
Verbal
Using questions or comment to show that you have heard the message and what you
understand (or are unclear about). Closed questions (for short answers). These restrict the
range of possible response. Improper use can make a person feel like they are being
interrogated.
Open questions (for long answers):
Allows the person a lot of freedom of response.
Useful for identifying attitudes and beliefs.
Can be quite time consuming.
Probe Questions (for more information).
Ask the person to clarify or elaborate. Can be
verbal or non-verbal. Paraphrasing(to show understanding and encouragement):- putting
the other person's ideas or feeling into your own words. Active listening is the genuine
desire to understand another person's perception.
Active listening is not:
Passive or token
Advice given
Agreement or disagreement
Judgmental or critical
Argumentative.
The art or effective listening. Being an effective listener takes practice and a sincere effort
on behalf of the listener. Problems in effective listening are:
We speak at approximately 125 words per minute.
We have the capacity to listen at 900 words per minute.
Our brain spends the excess time available:
Pre-planning (anticipation) preoccupation and formulating a response and not
listening to what the sender is saying. This is very common if the sender is perceived
to be boring, lacking in status, lacking in knowledge (waffling).
Detouring (wandering) waiting for a key word and when it comes up, taking the
conversation into another area of interest.
Debating playing the devil's advocate; regardless of what was said, taking the opposite
point of view. Tuning out when a message has been heard repeatedly, after a while
the receiver does not listen because it is felt that the message is not important.
The effective listener is:
Caring.
Trustworthy with integrity.
Accepting.
Lets sender talk
Focuses on thoughts and feelings.
Constructive, focuses on problem solving, not blame.
Encourages self-determination,
Is capable of active listening.
Giving effective 'feedback'.
Additional factors
Here are some other factors that may further affect the value of communication: Rate of
speech Is the individual speaking quickly or slowly? Generally, people speak more quickly
when they are excited, angry or upset. Speaking slowly generally suggests calmness and
control.
I.
Inflection
Which word does the individual emphasize? Inflections can help indicate what is most
important to the individual.
Tone of voice. Is the individual's voice loud or soft, harsh or smooth? Tone of voice can help to
determine the individual's emotional state. It can be critical in determining the stress level
of the crewmembers.
II.
Crew attitude
The attitude among the crew can significantly affect their performance. For example,
strong negative feelings in the cockpit can lead to a total lack of communication. Hostile
Page 13 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
environments create a safety hazard. Pilots must maintain a professional attitude to help
overcome the psychosocial barrier. This requires some basic social skills, respect for others
and common courtesy. We have discussed the importance of listening skills. Let us identify a
few communication pitfalls and how to avoid them. Unpleasant types- they are everywhere.
It is often a good idea to listen to yourself talk once in a while. Hear, for example, whether
you are a conversational bully, monopolising, insisting you are right and never giving another
a chance to agree or disagree. The bore- one who talks about himself or a subject that only
he finds interesting, insisting on telling you at length in spite of your obvious boredom.
The whaler. One of the fundamental rules of all conversation is that you talk about things
that will be interesting and agreeable to all the listeners. Do not spend the entire long haul
flight talking about the "good old air force fighter" days, if the, captain or co-pilot does
not have the background to participate or be interested. The sentence finisher- some people
are quicker to find words than others are. They have the irresistible urge to supply that
word or to finish a sentence.
The contradictor- everyone has a right to express his or her viewpoint.
If you wish to
express an opposing view, or contradict, say, 'I think it is this way or that way", not "You
are wrong, I'm right"
The wandering eye- nothing is more disconcerting than talking with someone who does not
look directly at you. Some people do this while they are talking. Others only while listening.
Both are lacking in that primary obligation of a good communicator namely, being a good
listener. When you are talking to anyone, look directly at him/her, not with a fixed stare
but sufficiently so that it is obvious that you are giving undivided attention.
The non-stop talker- there are seldom regrets for what you have left unsaid. "Better to keep
your mouth closed and be thought of as a fool than to open it and remove all doubts". Do
not just talk to talk, be considerate, especially in the tightly enclosed area of a cockpit.
Remember your fellow crewmember may only want some peace and quiet.
Communication summary
Effective communication
encompasses the entire scope of the sender's verbal, non-verbal
symbolic message. Effective communication
is recognition that a variety of assumptions
and other filters could, potentially, distort the message that is sent or received. Effective
communication involves active listening for clear comprehension. Effective communication
completes the circuit of sending, receiving and feedback with all parties sharing a common
understanding of the message.
0.3.3
Decision Making
Objective
By the end of this section you will have gained an appreciation of the role of decision making
and of the steps necessary to ensure that the decision making process is recognised as
requiring continuous monitoring, validation and refinement. Barriers to effective group
decision making will have been considered and methods of ameliorating the effects of each
barrier discussed.
Content
Identifying the problem and gathering Information
Firmly establish that there is a problem that requires action.
Establish the nature of the problem and identify its source.
To achieve these bullets we must gather information so that a complete mental picture of
the problem can be constructed. Systematic steps to follow when identifying problems are:
I.
Silence warning horns/bells.
II.
Do not extinguish annunciation lights automatically, before their indications have
been analysed. They should, however, be extinguished and re-armed as soon as
possible to enable detection of multiple problems.
III.
Call out the indications. Keep in mind that it is very easy to select the wrong checklist
during stressful high workload situations, as this report confirms: "During idle
descent the system annunciation light illuminated. A quick look at the overhead panel
detected the number one generator bus "off" light illuminated indicating that the
respective generator bus was un-powered. We completed the electrical bus "off"
system procedure. When levelling off at the next altitude restriction the PF called out
Page 14 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
engine failure on engine number one. The generator had not failed. The bus "off" light
was just one of many indications of on engine failure. There was, however little flight
control change from the engine failure during the idle descent."
Other examples include simply not reading the text on the warning light correctly. "We
incorrectly used the "bleed trip off" abnormal checklist for a "pack trip off" problem. This almost
made a simple cabin temperature problem into a more serious pressurisation problem. "
Carefully identify where the indication is. The next trap is to identify the correct location of
the failed system.
Left of right?
Number 1, 2, 3 or 4?
There have been many examples of a crew shutting down a good engine or the operating
hydraulic system and so on. A good way to navigate safely through these traps is to read out
the indication and be very careful and thorough when identifying which side it is. "Engine
number two oil pressure light," "electric hydraulic pump number 2 overheat light" or
"number one generator drive high oil temperature light."
Gather information
Crosscheck other sources of information such as instruments and caution or warning lights.
Reading the name as it appears on the light or panel will help as the same terminology is used
in the printed abnormal procedures.
Adjust panel lights to illuminate any printed information next to gauges and lamps intended
to help identify which engine or system it affects. Listen to the other team member.
Experienced and inexperienced pilots are equally well fitted with sensory equipment (eyes,
ears, nose etc.). They are both licensed and type rated and can therefore both identify and
interpret instrumentation
and warnings. Other team members such as cabin staff, air
traffic control, ground handlers, etc., may also have valuable information.
Once the
problem is identified, gather information that will assist in identifying the options.
Select the option
Remember that many options are Covered by procedures. It is important to know what
kinds of "abnormal procedures" exist and where to find these procedures. Remember that
a problem may require a number of different actions so be able to prioritize.
Implement an action
Having selected an option you should now implement the appropriate action. Do not rush
into action - at the very least this could lead to embarrassment.B747 cruising at FL 330. Cabin
staff in upper galley knocked over a drinks trolley. The resultant loud crash caused the Captain
to declare "Explosive decompression" and promptly entered an emergency descent. Result
aircraft had to return to departure as it now had insufficient fuel to reach other side of
ocean. Captain had red face}. The old adage "sit on your hands and count to five" is still valid
in most occasions. In a flight deck the Captain must make the decision and see to its
implementation. He should, as far as possible, inform the team of what action has been
decided and perhaps the reasons for that decision.
Monitor the effectiveness
Having implemented the decision, the crew must now monitor the situation to ensure that
the action is having the desired effect and that, if the desired effect is achieved, the situation
does not subsequently regress or deteriorate.
Some examples of causes of bad decisions
The following have all been identified as causes of actual accidents/incidents,
sometimes
individually but often some acting together.
I.
Peer pressure
Poor decision-making based upon emotional response to peers rather than evaluating a
situation objectively. Self imposed peer pressure by trying to live up to others' performance
or expectations.
II.
Mind set
The inability to recognise, accept and cope with changes in situations that are different
from those anticipated or planned.
III.
Get-there-it is
This tendency, common among pilots, clouds the vision and impairs judgment by causing a
fixation on the original goal or destination
combined with a total disregard for any
alternative course of action.
Page 15 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
IV.
Duck-under syndrome
The tendency to 'sneak a peek' by descending below minima during an approach. Based on
a belief that there is always a built-in
"fudge" factor that can be used or on an
unwillingness to admit defeat and shoot a missed approach.
V.
Scud running
Pushing the capabilities of the pilot and the aircraft to the limits by trying to maintain visual
contact with the terrain while trying to avoid physical contact with it.
VI.
Loss of Situational Awareness
Another case of getting behind the aircraft which results in not knowing where you are, an
inability to recognise deteriorating circumstances, and/or the misjudgement of the rate of
deterioration. Poor communications
Lack of information gathering.
VII.
Over- confidence
Familiarity leads to contempt.
Some general rules for use during decision making
Fly the aircraft first:
The crew should not allow the decision making process to take everybody's attention
and lose the Situational Awareness of basic flying.
Confirm which pilot is to fly the aircraft (PF). This might be included in prior
briefing such as before take-off. The PF will pay attention to the aircraft and
monitor/control the path, position and altitude.
Make sure that there is 100% understanding about who is doing what.
Do not rush too much:
Remain calm, think first then act and make sure to keep the other cockpit crew in the
loop. It is essential that all crewmembers understand what the PM is doing. PF must
acknowledge information from PM and verify critical actions such as the procedure
to be initiated.
Reduce workload. Use autopilot if possible. Request "vectors" and extend your track
to gain more time if the problem permits.
Reduce speed and delay duties non-essential to flight safety until the situation is
under control.
Give distress (MAYDAY) or urgency (PAN PAN) if necessary.
Identify the problem. Admit that there might be a problem. PM will identify and
call out indications such as sounds, smell, instrument
readings, aural warnings,
caution and warning lights.
Re-evaluate the remainder of the flight. The crew must determine how the problem
will affect the remainder of the flight. Decide whether to continue, return or divert.
Airport, weather and other operational aspects must be considered. How will the
problem affect the rest of the flight? The abnormal procedure will list affected
systems, alternate procedures and flight characteristics.
Take the time to think through the practical implications. An example of this would
be the information contained in the B-737 procedure for loss of system A hydraulic
power. This procedure contains the following informative statement: "... Ground
spoilers, inboard flight spoilers, autopilot
normal nose wheel steering and alternate
brakes are inoperative. - Plan for manual gear extension and alternate nose wheel
steering." This should be read out, while pausing as needed, to make sure that the
flight crew understands the implications of the problem and can take actions to deal
with the practical implications. As an example it might be feasible to change
controls if one side of the instruments controls or autopilot is affected.
Evaluate effectiveness - make sure the action taken is producing the desired result. The
assumption that you are right is dangerous.
Page 16 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
0.3.4
Situational Awareness
Objective
By the end of this section you will be able to define "Situational Awareness" (SA), describe
the three levels of SA and discuss the factors (productive and counterproductive) which will
affect SA. You will be fully aware of the importance of maintaining Situational Awareness
at the highest possible level.
Loss of Situational Awareness occurs when a crew develops or fails to recognise a lack of
attention or misunderstands the state of the aircraft and its relation to the terrain. Here
are a couple of samples from what appears to be an endless list:
A B-707 at FL-350 over Newfoundland experienced an autopilot disconnect and began a
downward spiral. It took a long time for the crew to detect the problem and they reCovered
at 6000 feet. On April 3, 1996, an U.S. Air Force CT-43A (B-737) crashed near Dubrovnik.
Croatia. The accident investigation
concluded that the crew was distracted from
adequately monitoring the final approach course because of a rushed approach, improper
aircraft configuration and the call from a pilot on the ground at Dubrovnik.
These and countless other accidents and incidents demonstrate how even a highly trained
crew, flying good equipment, can find themselves in circumstances where Situational
Awareness has diminished to the point of disaster.
A bag full of traps has always awaited the unwary pilot:
Distractions
Ambiguities
Poor communications
Automation-induced
complacency
Fatigue, etc
Situational Awareness is a widely used term - but what does it really mean? A simple, easy
to understand answer would be "knowing what is going on and being prepared for the
unexpected".
We use it to describe a flight crew's knowledge and awareness of important information.
From the very first flying lesson, you were taught to aviate, navigate and communicate.
This means that you must be aware of the aircraft, its position, its path and the people
(crew, passengers, ground personnel and air traffic controllers). Not only do you need to
monitor and evaluate these four elements, but also to anticipate what is going to happen
in the future, including considerations of unforeseen problems that might occur. A lapse in
awareness can be deadly and we should certainly take advantage of some of the lessons
learned by others to provide a recipe for managing awareness. What we will try to do in
the next few pages is to figure out how to direct our attention so that it is always where it
needs to be.
For simplicity, Situational Awareness is sometimes abbreviated to SA. The most used
scientific definition of SA is: "the perception of the elements in the environment within a
volume of space and time, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their
status in the near future". The scientists have different ideas about which subjects should
be part of the SA syllabus.
The skills for being aware of what is happening now are different
from the skills for
anticipating what is going to happen later and considering what could happen. To many
pilots these skills are second nature. They are continuously aware of the aircraft, the path
and the people and can project into the future and maintain this awareness. However, like
all skills, these can be refined and that is our goal here. But first, we will take a look at
vigilance and how to stay alert.
Vigilance
A good way to stay alert and vigilance is to be aware of all the traps that can distract your
attention. Knowing the traps will hopefully make them easier to avoid. The human brain
cannot do too many things at the same time. You need to focus on the right information
at the right time. Keeping the priorities straight is a constant challenge as this report
describes.
"After we exited the runway, the co-pilot asked me a question about the ground control
frequency and I looked down at the airport diagram which was on the yoke in front of me.
When I looked up, I saw runway markings in front of me. I then looked right and observed a
Page 17 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
wide-body aircraft approaching us on his take-off run. I slammed on the brakes and came to
a stop 20 feet short of the runway. Two cabin attendants were out of their seats but
fortunately no one was injured, although I did have an aircraft load of concerned passengers".
This brief lapse could have been fatal and it underlines the importance of knowing where
you are at all times. Above all it highlights the need to control the aircraft first and deal
with incidents later.
If something does not look or feel right, it probably isn't.
As humans, we are aware of many clues from our surroundings for which we cannot always
identify the origin. These clues are very real. Do not ignore them, even when they only
manifest themselves in a feeling of uneasiness. In this highly technological age, it may seem
foolish to speak of intuition
or gut feeling. Nonetheless, that nagging feeling that
something is not quite right is often unfailing in its precision. It is an easy feeling to ignore
because there is no specific course of action suggested; just an uncomfortable
"there is
something wrong" feeling. Many CVR tapes reCovered from aircraft involved in controlled
flight into terrain accidents contain the recorded misgivings of at least one of the
crewmembers. Words were spoken such as "I do not like this", or even "let's get out of
here", but the action was taken too late. If you get a gut feeling, respond to it; do not ignore
it. Excerpts from the cockpit voice recorder prior to the tragic accident in Cali, Columbia
emphasise the point. (American Airlines, B-757 December 1995). The flight crew turned
their aircraft into a mountain.
Co-pilot: "uh, where are we" "we goin' out to"
Commander: "Let's go right to, uh, Tulua first of all.
OK?
A few seconds later, Commander identifies Tulua.
Commander: "Just doesn't look right on mine. I do not know why"
Two minutes later they impacted a mountain.
Stress
When a person is under stress his/her ability to maintain the level of attention necessary
to sustain awareness may be severely limited, especially in situations where the workload
is high.
Arousal/stress
Basically we are reacting to the 'fight or flight' syndrome which is natural to us all. As we
become aroused, some chemical activity takes place within our body. This causes our senses
to become alerted. Too much alerting or arousal, however, and we become like a rabbit
caught in the headlights - we freeze and are unable to respond.
Consider two people you know: A -Iald-back, zero stress character B - stressed, always
worried. 'A' is almost lethargic but once sufficiently roused appears to have the capacity to
take whatever is thrown at him/her. This person may need a "kick start". "B" is always
jumpy, will respond to a stimulus very quickly. This character probably has a stress factor
already working (financial, home, health, thwarted ambition, etc.). He/she will be unable
to cope with as much additional workload or situation induced stress. In a two-crew flight
deck it is important that each has an awareness, not only of their own stress level, but also
of their commander or co-pilot as the case may be ..
Be aware of your own stress level. If you feel stressed, tell your fellow team member.
Monitor your fellow team member. If he/she is acting in an abnormal fashion, ask if
anything is worrying them. If you have any reason to believe that they are under stress be
extra vigilant.
Fatigue
Fatigue is a normal fact of life. It is the tiredness we feel after a period of physical and/or
mental activity. If we are tired (fatigued) our performance is not up to scratch and we may
easily make mistakes. Fatigue is cured by proper rest periods coupled with the balanced
diet and regular exercise that are necessary inputs to a good physical condition.
Unfortunately, fatigue can become chronic. This occurs when a person becomes tired but, for
some reason, does not get sufficient quality rest. The effects are cumulative and a situation
is reached where all the essential elements of:
concentration
judgment
tolerance
Page 18 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
constructive thought
become adversely affected or even totally suppressed.
Chronic Fatigue requires an extended period of rest and recuperation under medical
advice if a cure is to be effected. If you are aware that you are tired then tell someone. If
you become aware that you are always tired and never get a proper sleep, then see a doctor.
Bored
Studies of humans performing many different tasks show us that we will be less likely to
detect something when we're busy attending to something else. We will also be less likely
to detect something when we are not attending too much at all. During times of low and
high workload, try to compensate for this human characteristic and be more violent. Work
out crew procedures to keep each other in the loop during these times. Predetermine roles
for high workload times, especially for abnormal situations.
Vigilance is the task of
constantly monitoring without lapses in attention. Moderate levels of stress generally
enhance vigilance. Stress is considered as an increase in arousal. Fatigue and loss of sleep
decrease vigilance.
Habits are hard to break
As highly trained flight crews, you will have developed very complex habit structures.
These enable you to perform all the tasks required to skilfully fly your aircraft. There are
times when these habits can get in the way of safety. If you are required to perform a task
in a way that is different from normal, watch out, because the habit pattern may take
over without you even realizing it. The best way to combat this natural tendency is to create
a barrier. This barrier can help you to prevent or at least to be aware of what you are doing.
Expectation can reduce awareness
It is very common that incident and accident reports contain the phrase, "we heard what
we expected to hear". This trap often comes in the form of published "expect" altitudes on
arrival charts or familiarity with an airport, resulting in an altitude deviation. When you are
expecting something, double check to make sure that really was the way you expected to
be.
Things that take longer are less likely to get done right
It is especially true in the cockpit with all the things going on that, if you are doing
something over a period of time, it is less likely to get done correctly. Fuel cross feeding is
an example that most of us are familiar with. The problem is that you get interrupted with
other tasks during the time that you are cross feeding so that the time seems shorter. Or,
you might even forget that you have the cross-feeds on. Take special precautions when a
task takes a long time, is subject to interruption or is something that you cannot do right
away and have to remember to do later. Fuel cross-feeding, check lists (especially before
start) and contacting the tower at the outer marker, are examples of things that have
shown up in reports as not getting done right or not at all.
Reliable systems are not always reliable
We know that, in theory, all the systems we rely on to get an aircraft from point A to B can
fail. We practice this stuff in the simulator. However, research has shown that people
actually stop cross-checking reliable systems. When the system fails it can go undetected.
This is especially true in glass cockpits where systems are very reliable and failures are
difficult to detect. The only cure for this is to force yourself to double check information
against other sources. The following report illustrates this point.
"What I failed
notice was that by inserting the arrival in the FMS, the computer dumped
the crossing restriction I had inserted just a few moments earlier. Through about FL 180,
ATC asked if we would make the BUMBY restriction (10.000 feet) and it was immediately
obvious that we would not. The cause, I believe, was a combination of workload during the
approach phase coupled with overconfidence in the FMS. I allowed myself to get too busy
during the descent to make essential crosschecks to confirm the FMS was working as
advertised".
The cure? Always, double-check the FMS data against other available navigational data to
ensure that your programming is correct and that the aircraft is following accurate FMS
guidance. Overconfidence in the FMS and increased workload in the cockpit during bad
weather and approach preparation
are no excuse for sound airmanship and the
maintenance of Situational Awareness.
Page 19 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Be aware of the missing element
Probably the hardest task we have is to detect that something is not there. You will
probably notice that the engine fire bell/light is not on but harder to detect is that the
other crewmember didn't say, "after-take-off checklist complete" or that the green arc
didn't move to reflect the new crossing restriction
you thought you entered correctly
sometimes even serious aircraft malfunctions can be manifested in the absence of a subtle
clue, at least at first. The only way to detect something that is not there is to specifically look
for its absence. These checks have to be built into your flying techniques, your personal
checklists.
Information presentation
The information
in the glass cockpit is sometimes less obvious than in the traditional
cockpit. A simple error in a numerical entry, if not caught at the time of input, can be
nearly impossible to detect and correct. The following
report of an altitude deviation
illustrates this vulnerability.
"This situation resulted from three crew errors: My first priority was data entry rather than
Situational Awareness. I entered the crossing fix incorrectly in the legs page, and my co-pilot
did not detect my data entry error before I executed the command. Cross checking data entry
before execution is company policy and part of my cockpit briefing".
Implications of automation are important matters and must be constantly kept in mind.
Distractions
Distractions
What are distractions and why are they relevant? Distractions are anything that causes
attention to the task in band to be diverted. Ask a golfer to hit a ball off a tee and as he
swings make a sudden move or noise. Will he hit the ball correctly? - Not very likely. This is
not something which you are seriously recommended to attempt as golfers are likely a to
suffer "sense of humour" failure. It does, however, very graphically illustrate a distraction
and its effect.
In a flight deck environment, distractions can vary from to being irritating to being
downright dangerous. The questions are:
Can you control distraction?
Is it possible that the whole crew can become distracted?
We experience hundreds of distractions per flight. We have simply learned to tune out the
more common ones like radio chatter. When we are faced with a less common distraction
or ones that pose an immediate threat, there is a tendency for the entire crew to focus .on
the distraction at the expense of maintaining SA on all the other areas. Distractions provide
one of the easiest opportunities for an entire crew to lose SA in a very short period of time.
What often happens is that everyone is engaged in solving the problem and no one is flying
the aircraft. No one has the big picture. The safety consequences can include altitude
deviations, course/track/heading
deviations, and non-adherence to ATC clearances and
non-compliance with regulations or company procedures. When a malfunction occurs, it
should trigger a "red flag" for heightened sensitivity to a potential loss of Situational
Awareness.
Sometimes distractions come from something that has already happened and is over.
Many incidents have been the result of a crew dwelling on something that has previously
happened and neglecting the current situation. You must recognise that you are doing this
and shake it off. A busy approach is not the time for you, as co-pilot, to start reading the
manual about an abnormal condition. Delay further "nice to know" technical manual
studies until later - on the ground.
As we just discussed, distractions can be self-induced by the crew. The "sterile cockpit"
concept is a company procedure in many airlines all over the world. The purpose is to
reduce self-induced distractions during typically high-risk, high workload phases of flight.
Over the years there have been dozens of air carrier accidents that occurred when the crew
diverted attention from the task at hand and became occupied with items totally unrelated
to flying. It is unrealistic to expect a crew to fly together for several days and never discuss
anything except items related to flying the aircraft. In fact, experts have demonstrated
that in order to be most effective, humans need to talk, even if it is just merely "get to
know you" sort of chat. The sterile cockpit rule is a good rule because it clearly defines when
it is time to set aside non-essential activities and attend strictly to the task at hand -that of
Page 20 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
safely operating the aircraft. In spite of the existence of the sterile cockpit rule over the past
decade, pilots have continued to have accidents and serious incidents that perhaps could
have been prevented. For the most part, disobeying the rule is not intentional. It just
happens.
Cockpit conversation between pilots and jump seat riders is the highest source of deviation
from the sterile cockpit rule and has been a contributing factor in several accidents.
Non-pertinent radio calls and PA announcements
Checklists
Can a checklist be "called" at any time or is there a good time/bad time?
Handling distractions
We have looked at some causes of distractions. The remaining question is, will you allow the
entire crew to "take the bait" presented by the distraction at the expense of Situational
Awareness? An honest answer will probably be that sooner or later you will. But you can
detect that this is happening and re-establish roles and priorities to make sure that
someone is still "minding the store".
Fight the tendency for the entire crew to latch onto the distraction. Assign the responsibility
to investigate the distraction to some of the crew and instruct others to pick up their
awareness requirements. This is not just the role of the commander. A co-pilot or flight
engineer who detects that the entire crew is being distracted from the task at hand should
also bring this to the crew's attention and suggest an assignment of roles and responsibilities.
Any unusual or unexpected event that draws the entire crew's attention should be a red flag
to everyone on the flight deck to ensure that someone is still "minding the store".
The next time you get a TCAS traffic alert watch all eyes go in the cockpit and then watch
everyone in the crew struggle to obtain the visual. See if your entire crew or a portion of
your crew continues to look for the visual even after it poses no immediate threat. If one
person in your crew gets the visual, see if everyone's attention is diverted to the visual. See
how long the entire crew spends looking at the traffic. If you see that your entire crew's
attention is being diverted away from the primary task, you may want to suggest a better
division of attention and awareness. A simple statement like, "Will I continue flying the
approach while you maintain the visual?" may be all that is needed to get the crew back on
track.
Recognise that your physiological condition will have an effect on how easily you are
distracted and how many operational elements you can maintain awareness on. As you get
towards the end of any duty day your capacity and vigilance may decline. You need to
account for this and realise that you (and the rest of the crew) are more easily drawn to
distractions, fixations and subsequent loss of awareness.
Avoid self-induced distractions. If your company is enforcing sterile cockpit procedures,
then comply. Crewmembers working in a cockpit where chatter occurs during critical
phases should try to have good self-discipline during critical phases of flight. Do not start a
story or get involved in any non-essential conversations. Avoid non-essential activities such
as eating meals or non-essential communications between the cabin and cockpit crews. For
the purposes of this section, critical phase of flight includes all ground operations involving
taxi, take-off and landing and all other flight operations conducted below cruise level.
Remember that the taxi phase is also very critical. There have been several crashes on
runways and taxiways that have resulted from a distraction.
(This is very hazardous
towards the end of the duty day).
Three levels of SA
We have talked about how the skills of being aware of what is happening now are different
from the skills of anticipating what is going to happen later and what could happen. This
leads us to consider the three levels of SA:
Monitor,
evaluate
and anticipate
SA level 1- Monitor
The first skill is monitoring. Unfortunately, we humans have limits to how much we can see
and hear at the same time. If we had to put our monitoring goal into one rule, it would be
"to be aware of what you need to and ignore everything else." That is very easy to say and
Page 21 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
probably impossible to do. Let us look at some techniques that can move us towards this
goal.
Think of how you focus and direct your attention as you would focus and direct a flashlight.
Imagine that everything you are aware of is in the beam of the flashlight. You can hold it
steady in one direction and focus the beam (your attention)very narrowly so that you are
able to see a small area extremely well. This allows you to ignore all else and concentrate on
that small area. Knowing what you can ignore, if even for a moment, allows you to focus on
that which you need to be aware of. Narrowly focused attention can be appropriate when
you are solving a difficult problem, as long as someone else is attending to the other
aircraft/path/people
issues. The checklist is probably the most common tool for focusing
attention. Each crewmember knows what they are to look at, when, and very importantly,
they know what the other crewmembers are looking at.
On the other hand, if you broaden the flashlight beam and move it around, you are aware of
everything about the aircraft, the path and the people. You have the big picture, but less
detail in anyone area. Well, naturally, your job requires you to do both - to focus on a
problem and to keep the big picture. This is difficult. There is no way to know when to step
back from what you are attending to and move that flashlight around or move it to a
developing problem area for a closer look. Remember, everything has to be covered all the
time, so if someone has their attention focused narrowly in one direction, the other
crewmember(s) should broaden their beam and keep it moving.
You can focus your attention in the wrong direction and get sidetracked. There are also
things that get in the way of where you are directing your attention. Things arise that block
your view, both literally and figuratively. These are distractions and they come in many
forms as we have discussed. A distraction is often the first link in the chain of events that
leads to an incident, sometimes embarrassing and sometimes dangerous.
You direct your attention in different ways:
Focus on a road region- keep the big picture
Focus on a narrow region- pay attention to detail
Focus on the right information- do not get side-tracked or distracted.
If a crew fails to recognise a problem or misinterprets information they are "failing behind
the situation". This is known as a SA level 1 failure. SA level I errors have causes the
majority of accidents. As a matter of fact, about 80% of all SA related accidents are level!.
The most common are:
Failure to monitor flight path.
Distractions, caused by malfunctions, radio, checklists, procedures and situations not
directly related to flying the aircraft.
Misunderstandings caused by confusing instructions, phraseology and mind-sets.
SA level 2- Evaluate
It is not good to "fall behind". Most of us prefer to stay on top of the situation. This leads us
to the next level of SA. This level is called evaluation and comprehension of cues. We have
the time and capacity to comprehend the current situation. In addition to monitoring the
aircraft/path/people,
we are able to evaluate the status of each. The evaluation entails
first comprehending what we see and hear. Secondly, we make an assessment of the status
of each of the aircraft/path/people issues. This leads to an understanding
of what the
situation is now. It will give Situational Awareness for the current state.
Many problems in this category come from difficulties with automation. Examples would
include misunderstandings of how systems work. Pilots who convert from old technology to
new technology aircraft often find themselves asking, "What is the FMS doing now?"
Use all the sources of information you have available to maximise your Situational Awareness.
To stay on top of the situation we must utilise all our sources of information. Many of those
sources are other people's eyes and ears. The following report shows how information from
the tower, the cabin attendants and the relief pilot were critical in detecting a tail strike and
making a prudent decision to discontinue the flight.
Shortly after take-off the tower reported they had seen sparks from the rear of the aircraft.
From the cockpit the rotation had seemed normal to all three crewmembers and the P/F felt
nothing abnormal. Aft cabin attendants said they had heard scraping on take-off. With all
systems normal and no other adverse information, it was decided by the commander and
company maintenance it would be OK to continue to our destination. After levelling off at
Page 22 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
25,000 feet, the commander asked the relief pilot to clarify from the cabin attendants what
noise had been heard on take-off. On return to the cockpit, he informed the commander that
the cabin attendants in the aft had also heard a loud metallic bang or crashing sound on
rotation. The commander then called this cabin attendant to the cockpit for more information.
After receiving this new information, the commander felt it would not be prudent to continue
over water not knowing if there was damage to the aircraft fuselage. A request for return and
fuel dump was received. Upon inspection, paint was missing from the tailskid. It was found that
the cargo bins had come loose. On take-off the cargo bins shifted aft causing a slight movement
of the centre of gravity to the rear. This resulted in over-rotation and tailskid contact.
SA level 3- Evaluate
Most of us do not just want to stay on top of the situation; we also want to be ahead of it.
That is to anticipate and stay ahead of the aircraft. If you project what is going to happen
later, you will go a long way towards that crystal ball view we talked about earlier. It is like
having the answers before the test. Anticipating
simply involves projecting the current
situation into the future. Most of the time everything follows the laws of physics and the
prediction
is very accurate. Standard procedures allow you to anticipate what other
crewmembers will do in a given situation. A crew that is skilled in managing their Situational
Awareness has a shared vision of what is going to happen in the next few minutes and on
into the future. Anticipation is particularly important for high workload situations. If you,
as a crew, know what each person's responsibility is ahead of time, the awareness level can
remain high on each person's part, even when a lot is going on. In effect, "level 3" SA is a
structured approach to projecting forward using ail the available data.
An example of level 3 SA should be the crew on final who hears TWR 'clear' another aircraft
for immediate take-off. The departing aircraft is still at some distance from the hold short
line and is moving slowly. The aware crew slows down to minimum speed and makes mental
preparation for a go-around. The commander who is the PF makes this comment: "The noise
abatement departure procedure for this RWY calls for an immediate right turn after takeoff.
The departing aircraft will probably turn right after lift-off, so if we hove to go-around I will
do it on the left side of the runway to stay clear of the deporting aircraft and you must keep
visual contact."
Years of experience clearly show that the most effective crew performance is found among
individuals engaging in more advance planning. High levels of awareness are reflected
through requests for assistance from outside the cockpit. High performing crews tend to ask
more questions like:
Can we get a weather update?
What is your wind doing right now?
Does it look like a circle to land on the east side would be better than on the west side
where our radar is painting weather?
Could you check with our destination to find out how the snow clearance situation is
going?
Which approach can we expect?
Any crossing restrictions?
Higher performing
crews also ask for more assistance from ATC in terms of holding,
vectoring or long final approach in order to buy time to gather additional information
before making a decision to accomplish their tasks during high workload periods.
Consider future unforeseen events
Sometimes things happen that cannot be anticipated. These can be aircraft malfunctions,
ATC clearances, or simply a normal event at an unexpected time. Playing the 'what if
game has a tremendous advantage in the management of Situational Awareness.
As a common example, when briefing an approach, the entire crew is made aware of the
required flight path for the missed approach. Should a missed approach be executed, each
crewmember has a shared awareness of the sequence of actions, the airport environment
and the navigational information, They collectively know the 'what, 'where', 'when' and
'who' of the missed approach procedure.
Plan
The plan is the current and future state of the aircraft, the path and the people. This plan is
the foundation upon which all crewmembers are building their Situational Awareness. The
plan is constantly
being updated based on the awareness activities-. These awareness
Page 23 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
activities consist of monitoring, evaluating, anticipating and considering unforeseen events.
Ensuring the entire crew has the same 'shared' plan will help them to have a shared
Situational Awareness.
People awareness
It is not enough to monitor just the aircraft and its path. We also need to keep an eye on our
co-workers. Crew procedures are designed to focus attention and keep the big picture - by
dividing the awareness responsibilities.
When functioning as a crew, you not only have to concern yourself with what you are
doing but also with what other people are doing. You need to check that the other
crewmembers do certain things that fall into their area of responsibility. You also need to
check that they do not do certain things that are inappropriate
or unsafe. Crew-shared
awareness is high when doing a checklist. Attention is focused on each item as one
crewmember reads and another
checks. It is obvious what is being looked at and by whom. We have developed other
techniques, e.g., for handing over the job of listening to ATC, saying, "Your radio." Many of
the other things we do in an aircraft are less structured. It is these other situations which
cause a crew to misunderstand who is aware (or not aware) of what.
A study showed that monitoring/challenging
failures were identified in 31 of the 37
accidents reviewed. Crewmembers failed to monitor and challenge the errors or the lack of
awareness of the other crewmembers. As a crewmember, you have to watch each other
for what actions are taken and what actions are not taken. When something takes your
attention away from what the other crewmembers are expecting you to keep an eye on,
then you should tell them. There will be times when, despite your crystal ball, you will
have a reduced level of awareness due to fatigue, distraction or some other factor. Let the
other crewmembers know when this is the case, so that they can back you up more carefully.
Ask yourself, "What do I know that we all need to know?" Or, "What are we, as a crew, not
paying attention to?" If everyone is looking at the same thing, then something is getting
missed. If you are unsure whether another crewmember
is maintaining awareness of something, be sure to clarify. The request, "Keep an eye on
that for me" comes in handy. Or a tactful reminder where necessary, "What's our cleared
altitude, Captain?"
Create reminders
A powerful way to ensure awareness is to create reminders. There are many that are
employed by flight crews, both formally and informally. Checklists are formal reminders.
Some people have developed informal reminders, such as, turning the checklist upside
down on the yoke clip when it is interrupted, as a physical reminder that it has not been
completed. Other reminders include selecting the radar test pattern when cross-feeding
fuel and putting on the nose landing light upon being cleared to land.
These are obvious visual reminders that are in the scan of normal flying activities.
Reminders can be aural as well. Some pilots have the technique of selecting the audio for
the outer marker when they have been instructed to contact the tower at the outer marker
way out on the approach. This gives them a reminder that they do not have to look at
during a busy time in the flight. As we discussed, things that take longer, things that are
subject to interruptions or that cannot be done until later are less likely to get done right.
Creating reminders for these things is probably the best, if not the only, defence against
forgetting them. Reminders work for other things as well. Reminders should be unique
and consistently used for the same thing.
SA summary
There are a few tricks that you can use to get and to keep the awareness you need to fly
safely. You can use "aircraft, path, people" as a checklist. Take a moment to assess the
current state of each:
What are the aircraft, path and people doing now?
What is likely to be the state of each later?
Finally, consider all the "what if" possibilities for each. If you periodically run this
checklist, you will find that your awareness has increased. Most of the surprises will
go away and the ones that pop up will be more manageable. Here are a few key
points to help manage your Situational Awareness:
Focus attention on details while keeping the big picture.
Page 24 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Anticipate; stay ahead of the aircraft.
Consider contingencies, have a plan for the "what if" situations.
Be sure of who will watch what in busy times.
Have a plan for handling distractions, especially malfunctions.
Be an active part of the awareness team.
Create reminders but don't keep them secret.
Don't forget to monitor the level of SA of your flight deck colleague - even if he/she is the
flight manager.
0.3.5 Teamwork
Objective
By the end of this section you should will be able to discuss the structure and functioning
of an effective team, consider the aim of the team and the tasks, roles and norms associated
with the team.
A team can be defined as "a group (of people) gathered together to perform a task". In a
commercial aircraft operation, the task is to operate the aeroplane with the maximum
safety and greatest efficiency possible. To achieve these goals the greater task is broken into
a large number of smaller tasks, each of which may vary in detail, as circumstances change,
and each of which will demand a different response from the team. If the task is to be
completed successfully it is important that each member of the team is fully aware of what
role he/she is supposed to be filling. It is equally important that each team member
should be aware of what roles are supposed to be played by the other team member.
But what of the team? Who makes up "the team"? The commercial success of an airline
operation demands the activities of a very large team Covering all aspects or activities such
as:
Marketing and sales
Passengers
Freight
Maintenance
Ground handling
Flight operations, etc.
In this course, although not forgetting that we are only a part of that much larger team, we
will concentrate on the activities of the flight operations team and, more specifically, on
the tasks, roles and norms associated with the flight deck of a multi crew aircraft.
The tasks
These are the various activities that must be carried out in order to ensure the safe and
expeditious process of happenings which are required if the aircraft is to be successfully
operated.
Every task can be broken into an ordered sequence of essential sub-tasks which can then
be completed by conducting certain activities or procedures.
The roles
The team (of pilots) is trained and constituted to carry out the tasks associated with the
general task of conducting the flight safely and expeditiously
from departure
to
destination.
To be an effective team member:
You must clearly understand and conduct all the - task associated procedures for
which you are responsible
You must monitor all procedures and ensure that there are no gaps developing
between what you are doing and what the rest of the team is doing or achieving
If you become aware of an anomaly or 'out of standard' condition
you must
communicate.
Normally, by using procedures (Standard Operating Procedures) the roles of the flight deck
crews are well defined.
Role ambiguity
Where the role is not clearly understood by either (or both) of the team. Here are two
entries from the SOPs for the same aircraft
Page 25 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
(1) Sink rate should be called out any time it exceeds 1000 feet per minute after reaching
initial approach altitude.
1000 feet per minute will be considered the maximum useable
rate of descent in FAF. Excessive descent rates shall be cause to abandon the approach
(2) During non-precision, straight in approaches the power should be reduced to maintain at
least 1000 feet per minute descent rate.
In the structural operation of a flight deck, most tasks have associated roles that are clearly
spelled out in SOPs. We must be sure that we clearly understand these roles and that means
that we must be familiar with our SOPs.
Wherever SOPs cause confusion they should be reported so that corrective action can be
taken.
Wherever actions of (or statements by) a crewmember cause or indicate ambiguity or
confusion this must be resolved. If you are conscious that you have a personality trait or
attitude which gives a negative 'assumed role' then control it.
Positive roles must be adopted - roles that will enhance the working of the team by creating
an air of cheerful co-operation mixed with critical professional monitoring.
In effect, we are all responsible for the roles that must be carried out if the task is to be
completed. However, we recognise that, in the final analysis, the captain is responsible for
the task definition and role allocation and should, therefore, playa major role in resolving
role ambiguities and conflicts.
Norms
These are patterns of behaviour that can affect how we interpret our role and complete the
task. Norms are developed over a period of time and are insidious in their effects.
To illustrate a “norm" in everyday life - many of us who drive a car will quite happily (and
regularly) drive at some margin over the declared speed limit - it has become a 'norm' of our
method of operating the can In the same way, some pilots adopt procedures which are
slightly different from the published procedure - these have become their norms.
Norms can develop in a team organisational situation. Sometimes organisations put teams
under time pressures to complete a task and the teams will develop 'shortcuts' through
normal procedures in order to accelerate task completion.
Anything which causes departure from a published procedure requires some careful
consideration. The procedures will have been designed to ensure that there is an adequate
margin of safety. You must ask yourself whether the 'norm1 that is being implemented has
an effect which is worth the inevitable erosion of that safety margin.
0.3.6 Leadership and Followership
Leadership
The term 'leadership' implies that this skill is relevant only to the Commander. There are
two reasons why this is not true. First, a flight crew is a team with a clearly designated
leader:
The Commander
The Commander, as the designated leader, retains the authority and responsibility for
flight operations.
However, there are times when other crewmembers
must play
functional leadership roles. A functional leader may carry out leadership duties for a
specialised task on a temporary
basis, such as a take-off or landing. In this case, the
crewmember must direct task activities and serve as a functional leader to carry out that
task. Second, leadership would more properly be called leadership/followership.
These
are reciprocal but complimentary. There are behaviours that both a leader and a follower
must apply to ensure effective performance. As an example, one leader's behaviour might
be to provide direction for carrying out a task; correspondingly, one follower's behaviour
might be to provide feedback on performance of the task. In other words, a leader's
behaviour is less effective without complementary follower behaviour.
Leadership development.
Leadership is not just about Commander material. All crewmembers must perform
leadership duties in some situations. Furthermore, leadership is not a one-way process but
requires both leader actions and effective crewmember responses.
Each member of a crew must recognise that he or she has a leadership responsibility that
is important to effective decision making. No matter which position you occupy in the crew,
you must learn to become a leader in that position. There is a fundamental difference
Page 26 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
between leadership, which is acquired, and authority, which is assigned. It is important to
establish the difference between them. An individual's position as Commander does not
automatically mean that he or she is an effective leader. An effective leader is a person
whose ideas and actions influence the thoughts and the behaviours of others. Through the
use of example and persuasion and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group,
the leader becomes a means of change and influence. Leadership skills are a function of
learning. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. Leading
involves teamwork and the quality of a leader depends on the success of the leader's
relationship with the team. A co-pilot has equal opportunity for leadership in his position.
Acquired leadership skills can enhance any position, regardless of the assigned authority, as
everyone has their position to fill. Crewmembers are sometimes called upon to adopt a
leadership role through the normal performance of their duties. This may occur when the
co-pilot must take over from an absent or incapacitated commander, or when a junior
cabin attendant must control the passengers in a particular cabin section.
Skilled leadership may be needed to understand and handle various situations. For instance,
personality and attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can
influence both safety and efficiency. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have
demonstrated that personality differences influence the behaviour and performance of
crew members.
Other situations requiring skilled leadership may be rooted in the
frustrations of co-pilots over slow promotions or of pilots who are employed as flight
engineers.
Leadership skills
Leadership skills should be developed throughout a crewmember's career. Leadership
involves teamwork. The quality of a leader is dependant on the success of the leader's
relationship with the team just as the quality of the team will be affected by the quality
of the leader. Leadership is needed in order to effectively understand and cope with a
variety of situations. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a
leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. Aircraft accident and incident
investigations
have demonstrated
that personality
differences can influence the
behaviour and performance of crewmembers.
Understanding the leadership role requires an understanding of what it is that leaders do.
Effective leaders perform four primary functions:
Regulating information flow
Directing and co-coordinating crew activities
Motivating crewmembers
Decision making
Regulating information flow
The leader must regulate, manage and direct the flow of information, ideas and suggestions
within the crewmembers and outside sources:
Communicating flight information
Asking for and listening to opinions, suggestions
Giving opinions, suggestions
Clarifying communication
Providing feedback
Regulating participation
Advising decisions and subsequent actions to be taken
Directing and co-coordinating crew activities
The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation, co-ordination and
direction for group performance:
Directing and co-ordinating crew activities
Monitoring and assessing crew performance
Providing planning and orientation
Setting priorities
Motivating crewmembers
The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crewmember relations and
to invite full participation in crew activities:
Creating a proper climate
Maintain an 'open' cockpit atmosphere
Page 27 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Resolving or preventing angry conflict
Maintain positive relations
Providing non-punitive critique and feedback
Decision making
The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions
Assuming responsibility for decision making
Gathering and evaluating information
Formulating decisions
Implementing decisions
Providing feedback on actions
Leadership styles
Power-distance refers to the nature of the relationship between leaders and subordinates.
Subordinates
in high power- distance cultures tend to accept and expect autocratic
leadership and are generally unwilling to question the acts or decisions of leaders.
Individualism-collectivism
reflects the extent to which an individual's behaviour is defined
and influenced by others. Both of these dimensions represents a perspective with which to
view the way flight crews interact.
Delegation
High performers tend to be people who enjoy their work situation. In order to perform
well one must be motivated by feeling trusted and involved. People must be informed and
be given responsibility in order to stay involved. The delegation and supervision of tasks and
duties are the signs of a professional management style. The most important thing for a
leader is not what is going on when he or she can be present and pay attention 'but what
is going on when he or she is not present.
Followership
Followership is not about meekly following the leader - it is about taking an active part
in the team contributing the skills, knowledge and experience you have accumulated to the
whole. Do not believe that the Captain has a command by virtue of some form of divine
intervention - he/she is human and requires human support. If you believe that there is
a problem, do not sit on your beliefs - express them and be diplomatic where diplomacy is
necessary and there is time.
Make sure you know:
Your aeroplane
The SOPs
The checklists location and layout
The route
The weather
The limits
In short, make sure you are 'in the loop' and not drifting off into some little world of your
own making.
A wide-bodied aircraft is on final approach to R/W 17,surface wind calm. Captain is PF,first
Officer is had down in paperwork etc. ATC requests overshoot and carry out visual circuit to
land on 35. PF accepts circles and lands. On turning off R/W. F.O looks up and says: "Oh. We
landed on 35 then".
Remember that the role of an effective follower is to "close the loop" establishing within
the mind of the leader a comfort factor that he/she has an active team, that actions are
being monitored,
problems highlighted
and questions raised whenever
doubt is
encountered.
The effective follower is at least as important as the good leader. In summary, the effective
flight deck team in a two crew aircraft will consist of a leader and a follower, each of whom
has an active role. Each has a responsibility to the "team" to ensure that:
Their contribution is effective and productive
They do not create barriers to effectiveness
They resolve potential conflicts by pro-active mediation
They act with integrity and professionalism
They accept and give comment in a diplomatic and professional manner.
Page 28 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
0.3.7 Operation Of Multi- Crew Aircraft
Objective
By the end of this section you will have a clear understanding of the team nature of a multicrew aircraft operation, be aware of the importance of briefings and be able to author and
deliver a clear briefing. You should also have acquired relevant knowledge of the
importance of operating procedures, SOPs, design and use of checklists.
The majority of commercial operations are carried out with aircraft requiring two pilots.
Each pilot must be properly qualified, type rated and current. Multi-crew operation is
necessary because the law stipulates specific requirements based on aircraft weight,
equipment and types of operation.
But why does the law stipulate such a requirement? The law makers, in their role of
protectors of the safety of the travelling public, have considered that operations at these
levels and above require the additional safety or protection that comes from having two
qualified pilots -working on the old adage that 'two heads are better than one".
But is this necessarily the case?
Think of any situation where two or more people are thrown together by chance and are
given a simple task to do. How often will those two people automatically adopt the roles
and divide the workload so that the task can be completed efficiently? Even if each of those
people are trained and qualified to do that task there is no certainty that the task will be
done in the most efficient manner nor that the completed task will be effective.
In an environment such as the transport of the public, where the tasks are related to the
safety and efficiency of the transport undertaking, it is of fundamental importance that
the various tasks are defined, recognized and are completed as effectively, safely and
efficiently as possible.
To do this the predictable tasks are broken down into a series of actions, each of which
requires completion. These are referred to as Operational Procedures and their existence is
a legal requirement that is imposed with the intent of enhancing safety.
In order to turn the intent of the lawmakers into a fact of life, the team must be effective
and that can only come about if everyone:
Knows the nature of the task knows what actions are required to complete the task
Knows what role they have to play in completing those actions
In short, if everyone is at home with the procedures.
Operational Procedures
Operating Procedures are designed to ensure that all the activities/actions that are
necessary (for the effective completion of a task) are carried out. When a manufacturer
designs, builds and sells an aeroplane, that aeroplane will be delivered to the customer
with a complete
set of documentation
which will include volumes of 'Operating
Procedures'. These procedures enhance the technical content of the aeroplane's Flight
Manual. The manufacturer will provide procedures for the operation of the whole aeroplane
including:
Loading
Performance
Fuel planning/management
Maintenance procedures
Ground handling
Flight operation
For this course, we will consider the area of 'Flight Operations' although, as professional
pilots, you must be sure that you become familiar with the layout and content of the other
areas.
The Operating Procedures, on which we will focus, concentrate on the actions necessary
for the safe and efficient handling of the aircraft and its systems. Operating Procedures are
written to cover the following areas:
Normal Operations Procedures
Abnormal Operations Procedures
Emergency Operations Procedures
Normal Operations Procedures include all aspects of day to day flight Covering
every area of control, engine handling, system operation etc., from start-up through taxiing,
take - off, climb, cruise, descent, landing and shut down.
Page 29 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Abnormal (Non-normal) Operating Procedures are written to Cover occasions where
there is an operation in which some part, component or system on the aeroplane is
functioning in such a way that 'normal operations' are precluded.
Emergency Operating Procedures are provided to ensure that all the tasks associated with,
and essential for, the safe handling of an unexpected and serious occurrence (i.e., one
that threatens the safety of the passengers, crew or aircraft) are properly completed.
Some additional terms, associated with Operating Procedures, that you will encounter are as
follows:
Expanded or Amplified Procedure as a series or list of sequential procedural steps with
detailed explanatory descriptions and/or instructions accompanying each step.
Abbreviated Procedure a list of sequential procedural steps without any form of
explanatory or descriptive material.
When an airline takes delivery of a new aeroplane type into its fleet it is essential
that it should be given a "corporate identity". You may easily say that this is only a
marketing requirement. However, consider an airline that operates a significant number
of types of aircraft. Would a Fokker manual look and feel like a King Air manual? Will these
manufacturers'
manuals reflect the type of operation that the new owner conducts?
Will the manufacturers' manuals reflect the culture of the operating company?
The answer to all these questions is probably 'No'.
Airlines will, therefore, not only paint the new aircraft with their own distinctive colours
and logos but will re-model the Operating Procedures documentation so that it has the
same 'look and feel' as that used elsewhere over the fleet. This allows certain general
philosophies and procedures to be carried across the different types while, at the same
time, ensures that those involved will be familiar with the documentation layout. This
has the advantage of enabling a person who is changing from one type to another to
concentrate on the content rather than have to search the layout. In the re-modelling
(of the documentation) of course the manufacturers' procedures must be unchanged
and the relevant aviation regulations adhered to.
Standard Operating Procedures
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are designed to enhance safety, to assist the flight
crews to manage risk and to ensure consistency in the cockpit. Consider them guidelines
as to who-does-what-and-when.
At all times, these procedures should encourage
effective communication
and teamwork in the cockpit. The acceptable standards of
performance
for a procedure will be stated if those standards are not commonly
understood or clearly obvious.
Since a variety
of personnel with
differing
degrees of expertise are involved in
procedures, adequate information concerning the accomplishment of a procedure must
be provided for the least experienced individual. A procedure may be described very
briefly and concisely when the user is capable of achieving the objective
without
extensive direction
or detail. When the user has limited
training
or experience,
however, a procedure must be described in enough detail for the user to correctly
accomplish it. When the user has limited access to other sources of information
and guidance while performing a procedure, enough detail should be provided to
make the user independent of other sources of information.
SOPs can be either general in nature or aircraft specific. Although aviation companies
have a certain amount of latitude when creating their SOPs, under no circumstances
should they contravene aviation regulations or the procedures outlined in the aircraft
manufacturers approved flight manuals. Procedures incorporated into a SOP will normally
be tailored by individual operator to accommodate the operator's type of operation,
fleet, standardisation objectives, corporate culture and crew management objectives.
SOP Format
The SOP could be written in a "phase of flight" type format. It will often refer to the
manufacturer's
manual for technical,
performance
and sometimes
also procedural
information. The general philosophy for the SOP is to break the information down into
the following format:
Abbreviated procedures
Amplified procedure
Technique: A method of accomplishing a procedural step or a manoeuvre.
Page 30 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
SOP Sections
The SOP is divided into sections. The kind of information that is incorporated in the
SOP will depend on local regulations and type of operations. Large operators would
typically have many manuals and a General Operations Manual that ties all information
together.
Specific manuals would
address certain
areas such as loading,
performance, maintenance, cabin attendants, SOP for the pilots and so on. Smaller
operators may include some or all of this information in one manual making the typical
cockpit duties one of many sections in this publication. We will focus on the cockpit
procedural parts.
A typical layout of sections for this part would be:
Introduction
Normal procedures
Non-normal procedures
Emergency procedures
Manoeuvres
Special proceduresIntroduction section
This section will include information
such as general philosophies, terminology,
workload reduction and area of responsibility. Examples of these topics include food in
the cockpit, who is responsible for various panels/areas in the cockpit and who takes care
of specific steps of a procedure.
Normal procedures section
Included in the SOP should be a section about normal procedures; it is considered an
enhancement of the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). These normal procedures include all
aspects of day-to-day flight, including the start-up and normal procedures checklist,
the take- off briefing, go around procedures, IFR approaches, etc.
Non-normal procedures section
This section will describe the procedures to be followed during a flight that cannot be
operated in accordance with
'Normal Procedures'. The following are examples of 'non-normal' operations:
Ferry flights with gear extended
Ferry lights with pressurization inoperative
Flight without FMS Etc.
Emergency procedures section
A section of the SOP should be dedicated to emergency procedures, with the expanded
version of the emergency procedures checklists. Again, this should complement the AFM's
emergency section and streamline procedures; thus removing any ambiguity. This
chapter will explain the use of emergency procedures and would typically emphasize
topics such as mandatory confirmation items. These are certain critical procedural steps
that should be confirmed by a second crewmember before the step may be taken.
The procedural actions must clearly identify the critical actions and the crewmember
that is responsible for giving the confirmation.
The types of procedural actions that
require this confirmation include the following:
Actions resulting in the shutting down of an engine.
Actions resulting in the deactivation of flight controls.
Actions that if performed incorrectly, in the wrong sequence, or at the wrong
time produce a catastrophic result, even if the incorrect action is not highly likely.
Actions where past experience or analysis has shown that there is a high
probability of error or incorrect action and which creates a hazardous situation.
SOP Terminology
SOP terminology may vary from country to country or between aircraft manufacturers.
There are also differences between companies. The following is a brief description of some
frequently used terminology.
Normal-is used to describe a procedure or checklist referring to a routine operation(without
malfunctions).
Normal procedures verify for each phase of flight that:
the airplane condition is satisfactory
the flight deck configuration is correct
Page 31 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Normal procedures are done on each flight. Refer to the Supplementary Procedures (SP) chapter
for procedures that are done as needed, for example the adverse weather procedures.
Normal procedures are used by a trained flight crew and assume:
all systems operate normally
the full use of all automated features (auto land, autopilot, and auto throttle as
applicable)
Normal procedures also assume coordination with the ground crew before:
hydraulic system pressurization, or
flight control surface movement, or
airplane movement
Configuration Check
Before engine start, use system lights to verify each system's condition or configuration. After
engine start, the master caution system alerts the crew to warnings or cautions away from the
normal field of view.
If there is an incorrect configuration or response:
i.
verify that the system controls are set correctly
ii.
check the respective circuit breaker as needed. Maintenance must first determine that it
is safe to reset a tripped circuit breaker on the ground
iii.
test the respective system light as needed
Before engine start, use individual system lights to verify the system status. If an individual
system light indicates an improper condition:
I.
check the Dispatch Deviations Guide (DDG) or the operator equivalent to decide if the
condition has a dispatch effect
II.
decide if maintenance is needed
If, during or after engine start, a red warning or amber caution light illuminates:
I.
do the respective non-normal checklist (NNC)
II.
on the ground, check the DDG or the operator equivalent
If, during recall, an amber caution illuminates and then extinguishes after a master caution
reset:
i.
check the DDG or the operator equivalent
ii.
the respective non-normal checklist is not needed
Emergency - is used to describe a procedure or checklist referring to a non-routine
operation in which certain procedures or actions must be taken to protect the crew and the
passengers, or the aircraft, from a serious hazard or potential hazard.
Non-normal or Abnormal - are used to describe a procedure or checklist referring to a
non-routine operation in which certain procedures or actions must be taken.
Alternate - is used to describe a procedure or checklist referring to a procedure which may
be employed instead of another procedure. Alternate procedures may either be normal,
non-normal, or abnormal procedures.
Supplemental- is used to describe a procedure or checklist referring to a procedure which
may be employed
in addition
to a normal, non-normal,
or abnormal procedure.
Supplemental procedures may either be normal or non- normal procedures.
Phase checklist - is used to establish and/or verify aircraft configuration during a specific
phase of flight. An example of a phase checklist is an after-takeoff checklist.
Immediate action (memory action, recall action) - is an action that must be taken in
response to a non-routine event. The action must be taken so quickly that reference to a
checklist is not practical because of a potential loss of aircraft control, incapacitation of a
crewmember, damage to or loss of an aircraft component or system which would make
continued safe flight improbable. Such items are referred to as boxed items, memory items
or recall items.
High workload environment - any environment in which multiple demands on the flight crew
necessitate the prioritizing of work functions. For example, operations below cruising level
during arrival or departure from a terminal area (including taxiing) are considered to be high
workload environments.
Critical Phase (of flight) is defined in EU-OPS as including the following:
Take off run
Take off flight path
Final approach
Page 32 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Landing
Landing ground roll
Operators may add to this minimum list if they so wish
Systems management- the management of those systems that sustain the mechanical
functions of the aircraft as opposed to the management of the aircraft's thrust, flightpath, or aerodynamic configuration.
Warning- an instruction about a hazard that (if ignored 0 could result in injury, loss of
aircraft control, or loss of life
Caution- an instruction concerning a hazard that (if ignored) could result in damage to an
aircraft component or system that would make continued safe flight improbable.
Note - information or instruction of such significance that special emphasis is required.
0.3.8 Task sharing and decision making
In general, in a multi-crew environment the duties are divided between the two pilots according
to their role in each phase of flight. The roles are Pilot Flying (PF)and the Pilot Monitoring
(PM).Each crewmember is responsible for moving the controls and switches in their area of
responsibility. The phase of flight areas of responsibility for both normal and non-normal
procedures are shown in the Area of Responsibility illustrations in this manual.
The task sharing is clearly defined by the Operators Standard operating procedures, which
comprises :
Aircraft manufacturer regulations and requirement (Flight Crew Operation Manual,
Training Manual)
international and national rules and regulations of the air
operator requirements (chief-pilots ideas and experience)
and good airman ship
The SOP itself defines the roll and tasks of Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Monitoring(PM) as well as
Crew member 1 and 2 (CMl and CM2)
Crew Member 1 - the responsible person is a pilot and sits on the left seat.
Crew Member 2 - sits as second pilots on the right seat
On ground all procedures are assigned by an appropriate announcement of theCM1 and all
necessary check lists are requested by him.
CM1 specifies the task distribution for the flight and determines the pilot flying (PF)and the pilot
non flying (PM=pilot monitoring-PM) for each flight.
The PF accomplishes the Departure Briefing, Take off Briefing and Approach Briefing
The CM1 may direct actions outside of the crewmember’s area of responsibility.
The general Pilot-flying PF is the pilot who is controlling the path of the aircraft at any given
time, whether or not the aircraft is in flight or on the ground. PF phase of flight
responsibilities are:
TASKS OF THE PILOT FLYING (PF)- HE •••••
fly 's the A/C
makes the decision of the flight procedures, to be used during the
flight
prepares the A/C for the different flight phases
acts according ATC-c1earances
correctly complies to the SOP's
Requests the appropriate checklists for normal and Non normal
operation when airborne
observes the airspace during the flight with AP
The general Pilot Monitoring (PM) - is the pilot who is not controlling the path of the
aircraft but who is carrying out a complimentary role.PM phase of flight responsibilities
are:
TASKS OF THE PILOT MONITORING (PM) -HE•••••
supports and checks the actions of PF
Page 33 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
performs radio-communication
sets and identifies the appropriate NAV AIDS
reads the normal checklists during flight
reads the non normal checklists on request of the PF and
observes the air space
PF and PM duties may change during a flight. For example, the CM1 could be the PF during taxi
but be the PM during takeoff through landing.
Normal procedures show who does a step by crew position (CM1, CM2, PF, or PM):
in the procedure title, or
in the far right column, or
in the column heading of a table
The mode control panel is the PF’s responsibility. When flying manually, the PF directs the PM to
make the changes on the mode control panel.
The CM1 is the final authority for all tasks directed and done.
0.3.9 Standardization
Standard Phraseology - Standard Calls
Standardisation of crew communications increases the efficiency of crew coordination during
times of high crew workload such as take-off, emergency conditions, instrument approaches
and landings. It is also extremely useful for detecting partial incapacitation.
The normal call-outs are one example of standard phraseology used to convey vital information
with a minimum number of words that have an exact meaning to all crew members.
General
a. Standard intra - crew phraseology is essential to ensure effective crew communication,
particularly in the modern operational environment. Standard calls are intended and
designed to enhance the efficiency of the crew coordination and update the flight crew
situational awareness. Standard calls included in this TM are designed to :
• Give a command or transfer information;
• Acknowledge a command or the transfer of information;
• Give a response or ask a question;
• Callout an observed or expected change in configuration (e.g. AP/FD mode
transition);
• Identify a specific event (e.g. crossing of an altitude or flight level);
b. The following are calls that have broad application or are not specifically dealt with
elsewhere in the TM. The calls are listed in alphabetical order by the situation that
requires the call. Terms that are underlined are defined in the "Definitions" section of
this chapter. The standard calls pertaining to altitude are in the section titled
"Standard Calls - Altitude" which is found later in this chapter.
c. Generic Standard Calls The following generic standard calls will be used to express a
command or response:
CHECK a command to a crew member to check or verify a specific item; Checked
a confirmation that an item has been verified;
SET a command for a crew member to set a specific value or configuration; Arm a
command to the other pilot to arm a specific AP/FD mode;
o - "SET GO AROUND ALTITUDE ____FT!"
o - “SET QNH____!”
o - "SET FL ___!"
o - "SET ALTITUDE ___!”
o - "SET HDG ___!"
o - "SET COURSE ____!”
ARM a command to the other pilot to arm specific AP/FD mode;The “ARM____”
command means arming a system by pushing the specified P/B on the AP/FD control
panel. Example: “ARM APPROACH!”.
PUSH The "PUSH" command means PF required PM to push a push button to engage,
or arm, a mode or target.
o Example:
o "HEADING PUSH!" (Heading button is to be pushed by PM).
o "NAV PUSH!" (NAV button is to be pushed by PM).
Page 34 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
o "ALT PUSH!" (Altitude button is to be pushed by PM).
o "IAS PUSH!" (Indicated Airspeed button is to be pushed by PM).
ENGAGE a command for the other pilot to engage an AP/FD mode;
CONFIGURATIONS CHANGES
Before requesting a configuration change, PF will check if the current airspeed is compatible
with the required configuration.
If it is, he/she will then request the configuration change. PM will check the airspeed and state
“SPEED CHECKED!”. Only then may the configuration be changed by the PM.
If the current airspeed is not the correct one for configuration change, PM will call “SPEED!”
and wait for another command from PF to change configuration.
After the PM has set the required configuration he/he will state the requested configuration.
FLAPS CALL-OUT (Example):
CALL
REMARK
PF
“FLAPS 40!”
PF commands flaps to be FLAPS 40
PM checks airspeed before selecting the flaps to
PM
“SPEED CHECKED!”
FLAPS 40 If speed is below 200 KTS, he/she will
then set the flap lever to FLAPS 40
PM
“FLAPS 40!”
Call out from PM when the flaps selector is set at
the desired position
L/G CALL-OUT (Example):
CALL
PF
“GEAR DOWN!”
PM
“SPEED CHECKED!”
PM
“GEAR DOWN!”
REMARK
PF commands L/G to be extended
PM checks airspeed before selecting the L/G down.
If speed is below 180 KTS, he/she will set the L/G
lever down
Call out from PM when the L/G Handle is selected to
the DOWN position
Abnormal Bank Upon observing Abnormal Bank the PM should call "Bank". The PF
should respond with “Check, correcting" and correct the bank to less than 30° or if
excess bank is necessary, call "Intentional" and continue.
Abnormal Rate of Descent Upon observing Abnormal Rate of Descent the PM should
call "Descent Rate." The PF should respond with "Check, correcting" and reduce the rate of
descent to within normal parameters or, if abnormal rate is necessary, call "Intentional" and
continue.
Abnormal Speed Upon observing Abnormal Speed the PM should call "Speed." The PF
should respond with ""Check, correcting "and correct the speed to within the normal
parameters, or if abnormal speed is necessary, call Intentional" and continue.
ATC Heading Should ATC issue a heading for the aircraft to fly, the PM should respond by
reading back to ATC the heading to be flown (and altitude, and/or speed if included in the
clearance or direction). The PF should turn the aircraft to achieve the heading and state
the following as applicable. If a speed change is required see ATC speed below. If an
altitude change is required see the section on Standard Calls Altitude. These calls would be
combined as required.
(1) "Turning to xxxo” if a turn is required;
(2) "Steering xxxo” if no turn required;
ATC Speed Should ATC issue a speed restriction, the PM should respond by reading back
to ATC the speed to be flown (and altitude, and/or heading if included in the clearance
or direction). The PF should change the aircraft speed to achieve the speed instructed and
state to xx« knots" or "Stable at xxx knots" If a heading change is required see ATC
Heading above. If an altitude change is required see the section on Standard Calls Altitude.
These calls would be combined as required.
Climb Power To command the setting of Climb Power call "Set Climb Power" The PM should
then set Climb Power as specified in the AFM.
.•..
Page 35 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Configuration Changes. The PM will call out any configuration change made by the PF.
Additionally, he/she will call out any instruction given by the PF to execute configuration
changes.
Flight Mode Annunciation (FMA) Changes The PF/PM will call out any observed or pilot
initiated change in the-Auto flight mode status, as shown on the EFIS.
WARNING
Always use the annunciations provided on the EFIS in order to determine the status
(active and armed AP/FD modes) of the Auto-flight system.
Full Power To command the setting of Full Power call "Set Fun Power" The PM should
then set the engine controls to the limit of their travel to obtain the absolute
maximum power available, and respond "Full Power Set" This setting should be used
only in the direst of situations.
Heading Deviation Upon observing a Heading Deviation, the PM should call The PF should
respond with and correct the aircraft heading. If the PF believes that the aircraft heading
is correct as indicated on the PF's display, the flight crew shall determine
the source of
the discrepancy and deal with it appropriately.
Maximum Continuous Power To command the setting of Maximum Continuous Power call
"Set Max Continuous Power" The PM should then set Maximum Continuous Power as
specified in the AFM.
Climb Power To command the setting of Climb Power call "Set Climb Power," The PM
should then set the recommended climb power that is specified in the AFM and respond
"Climb Power Set"
Take-off Power To command the setting of Take-off Power call "Set Take off Power"
The PM should then set the maximum power that is approved for a normal take-off as
specified in the AFM and respond "Take off Power Set"
Time Out (CRM call out) This call out will be used in the following circumstances to provide a
warning for a deviation from established normal flight parameters or for the loss of situational
awareness.
Immediately following a Time Out call the PF will stabilize flight conditions, and the crew
member initializing the call will brief the rest of the crew on the conditions he that he felt made
the call necessary.
Standard Calls - Altitude
Similarly to the General Standard Calls, some standard calls are designated that
apply specifically to altitude. The purpose of these calls is to reduce the likelihood of
inadvertent
deviation
from
a desired altitude
or missing of a target
altitude.
Underlined terms are defined in the "Definitions" section of this chapter.
Altitude Deviation Upon observing an Altitude Deviation the PM should call "Altitude"
The PF should respond with "Check" and correct the altitude to within the normal
parameters or if, abnormal altitude is necessary call "Intentional" and continues.
Approaching an Altitude Upon reaching 1000 ft away from a target altitude the PF
shall confirm the altitude alert and flight guidance settings(if applicable)and should call
for Altitude Select" An example of such a call follows, level one niner zero for eighteen
thousand, Altitude Select" If the target altitude is less than 1000 ft away from the
altitude that the aircraft is level at, no additional calls are required to those described in
the Departing an Altitude" subsection. The calls for approaching an altitude that is part of an
Instrument Approach Procedure are found in the chapter pertaining to Normal Flight
Procedures Arrival.
Arriving at an Altitude Upon arriving at a target altitude the PF should call "Level at(FL or
Altitude)"The PM will reply "Check" and if appropriate make any radio transmission to ATC
that may be required.
Departing an Altitude Upon departing an altitude the PF shall confirm the altitude
alert and flight, guidance settings and then should call "Leaving (altitude or flight Level
vacated) for (target Altitude) Altitude Select, Vertical Mode set to (vertical mode, mode setting
i.e IAS, VS). The PM will confirm that the settings are appropriate and call "Check"
Instrument Approaches For Instrument Approaches the guidance for standard calls,
including altitude related calls, is found in the chapter pertaining to Normal Flight
Procedures Arrival.
Page 36 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
FL100 Procedures for climbing and descending through Flight Level 100 or 10000 ASL are
found in the applicable chapters for Normal Procedures Departure and Normal Procedures
Arrival.
Transition- Altimeter Setting/Standard Pressure Regions Transition procedures and
standard calls are found in the next section of this chapter.
Barometric Altimeter Setting Procedures
The procedures in the following paragraphs should be followed for setting of altimeters
in various circumstances. When receiving an altimeter
setting that is either new or
unchanged from another agency by radio, the PM should read that altimeter setting back to
the agency. An example follows:
"GLOBAL 001, leaving FL110 descending 8000 feet QNH one zero one two milibars"
For transition between the Standard and Altimeter Setting Regions the PM should call
"Transition,
set 2992 inches." If the NAV is occupied with other duties and does not call for an altimetersetting at transition, the PF or PM should make that call. When cleared to descent through
the transition
level the PF may set the altimeters to the local setting, provided that no
levelling above the transition level is anticipated. The PM will maintain standard altimeter
setting until the transition level is crossed. Once the call at transition is made, the procedure in
the next paragraph and following table should be used.
When a new altimeter has been received for transition between the Standard and Altimeter
Setting Regions, or when the checklist calls for a verification of the altimeter setting, the
following procedure should be used to set or confirm the aircraft altimeters.
Altitude Alert The Altitude Preselect or / Alerter (APA) system shall be used to the extent
possible to prevent the aircraft from occupying other than the desired / cleared altitude.
Procedures applicable to specific phases of flight are found in the relevant chapters
throughout the TM. See also the section titled Standard Calls Altitude found earlier in this
chapter.
Altitude Alert Setting Except if otherwise specified elsewhere in the TM, the following
procedures should be used for setting the APA:
If in auto flight, the PF should set required altitudes in the APA, arm the Flight Guidance
System, and advise the remaining flight crew.
(1) If in manual flight, the PF may direct the PM to set required altitudes in the
APA, arm the Flight Guidance system (if required), and advise the remaining flight
crew of selections.
Altitude Confirmation. The pilot who responds on the radio to an Air Traffic Control
initiated altitude change should confirm that the APA has been set appropriately or
confirm the existing setting (if no change is required). If an altitude change is required,
the pilot who responded on the radio shall also confirm that the Flight Director System
vertical mode is appropriately set or armed. Whenever an altitude setting is changed or
confirmed the pilot taking the action shall advise the remaining flight crew members.
These ensure that all crew members are aware of aeroplane altitude,
position
and
instrument indications. Casual and non- essential conversation can be distracting and may
interfere with normal communications, thereby reducing crew efficiency and alertness to the
task at hand, i.e. approach and landing.
The pilot Monitoring (PM) will accomplish the appropriate call-out based on instrument
indications or observations. The pilot flying(PF) will verify the condition/location from their
instruments and acknowledge. If the pilot not flying does not make the required call-out,
the pilot flying should make it.
One of the basic fundamentals of the "Crew Concept" is that each crewmember must be able
to supplement or act as a backup for another
crew member. Proper adherence to
standard call-outs will stimulate more meaningful and standardized crew communications and
provide for early detection of crewmember incapacitation during critical phases of flight.
Checklist
A checklist is a formal list used to identify, schedule, compare, or verify a group of
elements or actions. A checklist is used as a visual or oral aid that enables the user to
Page 37 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
overcome the limitations of short-term human memory. Although a checklist may be
published in a manual, it is designed for independent use so that the user does not have
to refer to a manual. Checklists are used to ensure that a particular
series of
specified actions or procedures
are accomplished in the correct sequence. Aircraft
checklists, in particular, are used to verify that the correct aircraft configuration
has
been established in specified phases of flight.
To provide appropriate degrees of emphasis on specific points in the text, "cautions,"
"warnings," and "notes" should be included in the operator's manuals and checklists.
Any instruction, particularly a warning or a caution, must begin with a simple directive
in the imperative form that informs the reader precisely of what must be done. To avoid
obscuring the directive in the background information, the directive must be stated first
and then followed with an explanation. An example of how a directive can be
obscured in background information is as follows:
"Warning - To avoid the hazard of striking ground handling personnel with the free end of a
swinging tow bar, do not place feet on rudder pedals until the Commander receives the
appropriate signal from the ground handler. The hydraulic nose wheel steering can sling
the towbar with great force"
In contrast the following is an example of the preferred method of placing the directive
first.
"Warning - Do not place feet on rudder pedals until the Commander receives the signal from
the ground handler. The hydraulic nose wheel steering can sling a towbar with sufficient
force t cause serious injury to ground handling personnel. "
Aircraft checklists and the operator's policies for the use of checklists are one means by
which an operator structures and defines flight crewmember
roles. Research has
shown that standardised
procedures and effective cockpit communications
are
significant factors in flight safety.
Checklist content
Aircraft checklists have traditionally been divided into three categories. These categories
are referred to as normal, non-normal, and emergency. Operators may use other titles
for these categories such as abnormal instead of non- normal. Operators may also further
divide these categories into subcategories such as alternate and supplemental.
Checklists are normally limited to action items or verification
items. The aircraft
checklist should not contain elaboration or explanation. The required actions and
decisions for flight crews when performing a checklist will be thoroughly described in
the operator's SOP. Non-normal and emergency checklists contain each sequential step
of a procedure.
A normal checklist is typically a listing of action items to be performed and verified at
a particular point in light. Normal checklist items do not necessarily represent a
procedural step and may even represent completion
of an entire procedure. For
example, the item "Gear - up and locked" could indicate the gear handle had been raised,
the gear indications checked, "normal" noise noticed, variations in hydraulic pressure
observed, the gear handle had been placed in the neutral position to check the uplocks, and that the handle had then been returned to the "up" position. Most normal
procedures do not require itemisation or incorporation into a checklist. For example,
the procedures for making normal takeoffs and landings are not itemised in a checklist
format.
Criticality of checklist items can be ranked according to the potential effect of the
crewmember failing to perform the action. Critical items are those items that, if not
correctly performed, have a direct adverse effect on safety. Non- critical items are
"housekeeping" items or systems management items, for which operating practices
must be routinely accomplished during a specific phase of flight, but if omitted would
have a minimal effect on safety. An item may be considered to be critical on one
checklist but non-critical on another checklist. For example, a flight crew's failure to
set the flaps while accomplishing the before-takeoff
checklist has had extremely
adverse consequences. A flight crew's failure to retract the flaps while performing the
after-landing checklist, however, has had little effect on safety.
Page 38 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
The flight crew's attention is diverted from other tasks when performing a checklist.
Checklists must be kept as short as practical to minimize "heads-down"
time and
diversion of the crew's attention while performing the checklist. Each additional item
that is added to a checklist increases the potential for interruption and diversion of the
crew's attention at a critical point and the resultant omission of critical items. Operators
must weigh the benefit of including each item on a checklist against the possible
adverse affects that can occur. Items not associated with aircraft operations (such as
calls to the company) should not be placed on the checklist.
Aircraft sophistication and checklist design
The degree of technological
sophistication
in the design of the aircraft directly
affects checklist items. In older aircraft, the flight crew must manually select and
monitor
most items. In technologically
advanced aircraft the same items are
accomplished and monitored by automatic systems that relieve the flight crew of these
tasks. Checklists for technologically advanced aircraft tend to be shorter and simpler than
those for older aircraft.
Fleet Standardisation
Operators should try to standardize checklist items and the sequence of items, to the
extent allowed by individual aircraft differences across all aircraft in the fleet. Many
operators use common before-landing checklists. Items appear in a standard sequence
to the degree possible.
Methods for checklist design (Challenge and Response)
Operators may choose from at least two accepted methods of checklist design: The
"challenge-do-verify” (CDV) method and the "do-verify" (DV) method. The challenge-do-verify
(CDV) method consists of a crewmember making a challenge before an action is
initiated, taking the action, and then verifying that the action item has been
accomplished. The CDV method is most effective when one crewmember issues the
challenge and the second crewmember
takes the action and responds to the first
crewmember,
verifying that the action was taken. This method requires that the
checklist be accomplished methodically, one item at a time, in an unvarying sequence. The
primary advantage of the CDV method is the deliberate and systematic manner in which
each action item must be accomplished. The CDV method keeps all crewmembers
involved (in the loop), provides for concurrence from a second crewmember before an
action is taken, and provides positive confirmation that the action was accomplished. The
disadvantages
of the CDV method
are that it is rigid and inflexible
and that
crewmembers cannot accomplish different tasks at the same time.
The "do-verify" (DV) method (or "clean-up" method) consists of the checklist being
accomplished in a variable sequence without a preliminary challenge. After all of the
action items on the checklist have been completed, the checklist is then read while each
item is verified.
The DV method allows the flight crew to use flow patterns from memory to accomplish
a series of actions quickly and efficiently.
Each individual
crewmember
can work
independently
which helps balance the workload between crewmembers. The DV
method has a higher inherent risk of an item on the checklist being missed than does the
CDV Both the CDV and the DV methods of checklist design are currently
being
successfully used for normal checklists. Several operators have preferred the DV method
for normal checklists and the CDV method for non-normal and emergency checklists.
Operators have, however, successfully used the CDV method for all checklists. Many
operators use a combination for normal procedures. This combination includes CDV on
the ground and DV in flight. Non- normal and emergency checklists are more effective
when the CDV method is used. The correct accomplishment
of the actions
and
procedures incorporated
in the non-normal and emergency checklist categories is
critical and warrants a methodical approach. Since these checklists are seldom used,
however, crewmembers are usually not as familiar with the procedures incorporated into
these checklists as they are with the procedures in normal checklists. In addition, many
non-normal and emergency checklists do not lend themselves to developing flow patterns
Page 39 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
which crewmembers can readily recall. The CDV method also enforces crew co-ordination,
cross checking, and verification, all of which aid the crewmember
in overcoming the
adverse effects of stress. Few governments will approve or accept the DV method for
non-normal
or emergency procedures unless the operator
can provide substantial
evidence that the method is effective for this application.
Mechanical/electronic checklists
Mechanical or electronic devices differ in format from paper, hand-held checklists, but
not in the design method or use. The CDV or DV methods can be applied to any type of
checklist. Many safety experts encourage the use of such aids when operators find them
effective.
Verification.
Keep in mind that all checklist designs are subject to Human Error. Crewmembers may omit
and skip checklist items. Crewmembers may erroneously respond to a checklist at times
believing that an item or task was accomplished when it was not. At times,
crewmembers may see what they expect to see rather than what has actually been
accomplished. Both the CDV and the DV methods are subject to such Human Errors.
Checklists should require stringent cross-checking and verification to overcome these
human limitations. These policies must be appreciated and respected by the crewmembers.
Checklist accomplishment
The appropriate sections of the SOP contain the specific crewmember responsibilities for
monitoring, verifying, and managing the accomplishment of checklists. The primary
objective of the SOP is to standardize crewmember interaction; it will include items such
as:
Decision Making
Flight crew responsibilities for maintaining aircraft control, analyzing situations,
and for requesting
the appropriate
checklist in non-normal
and emergency
situations
The specified crewmember responsible for initiating each checklist
The specified time when>ach checklist is to be initiated.
The specified crewmember responsible for accomplishing each item on the checklist
The specified crewmember
responsible for ensuring that each checklist is
completed and for reporting that completion to the crew.
Crewmember responsibilities for bringing to the attention of the Commander
and the rest of the crew any observed deviation from prescribed procedures
Methods for managing checklists
A crew may use several methods for managing checklist accomplishment. These methods
are not all-inclusive and may not meet all of the operations needs.
For those aircraft in which either pilot can steer on the ground the norm is for the PM
to read all checklists. In all two-pilot aircraft, the PM should read all checklists when the
aircraft is airborne. The crewmember responsible for reading the checklist should be
responsible for ensuring that the checklist is completed
systematically
and
expeditiously. This crewmember should be responsible for managing interruptions,
crosschecking controls and indicators to ensure that the required actions have been
accomplished, and for reporting that the checklist has been completed. The pilot flying
(PF) should not be distracted from controlling the aircraft to perform a checklist item that
another crewmember can accomplish. The PF should activate only those switches or
controls (other than the manual or automatic flight controls, throttles,
and nose
wheel steering) which are not within practical reach of another crewmember. Only one
pilot should be "heads down" at any time.
Page 40 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Pre-start phase
In the pre-start phase, flight guidance and navigation checklist items have proven to
be critical items. A response should be required from both when the same setting is
required for more than one device (such as computers,
flight instruments,
and
altimeters).
Inertial platform alignment and computer programming should be
accomplished by one crewmember
and independently
confirmed
by another crew
member. As many of these checklist items as possible should be accomplished and
verified before the aircraft is moved.
Taxi and pre-take-off phase
In the taxi and pre-takeoff phases, aircraft configuration (such as flaps, trim, and speed
brakes) and flight guidance items (such as heading, flight-director, altitude select panel
settings, and airspeed bugs) have proven to be critical. All flight crewmembers should
confirm these items and at least two crewmembers should respond to applicable
checklist items.
Approach Phase
The approach phase flight guidance checklist items have proven to be critical items. At
least two crewmembers should confirm and respond to these items. A response should be
required from each pilot when the same setting is required on two separate devices (such
as computers, flight instruments, or altimeters).
Before-landing phase
A" checklist items that are critical in the before-landing phase vary with the type of aircraft
involved. In the operation of small aircraft, the landing gear has proven to be a critical
checklist item and both pilots should confirm and respond to this item. Although the
landing gear and flaps are critical items for large, transport category aircraft, the multiple
warning devices and systems which are associated with these systems make the need for
a response and confirmation by both pilots slightly less critical. All checklists, except the
after-takeoff
and after-landing
checklists, should be accomplished by one crewmember
reading the checklist item and a second crewmember confirming and responding to each
item.
Once a checklist is complete, the PM must advise the PF and announce " ... Checklist
complete."
Crew Briefings
A crew briefing is not limited to reviewing an instrument approach procedure, or detailing
aspects of the flight to the flight attendants. In fact, the cockpit crew briefing is an
important tool for improving safety during any critical phase of flight. In a somewhat
modified form, it's of use to the single-pilot flight operation as well.
In the simplest terms, the crew briefing is the verbalization of the plan for executing a
critical phase of the flight. Given a normal transport flight ops profile, most would
agree takeoffs and departures, as we" as descents and arrivals, constitute critical flight
segments. For the novice briefer, verbalizing these two major events is an excellent
beginning. A good brief is concise and Covers; what one intends to do, what is going to be
used, how it is going to be done and what will be done if unable to do it.
As you would expect, you will not easily brief something you have not planned. Also one
must avoid becoming too ritualistic
or institutionalized
with their crew briefing.
Conducting appropriate
and meaningful briefing enhances individual as well as crew
performance. It is an art born of practice in identifying the key elements of every departure
and arrival and conveying the information with clarity and brevity.
For the first officer the briefing is the means by which he/she becomes involved in the
operation of the aircraft. They are also the platform that provides an insight as to how
the Commander expects the flight to be conducted. Do not be a passive listener, show
interest and ask for clarification of points with which you are in doubt. The briefing
sessions also allow you to formulate in your own mind what a good briefing is (and
regrettably sometimes what a bad briefing is) and this is a valuable experience for your
own career development.
Page 41 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Brief Beginning
The takeoff and departure briefing is not as common as the arrival brief, yet it's no less
critical. In fact, given the pilot flying/pilot
not flying discipline so widely accepted
today, the departure crew briefing goes far to establish or clarify what's expected of crew
members in their respective roles. This is the opportune time for the captain to establish
or promote the atmosphere of enlightened leadership within the confines of the
workplace. Even if the captain is the PM on a particular leg, the responsibilities of
command dictate that he or she include amendments or modifications to the PF crew
briefing should it be warranted.
A typical takeoff and departure crew briefing should include:
Weather and related precautions
Any special modification to the standard takeoff and initial climb profile
Initial routing via designated SID and/or vector fix
Initial clearance altitude including the transition altitude
Com and Nav radio configuration to include the assigned transponder code
Contingencies for critical emergency situations
Weather conditions for the takeoff and departure should be part of every briefing.
Special procedural precautions such as the use of engine or wing anti-ice, modified
takeoff computations, or restrictions on the applicability
of using a reduced
power takeoff
are examples of weather-related modifications best reviewed
before getting involved in the actual activity.
Included in the briefing any special noise abatement
takeoff
and climb
profile to be flown, a high terrain/obstacle clearance manoeuvre to execute, or
a possible windshear complication.
When briefing the departure climb, either by reference to a published SID or radar
vector clearance, the initial clearance altitude should be emphasized. The NAV radio set
up should be noted, crossing restrictions discussed, and any special duties clarified.
Many different emergencies are possible during any takeoff and climb out. Reviewing
the basics of "who will do what" in the event of a reject or engine failure, are commonly
briefed. Attempting to address further emergencies could run the brief too long to be
effective.
Once cleared onto the runway for take-off, the pilot flying should re-brief
The initial heading and/or route to be flown,
The initial clearance altitude, and confirm the takeoff flap settings and
respective takeoff flap settings and takeoff speeds.
Conducting this last chance mini-brief will focus the crew on the details at hand.
Pilot workload increases in inverse proportion to the distance from touchdown.
For
this reason, the best time to conduct the approach briefing is before or soon after,
commencing your initial descent. This scheduling may network in some situations but the
intent is to avoid trying to brief and fly at the same time. That will result in neither briefing
nor flying being done well. As your briefings become more polished, you will be better
able to accommodate last- minute alterations like a runway change However, if what you
have briefed is rendered totally inappropriate,
make the time to do an approach and
landing briefing that's relative to your actual situation.
Mindful of the intent to promote crew co-ordination
and enhance communication
with your fellow pilots, the content of the approach and landing briefing should
contain no more than 8 to 10 key elements beyond a common understanding of the
current weather conditions;
•
Name and effective date of the instrument approach procedure
•
Minimum sector altitudes(s)
•
Airport elevation
•
Initial approach manoeuvre and respective minimum altitude(s)
•
Final approach course and defining navaids
•
Final approach fix minimum altitude
•
Applicable approach minimums (DH or MDA)
•
MAP for the non-precision approach
•
Published missed approach procedure
•
Approach lighting and runway information
Page 42 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
It is imperative to clarify the name and currency of the instrument approach procedure
(lAP) to be used. It is a good idea to state the airport elevation as an overall awareness
factor.
If you anticipate radar vectors to intercept the final approach course, it is important to
brief the published minimum final approach fix (FAF) altitude. In the absence of radar
vectors to final, your briefing must be expanded to include depicted transitions,
procedure turns, arcs or other published routings and the associated minimum altitudes.
Focus attention on the frequency of the defining navaid as well as the published final
approach course. You may want to brief the pilot not flying on a special sequence for
tuning and identifying navaids specific to your radios. All crewmembers must know the
decision height (DH) or minimum descent altitude (MDA) and the advisory minimum
visibility.
For non-precision
approaches,
'step-down
fixes' and the corresponding
'minimum descent altitudes' and 'missed approach point (MAP)' should be called out by
the pilot Monitoring.
Brief the timing or DME fix for every lAP as a means of identifying the MAP. Granted, the
MAP for the ILS is the DH, but should you lose the glide-slope signal inside the FAF, you
have the option to descend to the LOC minimums and a better reference for the location
of the MAP. In the absence of ATC intervention,
your clearance for the published lAP
includes a clearance for the published missed approach procedure. It is good practice to
emphasize the initial route and altitude in your briefing. Should Nav-Radio changes be
required, these are best included as pilot not flying duties. And if the missed approach
procedure culminates in a holding pattern, the type of entry is worth mentioning.
Do not be too brief
Do not complete your briefing with just the approach. The airport chart contains an abundance
of valuable information. If you are faced with conducting an approach and making a landing in
IMC, or at night, or in particularly low-visibility situations, briefing the type of approach light
system available is critical. Whoever is not monitoring the instruments will be looking for the
lights, so it is appropriate to know what to look for. Also useable runway length and width are
worthy parts of every briefing you make.
Page 43 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1 Aircraft Systems
1.1 Instrument Panel
Page 44 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1.1.1
CM1 INSTRUMENTS PANEL
1.1.2
CM2 INSTRUMENTS PANEL
Page 45 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1.1.3
ENGINES INSTRUMENTS
Page 46 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1.1.4
Pilot Fuel Control Side Panel
Page 47 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1.1.5
Copilot Circuit Panel
1.1.6
Pilot Subpanel A
Page 48 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1.1.7
Copilot Subpanel A
1.1.8
Gear Control Panel
Page 49 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1.1.9
NAVIGATION
Name
NAV / COMM 1
Control
NAV / COMM 2
Push buttons, turn knobs, display
elements
Functionality based on KX 165-25
ADF
Push buttons, turn knobs, display
elements
Functionality based on KR87, with
BFO and ANT mode
DME
Slide switches, turn knobs,
display elements
Functionality based on KN 62A, with
remote and standalone frequency
Transponder
Push button, turn knobs, display
elements
Push buttons, rocker switch
(mom. up / mom. down,
neutral), display elements. Unit
may be located in glare shield
panel
Functionality based on KT 70
Transponder unit
Functionality based on KFC 150,
MODES: FD-ALT-HDG-NAV-APR-BC
Autopilot
Push buttons, turn knobs, display
elements
Page 50 of 100
Function
Functionality based on KX 165-25
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
1.1.10 PEDESTAL
Page 51 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
2 Practical Training
2.1 Call outs
They are used as pure information transmission and are to create or emphasise the realization
of a certain situation .
Examples: Calls of Vi, VR V2 during T/O Likewise "Approaching minimum" and “minimum" are
announced, furthermore the speeds at deceleration during Rollout. In addition during T/O "60"
is announced and before landing "500 Feet" by the PM as an "Incapacitation gate" . These calls
must be answered by the PF (pilot Flying) with "checked". If it does not happen, the call is
repeated again. Still if no answer, the PF is considered as "incapacitated". PM takes over the
controls "with the loud command "I have control".
ATC
GLOBAL001,HDG140
GLOBAL 001, Speed 150
GLOBAL 001 climb/descent
FL 070
PF
Sets HDG and says
"140o Set"
Sets the Speed bug and says
"150 Set"
Sets the cleared FL/ALT and
says
"070 Set"
PM
Checks and Answers to ATC:
"GLOBAL 001, HDG 140"
Checks and Answers to ATC:
"GLOBAL 001, Speed 150"
Checks and Answers to ATC:
"GLOBAL 001,
climbing/descending
FL070"
2.2 Announcements
These are given by all CM's, if deviations are observed, e.g. "below glide slope";"high sink rate",
"speed ". The condition should be corrected by the other crewmember.
Announcements must always lead to the reaction in terms of a correcting action. That may lead
to PF answer- "Checked" followed by the appropriate correction. If no reaction takes place and if
the condition which was observed continues to exist, the announcement has to be repeated and
after missing correction immediately announce "I have control" for the same reason mentioned
above.
2.3 Instructions
This complex is divided into : Command, order and request
2.3.1 COMMAND
A command is an instruction for the change of the configuration, thus driving flaps, gear or
maybe power-setting. It requires: an acknowledgement and the completion notice - a report.
The wording of COMMAND, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT and REPORT are accurately fixed .
Command and ACKNOWLEDGEMENT must be the same in the wording, the report has to be
different and must indicate the condition reached.
Hereby tasks and responsibilities for these actions are delegated. It begins with the
operationally caused command of the PF to drive flaps or gear.
The PM repeats the command in the wording. This Acknowledgement (verbal confirmation) is to
have as a consequence:
1. Reversal of the attention-capacity of PF to his main task- Fly the aircraft- .
2. Conscious receipt of tasks and their execution by PM.
3. Increase of attention of the PM and thus increase of the probability of a
conscious action .
4 . Avoidance of misunderstandings (transmission errors).
With the verbal confirmation the PF hears that its intention was understood and for the
execution no direct attention is needed. The other crew member examines, after confirmation,
the conditions, like speed, climbing or descent rate, i.e. he is not blindly executing the
command. If the conditions permits the execution, it will be done by PM silently.
Page 52 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Example:
Check lAS before selecting flaps or gear, check minimum height and climb rate before ordering
climb power, A command initiates the following "flow Pattern" with the command receiver thus :
1. Confirmation of the command,
2. examination of the current situation in the cockpit,
3 . The execution of the task and monitoring the procedure up to reaching the new
configuration, Report if the condition is reached.
2.3.2 ORDER
This is an instruction, which concerns systems, whose priority stands behind from "Flaps, Gear,
power". Also the "order" requires Acknowledgement and Report. But the wording is not
compellingly fixed by the order, confirmation and completion notice, although desirably (good
airmanship), if time and capacity permits
Examples:
Set of Nav. Aid 's
switching of anti - Ice, Ignition or switching of the Flight-director system, if the PF f lies by
hand.
Wording: PF: "VOR KEA on # 1" PM: "VOR KEA on # 1"; "VOR Tegel set"
2.3.3 REQUEST
This is an instruction, which can be controlled by the requesting pilot (PF) directly. Therefore
neither confirmation nor completions notice is necessary.
Examples: Switch from windshield wipers or landing-lights.
2.4 Mutual supervision, information and support.
(a) Any action in handling the aircraft should be performed by mutual supervision. The pilot
responsible for the specific action or task (PF or PM) should be advised when substantial
deviations (flight path, aircraft configuration etc.) are observed.
(b)Call-out procedures are essential , especially during take-off and approach, to indicate
progress of the flight, systems status etc.
(c) Operation of aircraft systems, setting of radios and navigation equipment etc. should not be
performed without demand by the PF or without information to the PM and his confirmation.
Practice and feedback of MCC with regard to the L-L (Liveware - liveware) interface should also
make provision for students for self and peer critique in order to improve communication,
decision-making and leadership skills . This phase is best accomplished by using simulators and
video equipment, Video feedback is particularly effective because it allows participants to view
themselves from a third person perspective; this promotes acceptance of one's weak areas
which encourages attitude and behavioural changes.
Page 53 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
3 Simulator tasks
3.1 General Description
pre-flight preparation including documentation, and computation of take-off performance
data, pre-flight checks including radio and navigation equipment checks and setting ;
before take-off checks including power plant checks, and take-off briefing by PF;
normal take-offs with different flap settings, tasks of PF and PM, call-outs;
rejected take-offs, crosswind take-offs, take-offs at maximum take-off mass, engine failure
after V1 ;
normal and abnormal operation of aircraft systems, use of checklists;
selected emergency procedures to include engine failure and fire followed by single engine
landing, incapacity at ion of a flight crew member, etc
early recognition of and reaction on approaching stall in differing aircraft configurations;
instrument flight procedures including precision approaches using raw navigation data, one
engine simulated inoperative approaches, non-precision approach briefing by PF, setting of
navigation equipment, call-out procedures during approaches, computation of approach and
landing data;
go-around, normal and with one engine simulated inoperative, support of the PF by the PM;
Normal landings & crosswind including with one engine simulated inoperative, transition
from instrument to visual flight on reaching decision height or minimum descent
height/altitude.
The training-sessions will be conducted in a 2h flying time as PF and 2h flying time as PM
accordance (see page 55 ff), whereby the time as PF is completed from the right seat, as
usually the way into commercial aviation starts with an F/O position. We think that this is the
best way to collect valuable experiences for a possible follow-up type-rating.
3.1.1 Proof of competency
Upon completion of the MCC training the applicant shall demonstrate the ability to perform the
duties of a pilot on multi-pilot aeroplane and thereafter shall be given a certificate of completion
of MCC.
Page 54 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
3.2 Speed Limitation &. Power settings Beech 200
Condition: ISA ,GW 2.500 Ibs
VMO
Mmo
VA(12500 [bs)
VX -BEST ANGLE
VY -BEST RATE
VXSE
VYsE(blue line)
VMcA(red line)
VFE(Approach Position -40%)
VFE(Full Down Position -100%)
VLE
VLO (down)
VLO (up)
Vs (flaps 40%)
Vs(flaps 100%).
VREF(f1aps up)
VREF (flaps 40%)
VREF(flaps 100%)
259
0.52
181
100
125
115
121
86
200
157
181
181
163
84
74
128
111
103
KIAS
Mach
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
3.3 Pitch and Power setting for the training
Condition
KIAS
V1=VR
94
Initial Climb
125
Cruise Climb
MSL-FL 100
FL 100-200
FL 200-250
FL 250-350
160
140
130
120
Training
160
Holding
160
Configuration
Flaps 40%
Gear Down
Flaps 40%
Gear Up
Flaps Up
Gear Up
Flaps Up
Gear Up
Flaps Up
Gear Up
Torque
(FT-LBS)
Props
(RPM)
2200
2000
2200
1900
2200
1900
900
1700
900
1700
Page 55 of 100
Max. ITT
Max. N1
800o
101,5%
800o
101,5%
800o
101,5%
800o
101,5%
800o
101,5%
Pitch
+10o
+10o
+10o +6o
+1o
+1o
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
3.4 SYLLABUS
3.4.1
MCC SIM SESSION 1
FIRST FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
U
S
U
S
1 COCKPIT PREPARATION
2 BEFORE START
3 ENGINE START
4 AFTER START
MCC FLIGHT SYLLABUS 1
5 TAXI
6 T.O. LPPT RWY 03
7 SID
8 AIRCRAFT FAMILIARIZATION (STALLS)
9 AP/FD MODES DEMONSTRATION
10 RADAR VECTORS CP – HOLD
11 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 03
12 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 03
13 LANDING
SECOND FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
14 T.O. LPPT RWY 03
15 SID
16 AIRCRAFT FAMILIARIZATION (STALLS)
17 AP/FD MODES DEMONSTRATION
18 RADAR VECTORS LAR – HOLD
19 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 21
20 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 21
21 LANDING
22 AFTER LANDING
23 PARKING
IF TIME PERMITS, REPEAT APPROACH WITH AP/FD
Page 56 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
OBJECTIVES
The objective of this session is to allow both crewmembers to adapt themselves to the
simulator, to the use of checklists and to develop the basic principles of two-man crew
communication and interaction.
The AP will be used extensively during this course. So, during this session, all modes of
operation of the FD/AP will be demonstrated.
Pilots will also have the opportunity to hand-fly the aircraft to allow them to gain a
feeling of its behaviour and its potential as a tool for MCC learning.
CAT I Precision approaches will be flown with and without the assistance of the
autopilot or flight director.
Special emphasis will be made on the use of specific power setting during the approach
The briefing should include the following subjects:
Communication discipline between the two members of the crew
PF/PM Tasks
Sequence of events during the ground operation of the aircraft
T.O procedures
Sequence of events for a ILS CAT I Approach
STALLS
For the STALLS exercises use the following procedures:
Flaps up
Pull the control column smoothly and establish a 15 degree nose up attitude;
Set the THRUST LEVERS to IDLE;
Trim the aircraft down to 140 KTS, then stop trimming;
Increase back pressure as speed bleeds off to keep the 15 deg attitude all the way;
At about 99 KTS the aircraft will STALL.
Recovery:
Push the control column full forward in a brisk manner and set an attitude of 20º nose
down;
Apply full power on the THRUST LEVERS (be careful not to exceed 2200LBS/FT of TQ);
As soon as speed builds up, the nose will tend to come up to the trimmed speed of 140
KTS.
Flaps 60
Continue to raise the nose of the aircraft to the 5 deg nose up attitude;
Set flaps to APPROACH and reduce the THRUST LEVERS to IDLE;
Keep the attitude at the 5 deg setting;
Set the L/G down;
Set flaps to 60;
Trim the aircraft down to 140 KTS, then stop trimming;
STALL will occur at about 75 KTS.
Recovery:
Push the control column full forward in a brisk manner and set an attitude of 20º nose
down;
Apply full power on the THRUST LEVERS (be careful not to exceed 2200LBS/FT of TQ);
As speed builds up and goes through 100 KTS retract flaps to the UP position;
Retract the L/G;
As speed continues to build up the aircraft will tend to come to a nose up position.
Recover to level flight;
As speed reaches 200 KTS level off and reduce THRUST LEVERS to a cruising setting
of1800LBS/FT – 1700 RPM.
Page 57 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
3.4.2
MCC SIM SESSION 2
FIRST FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
U
S
U
S
1 COCKPIT PREPARATION
2 BEFORE START
3 ENGINE START
4 AFTER START
5 TAXI
6 T.O.
MCC FLIGHT SYLLABUS 2
7 SID
8 RADAR VECTORS – HOLD
9 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I
10 APPROACH ILS CAT I – USE AP/FD
11 GO-AROUND -DEMO
12 HOLD
13 APP PREPARATION VOR/DME
14 APPROACH VOR/DME USE AP/FD
15 LANDING
SECOND FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
16 T.O.
17 SID
18 RADAR VECTORS – HOLD
19 GEN INOP – ABNORMAL OPERATION DEMONSTRATION
20 APP PREPARATION VOR/DME
21 APPROACH VOR/DME – USE AP/FD
22 GO-AROUND -DEMO
23 HOLD AT POR
24 APP PREPARATION LOCATOR
25 APPROACH LOCATOR RWY USE AP/FD
26 CIRCLING - DEMO
27 LANDING
28 AFTER LANDING
29 PARKING
OBJECTIVES
In this session, it is assumed that the use of the checklists is well understood by both
crewmembers.
FD/AP will be extensively used during this session to allow both Pilots to be free to
direct their attention to the exercises.
The non-precision approach profile will be introduced and practiced.
GO-AROUND and CIRCLING to LAND procedures will also be practiced.
There will also be an introduction to the Abnormal Operation.
The briefing should include the following subjects:
Non-precision approaches
Go-around
Circling to land
Abnormal Operation
Page 58 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
3.4.3
MCC SIM SESSION 3
FIRST FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
U
S
U
S
1 QUICK START
2 AFTER START
3 TAXI
4 T.O. RWY 03
5 SID
6 GEN FAILURE ABOVE V1
7 ENGINE FAILURE IN FLIGHT -DEMO
8 HANDLING WITH ONE ENGINE INOP -DEMO
9 ENGINE AIRSTART – SUCCESSFUL -DEMO
MCC FLIGHT SYLLABUS 3
10 RADAR VECTORS TO xxx -HOLD
11 APP PREPARATION VOR/DME RWY xx
12 APPROACH VOR/DME RWY xx – USE AP/FD
13 GO-AROUND
14 RADAR VECTORS TO xx -HOLD
15 ENGINE FIRE
16 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 21 – SINGLE ENGINE
17 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 21 – SINGLE ENGINE – USE AP/FD
18 LANDING
SECOND FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
19 T.O. RWY 03
20 MAINTAIN RWY HEADING, CLIMB TO FL 50
21 ENGINE FAILURE ABOVE V1 -DEMO
22 HANDLING WITH ONE ENGINE INOP
23 ENGINE AIRSTART -SUCCESSFUL
24 RADAR VECTORS TO LAR – HOLD
25 APP PREPARATION LOCATOR RWY 21 / CIRCLING RWY 03
26 APPROACH LOCATOR RWY 21 – USE AP/FD
27 CIRCLING 03
28 GO-AROUND – ENG FAIL
29 RADAR VECTORS TO xx – HOLD
30 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 03 – SINGLE ENGINE
31 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 03 – SINGLE ENGINE
32 LANDING
33 AFTER LANDING
34 PARKING
Page 59 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
OBJECTIVES
In this session, both Pilots are expected to start the engines without the assistance from
the instructor.
Pilots are also expected to know how to perform all the correct call-outs during all
phases of flight.
Pilots should also have assimilated the correct procedures to perform a GO-AROUND
During this session the use of the abnormal checklists will be introduced, emphasizing
the need to perform the normal checklists before tackling the abnormal ones.
There will be a demonstration of the engine failure in flight emergency procedure.
This demonstration will be practiced from a cruise setting at 5000’ feet QNH. Emphasis
should be made on the necessity of having irreversible actions confirmed from the other
pilot before execution.
There will also be a demonstration of the engine failure during TO. The Rudder Booster
will be introduced and its interaction with the autopilot demonstrated.
After this exercise is completed, the engine will be restarted in flight.
Emphasis should be made on the separation of the PF and the PM task in an
abnormal/emergency situation.
After the engine is started and stabilized it will be set on fire by the instructor. Notice
that there will be no aural warning associated with the ENG FIRE indication.
Single engines approaches with auto-pilot engaged will be trained. The instructor may
require both pilots to perform the approaches without the assistance of the auto-pilot.
The briefing should include the following subjects:
Engine failure below V1
Engine failure above V1
Engine Fire
Engine Air start
Single Engine Approaches
Single Engine Go-around
Page 60 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
3.4.4
MCC SIM SESSION 4
FIRST FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
U
S
U
S
1 QUICK START
2 AFTER START
3 TAXI
4 T.O. RWY 03
5 SID xxx
6 GEN FAILURE BELOW 60 KTS
7 GEN FAILURE ABOVE 60 KTS
8 RADAR VECTORS TO xx – HOLD
9 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 03
10 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 03 – USE AP/FD
11 LANDING
12 T.O. RWY 21
13 MAINTAIN RWY HEADING, CLIMB TO FL 50
MCC FLIGHT SYLLABUS 4
14 ENGINE FAILURE ABOVE V1
15 ENGINE AIRSTART -SUCCESSFUL
16 RADAR VECTORS TO xx -HOLD
17 APP PREPARATION VOR/DME RWY 21
18 APPROACH VOR/DME RWY 21 – USE AP/FD
19 LANDING
20 T.O. RWY 21
21 MAINTAIN RWY HEADING, CLIMB TO FL 50
22 ENGINE FIRE BELOW V1 -RTO DEMO -PASSENGER EVAC
SECOND FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
23 T.O. RWY 21
24 SID xxx
25 ENGINE FAILURE ABOVE V1
26 ENGINE AIRSTART -UNSUCCESSFUL
27 RADAR VECTORS TO POR -HOLD
28 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 21
29 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 21 – USE AP/FD
30 LANDING
31 T.O. RWY 03
32 MAINTAIN RWY HEADING, CLIMB TO FL 50
33 ENGINE FAILURE ABOVE V1
34 ENGINE AIRSTART – SUCCESSFUL
35 RADAR VECTORS TO xx – HOLD
36 APP PREPARATION VOR/DME RWY 03
37 APPROACH VOR/DME RWY 03 – USE AP/FD
38 LANDING
39 T.O. RWY 03
40 MAINTAIN RWY HEADING, CLIMB TO FL 50
41 ENGINE FIRE BELOW V1 -RTO -PASSENGER EVAC
Page 61 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
42 AFTER LANDING
43 PARKING
OBJECTIVES
During this session, all the trained procedures introduced in the previous session are expected
to be performed with proficiency.
The REJECTED T.O. procedure will be introduced. Special emphasis will be given to the
necessity to consider well the possibility of a rejected T.O. above 60 KTS.
There will be a demonstration of the PASSENGER EVACUATION. Special emphasis will be given
to the necessity to advise cabin crew to be at their stations in case of a passenger evacuation
being required.
The briefing should include the following subjects:
RTO
Passenger Evacuation
Pilot Incapacitation
Page 62 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
3.4.5
MCC SIM SESSION 5
FIRST FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
U
S
U
S
1 COCKPIT PREPARATION
2 BEFORE START
3 ENGINE START
4 AFTER START
5 TAXI
6 T.O. RWY 21
7 SID xxx
8 ENG FIRE ABOVE V1
9 RADAR VECTORS TO xx – HOLD
10 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 03 – SINGLE ENGINE
11 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 03 – USE AP/FD – SINGLE ENGINE
12 LANDING
13 T.O. RWY 03
MCC FLIGHT SYLLABUS 5
14 SID xxxx
15 GEN FAILURE BELOW V1
16 CLIMB FL210
17 CABIN ALERT – EMERGENCY DESCEND
18 RADAR VECTORS TO xx -HOLD
19 APP PREPARATION VOR/DME RWY 21
20 APPROACH VOR/DME RWY 21 – USE AP/FD
21 GO-AROUND
22 RADAR VECTORS TO xxx -HOLD
23 APP PREPARATION ILS CATI RWY 03
24 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 21 – USE AP/FD
25 LANDING
SECOND FLIGHT
CM1 CM2 PF PM
26 T.O. LPPR RWY 03
27 SID xxx
28 ENGINE FAILURE ABOVE V1
29 ENGINE AIRSTART -SUCCESSFUL
30 CLIMB TO FL 200
31 RADAR VECTORS TO LAR -HOLD
32 APP PREPARATION LOCATOR RWY 03
33 APPROACH LOCATOR RWY 03 – USE AP/FD
34 GO-AROUND
35 HOLD AT xxx
36 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 03
37 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 03 – USE AP/FD
38 LANDING
39 T.O. LPPT RWY 03 (MAINTAIN RWY HEAD, CLIMB 4000’)
40 RADAR VECTORS TO xxx -HOLD
41 APP PREPARATION ILS CAT I RWY 21
42 APPROACH ILS CAT I RWY 21 – USE AP/FD
Page 63 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
43 LANDING
44 AFTER LANDING
45 PARKING
OBJECTIVES
During this session, all the trained procedures introduced in the previous sessions are
expected to be performed with proficiency.
There will be an introduction to the EMERGENCY DESCEND procedure.
Special emphasis will be given to the problems of the loss of conscience due to oxygen
deprivation to the brain.
At the end of this session, the instructor will issue a PASS (APTO) or NOT PASSED
(NÃOAPTO) classification regarding each pilot.
The briefing should include the following subjects:
Emergency descent
Page 64 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
MCC:
Version 1.0
TAKE OFF CARD
DATE:
APT:
TOW
FLT. NR:
Flaps 40
Power
12500lbs
V1
85
ATIS:
Vr
94
WIND:
V2
106
VIS:
Vyse 121
ACCEL. ALT:
ft
CLD:
Vy 125
APT ELEV:
ft
MTOW:
ELV. TRIM:
lbs
deg
TEMP:
QNH:
RWY:
RMKS:
MCC:
Version 1.0
LANDING CARD
DATE:
APT:
FLT. NR:
LW
lbs
MDA /DA
DH
ft
WIND:
Vyse 121
APT ELEV
ft
VIS:
Vref 111
ATIS:
CLD:
TEMP:
C
o
QNH:
Vapp 116
mb
RWY:
RMKS:
Page 65 of 100
G/A POWER
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4 Procedures
4.1 Normal Procedures
Normal Procedures are used by the trained flight crew to ensure the airplane condition is
acceptable for flight and to operate the airplane and its system properly for each phase of flight.
These procedures assume that all systems are operating normally and that automated features
are fully utilized. The procedures are written for the first flight of the day or a crew change.
Before engine start, individual system lights are used to verify system status. After engine start,
the system annunciator lights are used as primary means to alert the crew to a non-normal
system condition. During accomplishment of procedures, it is the crew member responsibility to
assure proper system response. If an improper indication noted, first verify that the system
controls are properly positioned . Then, if necessary, check the appropriate circuit breaker(s)
and related system test light(s). For ground operation, flight crew member's duties are
organized in accordance with an area-of responsibility concept. A normal scan flow is
encouraged; however, certain items may be handled in the most logical sequence for existing
condition . Actions outside the crewmembers area of responsibility are initiated by the captain
(CM1). Co-ordination with ground crew, if required, establishing hydraulic power and starting
engines are initiated by the captain. All of the in-flight procedures in this chapter assume CM2
as PF. If the CM1 is PF, the responsibilities are reversed. The CM1 however, retains final
authority for all actions directed and performed.
Work distribution and sequence on ground
CM2
BOTH
PF
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
Initiated By
CM1
CM1
Instrument
Check
PF
Departure
Briefing
CM1
Before Start
Procedures
Request StartUp & Clearance
Before Start
Check List
After Start
Procedures
After Start
Check List
Before Taxi
Procedures
Taxi Check List
Request Taxi
T/O Check List
Down to the
Line
T/O Check List
Below the line
Page 66 of 100
Phase
CM1
CM1
CM1
Pre-flight Procedures
BOTH
Command
Pre-flight
Procedure
Cockpit Crew
Check
Before Start
Procedure
CM2
ITEM
Cockpit Safety
Inspection
Cockpit
Preparation
ATIS
Nav &
Instrument
Setup
Departure and
Emergency
Briefings
Before Start
Procedures
Start-Up
Clearance
Before Start
Check List
After Start
Procedures
After Start
Check List
Before Taxi
Procedures
Taxi Check List
Taxi Clearance
Before T/O
Down to the
Line
Before T/O
Below the Line
CM1
CM1
CM1
Before Taxi
Performed BY
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM1
Before T/O
4.1.1
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.2 Cockpit Preparation
The sequence of events leading to the aircraft being ready for departure is as follows:
Page 67 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
As soon as both pilots take their places CM1 will request the PRELIMINARY COCKPIT
PREPARATION PROCEDURES. This checklist prepares the cockpit to be energized
PRELIMINARY COCKPIT PREPARATION PROCEDURES
SEATS
ADJUSTED
BOTH
L & R STAND-BY PUMPS
OFF
CM1
AUX TRANSFER PUMPS
AUTO
CM1
CROSSFEED
OFF
CM1
PARKING BRAKES
AS REQUIRED
CM1
IGNITION AND START
SWITCHES
GENERATORS
OFF
CM1
OFF
CM1
MICROPHONE SWITCHES
NORMAL
AVIONICS MASTER PWR
INVERTER
OFF
OFF
BOTH
CM1
CM1
Adjust your seats so as to reach the rudder pedals and
flight controls in a comfortable manner
Check that both Left and Right STBY Fuel Pumps switches
are OFF
Make sure that the Auxiliary Tank Pumps switches are in
the AUTO position
Check that the Crossfeed is in the OFF position
When parked, always set Parking Brakes to ON by pulling
the parking brake lever out. If the brakes are hot from a
previous landing, leave the Parking Bakes OFF but be
sure to check that the wheels are choked
Since these switches are not spring loaded to the OFF
position, make sure they are set to off before turning the
battery switch to ON
Check that both generators are in the OFF position
Setting the Microphone switches to NORMAL assures that
you can use the headset microphone for communications.
Otherwise the Oxygen mask microphone would be used
Check the Avionics Master Power switch is set to OFF
Check the Inverter switch is set to OFF
The auto ignition system will energize the igniters as soon
as engine torque is bellow 400 foot-pounds (below green
arc). Unnecessary activation of the igniters will reduce its
life
Make sure both switches are in the RETRACT position
L & R ENG AUTO IGNITION
OFF
CM1
L & R ICE VANE
AUTOFEATHER
LIGHT PANEL
ICE PROT PANEL
RETRACT
OFF
ALL OFF
ALL OFF
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM1
LANDING GEAR LEVER
DOWN
CM1
BEACON
STROBE
TAIL FLOOD
PITCH TRIM
OFF
OFF
OFF
ZERO
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM1
THRUST LEVERS
IDLE
CM1
PROPELLER LEVERS
FEATHER
CM1
CONDITION LEVERS
FRICTION KNOB
FLAP LEVER
CABIN LIGHTS
VENT BLOWER
CABIN TEMP
CABIN TEMP MODE
CUT-OFF
SET
UP
ALL OFF
AUTO
SET
AUTO
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
BLEED AIR VALVE
AFT BLOWER
RADIANT HEAT
ENVIR OFF
OFF
OFF
CM2
CM2
CM2
Set the Environment Bleed Air Valve to OFF (middle
position)
Set the Aft Blower switch to the OFF position
EFIS CONTROL PANEL
ALL OFF
CM1
Check that the EFIS Control Panel BEARING and COURSE
switches are OFF
Set the Cabin Pressure Dump Switch to PRESS
Check that the Auto Feather switch is in the OFF position
Check that all light are set to OFF
Check that the Wing Anti-Ice switches are set to OFF
Check that the Landing Gear Lever is down and secured
and the 3 green lights are on
Check that the Beacon switch is set to OFF
Check that the Strobe Lights switches is set to OFF
Check that the Tail Flood switch is set to OFF
Set Elevator Pitch Trim wheel to zero manually
Set the THRUST LEVERS to the full aft idle position.
Caution: Make sure that they are not in the REVERSE
position
Set the PROPELLER LEVERS to the full aft FEATHER
position.
Set the CONDITION LEVERS to the full aft CUTOFF
Adjust quadrant friction knob
Check that the flap lever is in the UP position
Set the Cabin Lights switches to the OFF position
Set the Vent Blower switch to the AUTO position
Set Cabin Temp to the 9 o’clock position
Set Cabin Temp Mode to AUTO
Set the Radiant Heat switch to the OFF position
CABIN PRESSURE DUMP
SWITCH
RUDDER BOOST
PRESS
CM1
OFF
CM1
Set Rudder Boost switch to the OFF position
ELEVATOR TRIM
OFF
CM1
PRESSURIZATION PANEL
SET
CM1
Check that the Elevator Trim switch on the pedestal is
OFF
Set cabin altitude to SL and cabin rate to maximum
CIRCUIT BREAKERS
(LEFT/RIGHT)
CHECKED
BOTH
Page 68 of 100
Check that all CB are in. If not, check the reason why
before pushing it back in. WARNING: Make sure that
maintenance personal did not pull it out on purpose
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Now that all switches are set to the correct position, you can energize the aircraft
COCKPIT PREPARATION PROCEDURES
BATTERY
ON
CM1
Set the BATT switch to ON
AVIONICS MASTER POWER
ON
CM1
INVERTER
1 OR 2
CM1
Setting the Avionics Master Power switch to ON allows
all avionics to be energized and prepared for departure
Use inverter 1 on odd days and inverter 2 on even days.
Check that Red INVERTER LIGHT on the WARNING
ANNUNCIATOR PANEL goes off after inverter ON
Set cockpit and instruments lights to the required level
COCKPIT LIGHTS (OVHD PANEL
MASTER SWITCH)
NAV LIGHT
ON
CM1
ON
CM1
Set the NAV Light switch to ON
FUEL FIREWALL VALVES
OPEN
CM1
L & R STAND-BY PUMPS
ON
CM1
Open the red guards and make sure both switches are in
the ON position. Close the guards.
Check that both Left and Right Fuel Press and NO
TRANSFER annunciator lights (WARNING PANEL) are off
L & R STAND-BY PUMPS
OFF
CM1
FUEL QUANTITY AND BALANCE
CHECK
CM1
CABIN LIGHTS
NO SMOKE &
FSB
CM2
FIRE DETECTION AND
EXTINGUISHER TEST SWITCH
TESTED
CM2
OXYGEN PRESSURE
CHECKED
CM2
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
CHECK
BOTH
PROP SYNC
L/G HANDLE LIGHT
OFF
TESTED
CM1
CM1
ENGINE INSTRUMENTS
CHECKED
CM1
ANNUNCIATORS LIGHTS
TESTED
CM1
FD/AP SWITCH
HSI
SET FOR PF
NAV1/NAV2
SET FOR
DEPARTURE
CM1
CM2
AUDIO PANEL
FMA & FD/AP MODE SELECTOR
SET
TESTED
CM1
CM1
RADIO STACK
SET FOR
DEPARTURE
ZERO
SET
CHECKED
CM1
ALT ALERT
RUDDER & AILERON TRIM
EFIS CONTROL PANEL
AUTO PILOT
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM1
Check that both Left and Right Fuel Press and NO
TRANSFER annunciator lights (WARNING PANEL) are on
again
Check that the fuel quantity is the required for the
present flight and that the tanks are not unbalanced.
Press the AUXILIARY FUEL QUANTITY SWITCH to check
the auxiliary fuel tank
Set the CABIN LIGHTS switch to bright or dim and to the
NO SMOKE & FSB position, unless the airplane is being
refueled
Perform the following test: 1. Rotate the TEST SWITCH
to each of 1 -2 -3 positions and check the L ENG FIRE –
PUSH TO EXT and R ENG FIRE – PUSH TO EXT light up
on the glareshield panel. 2. Continue to the LEFT and
RIGHT EXT position and check that amber D light and
the green OK light on each FIRE EXT push button, one
at a time, on the glareshield light up. Then set if to OFF
again
Check that the oxygen pressure is at 1900 PSI
Check that all instruments show normal readings for
present situation. Perform the check in the following
order: AIRSPEED, RMI, SLIP&TURN, ND/HSI,
PFD/ARTIFICIAL HORIZON, ALTIMETER, V/S
Set the Propeller Auto-Synchronizer to off
Check that both red lights inside the LG handle light up
Check from bottom to top that all engine instrument
readings are symmetric
Press and hold the PRESS TO TEST ANNUNCIATOR push
button next to the WARNING PANEL. Check all light
illuminate. Check that MASTER CAUTION and MASTER
WARNINIG LIGHTS flash and press them to cancel.
Release the Push button and check that only the
following lights remain illuminated: L/R FUEL PRESSURE,
L/R OIL PRESSURE, L/R DC GEN, RVS NOT READY, ELEC
TRIM OFF L/R BL AIR OFF, EXT POWER (if on)
Set the switch for the PF to allow him/her to make the
necessary changes in his/her EFIS or HIS Controls.
Set the F/O HSI selector for the appropriate NAV
Set altitude alert to the first altitude constraint on the
SID
Set COM 1 and 2 to ON on the receivers buttons and
COM 1 on the transmitter selector
The test will light up all mode annunciator lights and
sound an aural sound. It finishes in GA mode. Press
TEST a second time to get out of GA mode
Turn all radios and NAV equipments to on. Prepare all
NAV aids for the expected departure procedure
Set both Rudder and Aileron Trim wheels to zero
Set the EFIS control panel as required for departure
Perform the AP check as explained next
Cockpit Crew Check List
Page 69 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.3 AUTO PILOT CHECK:
1. Press the HDG mode on the AP/FD mode selector panel and push the HDG bug selector to
synchronize the bug with the present heading.
2. Push the AP push-button on the AP control panel and check that the AP green light
illuminates on the FMA. The yoke should be centered.
3. Turn the heading bug 45 degrees to the left. The yoke should turn to the full left position. Do
the same to the right.
4. Turn the heading bug to the present heading until the yoke centers. With the yoke centered,
the HDG bug must equal to the present heading +- 5º.
5. Disconnect the AP with the red button on the yoke.
6. Turn off the FD.
7. Both pilots set the runway heading on their bug selectors.
ATIS information and ATC Clearance should be obtained and NAV systems reset to account for
the departure clearance just received if it differs from the one briefed earlier. While the
clearance is being received, it is very important for both Pilots to listen to it.
The pilot who will perform the PF duties will now give the DEPARTURE BRIEFING.
4.1.4 Departure Briefing
The T.O. BRIEFING will put both pilots in a common mind-frame regarding the necessary
procedures to be accomplished during the initial phase of the flight. This phase is very critical
and therefore it’s essential that both Pilots know exactly what the planned action is, especially in
case of an emergency. This briefing will be performed by the PF and will cover at least these
points:
STATUS
RWY_ STATE / WIND
NOTAMS
ANTI-ICE/IGNITION
DEPARTURE BRIEFING
TAKEOFF
TO CONF
TRH RED / ACC ALT
EMERG BRIEF:
-STOP/GO
-MIN ALT FOR CHECKLIST
EXECUTION
EOSID/MAA
TOFF ALTERNATE
Page 70 of 100
DEPARTURE
TAXI OUT
SID / MSA / INIT ALT / TA
SID & ROUTE CHECK
RAD NAV
LOST COMM
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
The DEPARTURE BRIEFING is initiated by the
PF. It is a description of the flight path with
emphasis on anticipated track and altitude
restrictions. It assumes normal operation
procedures will be used. Additional briefing
may be required when any elements of the
takeoff and departure are different from
those routinely used. These may include
weather, adverse runway conditions, unique
noise abatement requirements, dispatch
using MEL-List or any other situation where
it is necessary to review or define crew
responsibilities. During the departure briefing
both pilots acknowledge all radio settings,
limitations and all published routings.
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PF(CM2)
LGAV, SID page 10-3J date 20
Aug 10. Transition Alt 9000
MSA 7000 Based on SPA VOR
SID SOREV 1E RWY 03R
Climb on SAT R-047 set on NAV
1
at 3000' or D10 SAT whichever
is earlier, turn RIGHT to KEA,
KEA R-164 SET NAV 2
to SOREV, join airway A10
These SIDs require a minimum
climb gradient SOREV 1E 407'
per NM (6.7%) up to 3000' for
Speed 150 1018 Ft/min
Departure Briefing Completed
PM (CM1)
"Checked"
"Checked"
"Checked"
"Checked"
"Checked"
"Checked"
"Checked"
"Checked"
4.1.5 Take off & Emergency Briefing
The TAKEOFF BRIEFING is initiated by the PF. It is a summary of the selected T/O
configuration and a description of all actions to be taken in case of system failures during
and after T/O, which require "Immediate crew, concerning the reasons below to reject T/O,
Engine Failure/Fire
Crew incapacitation
Airplane unable-unsafe to Fly or other, flight-safety impairing items:
Unusual slow acceleration
Page 71 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
The following take-off briefing should be understood as a guideline only.
CM1
CM2
"During Take- off run we'll monitor the engine
instruments. In case we have to abort the T/O"
I will abort the T/O by calling "STOP”
My actions are": Power lever IDLE
Apply BRAKES
(operating Engine) max REVERSE
Before reaching 40 kts I will stow the Reverse
'Thereafter my actions":
Monitor your actions
Announce 60 kts
Select FLAPS FULL DOWN
Inform ATC
ENG COND LEVER CUT OFF
Push the fire warning SW's if necessary
When the A/C comes to a full stop, I decide for
PAX evacuation or Normal Operation
"My actions are":
Set PARKING BRAKE
"ATT CREW AT STATIONS"
Recheck FLAPS DOWN
Initiate EVAC if necessary
("Passenger Evacuation" 2x)
Push the fire warning SW's if necessary
(if CM2 is PF)
In case of any malfunction at or beyond V1. no
action below 400ft,when positive climb gear
At 400 ft : "Identify" You inform me what
has happened
After my confirmation I announce "take
action" (if necessary)
At acceleration altitude or memory item
completed
Speed Blue Line and clean up
We climb to _______ft (MSA or Higher)
and perform QRH and after T/O check list
NOTE: acceleration altitude ---> 1500ft +airport elevation as CM2 in our case is always PF we
perform that simplified emergency briefing only!
Page 72 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.6 TAKEOFF DATA CALCULATION
As soon as the load sheet arrives, CM2 calculates TO performance and prepares a TO DATA
CARD. CM1 will crosscheck the calculations to be ascertained that they are correct
TO DATA CARD (EXAMPLE): When ready, CM1 requests the BEFORE START CHECKLIST DOWN
TO THE LINE
4.1.7 Engine Start
On CM1 command CM2 requests t he clearance by ATC. "GLOBAL001 request start up"
Both CM shall list en carefully, when getting the clearance and must verify that the route and
departure route corresponds to the actual instrument setup.
BEFORE START PROCEDURES
COCKPIT PREPARATION
COMPLETED
BOTH
GEAR PINS AND COVERS
REMOVED
SIGNS
NAV SYSTEMS
CM1
BOTH
FUEL QTY
ON
SET FOR
DEPARTURE
_____LBS
TO DATA CARD
COMPLETED
BOTH
BARO REF
WINDOWS/DOORS
_____ SET
CLOSED
BOTH
CM1
BEACON
THR LEVERS
PARKING BRAKE
ON
IDLE
SET
CM1
CM1
CM1
DC Volt/Loadmeter (GPU
Volts)
CHECKED
CM1
CM1
CM1
All initial cockpit preparation, TO data calculations,
loadsheet, etc. should be completed before responding to
this item
Check if the landing gear pins, pitot and engine covers
are removed
If the signs were OFF for refueling, set them back to ON
Check that all NAV systems are properly set for departure
State the actual quantity and compare it to the required
for the intended flight
Check that TO DATA CARD was completed taking into
consideration the latest ATIS
Confirm QNH on all altimeters
Check that all windows and doors are closed and CABIN
DOOR light is not lit
Set the BEACON to ON
Check that THRUST LEVERS are in the IDLE position
If the brakes were off to allow for cooling, set them back
to on now
Check that the Voltage of the GPU is at 28-28.5V. If not,
or if not available, perform a Battery Start
Start engine 2 first. Use the Engine Start Procedures
described next
BEFORE START CHECK LIST
CM1 checks with cabin crew if cabin is ready and order all doors to be closed.
CM1 checks with ground crew if area is clear and order external power connection.
At CM1 discretion, CM2 requests START UP CLEARANCE from ATC. All clearances should be
received by both pilots
STANDARD CALLOUTS AND TASK SHARING WITH CABIN CREW PRIOR TO REQUEST
START-UP CLEARENCE
CM1
CABIN CREW
PURSER, THIS IS COCKPIT.
COCKPIT, THIS IS PURSER. GO AHEAD.
CLOSE ALL DOORS
ALL DOORS ARE CLOSED AND CABIN IS
READY
Set the communication selector to EXT on the ACP (Audio Control Panel).
Page 73 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
STANDARD CALLOUTS AND TASK SHARING WITH GROUND CREW PRIOR TO REQUEST
START-UP CLEARENCE
CM1
GROUND CREW
GROUND, THIS IS COCKPIT.
COCKPIT, THIS IS GROUND. GO AHEAD.
CONFIRM ALL CARGO DOORS ARE CLOSED
AND THE AREA IS CLEAR FOR ENGINES
START.
ALL DOORS ARE CLOSED AND AREA IS
CLEAR FOR ENGINES START
STAND-BY
STANDING-BY
CM1 now directs CM2 to request start-up clearance from ATC. Don’t forget to set the
communication selector back to COM1. After the clearance is received, CM1 requests BEFORE
STARTCHECKLIST
COCKPIT TO GROUND COMMUNICATION DURING ENGINES START
CM1 establishes communications with ground crew to prepare for start-up.
WARNING: The use of standard phraseology is paramount to avoid accidents
Communication from cockpit to ground crew must be clear and restricted to the minimum.
Standard phraseology should be used at all times. This communication is done by CM1.
Set the communication selector to EXT on the ACP (Audio Control Panel).
ENGINE START STANDARD CALLOUTS AND TASK SHARING
CM1
GROUND CREW
“GROUND, COCKPIT”
“COCKPIT, THIS IS GROUND. GO AHEAD”
“STARTING SEQUENCE ENG 2 THEN 1!
STARTING ENG 2 NOW!”
“NUMBER 2 IS CLEAR”
CM1 STARTS ENGINE NUMBER 2 (3.9)
“STARTING ENGINE NUMBER 1”
“NUMBER 1 IS CLEAR”
CM1 STARTS ENGINE NUMBER 1 (3.9)
CLEAR TO DISCONNECT, HAND SIGNAL
LEFT/RIGHT
ALL EQUIPEMENT DISCONNECT, SIGNAL ON
THE LEFT/RIGHT. GOODBYE.
Page 74 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.8
ENGINE START-UP PROCEDURE
ENGINE START-UP PROCEDURE AND TASK SHARING
CM1
CM2
SET IGNITION AND ENGINE START SWITCH TO
ON
WHEN IGNITION GREEN LIGHT COMES ON:
“IGNITION ON!”
“N1!”
WHEN FUEL PRESS LIGHT OFF: “FUEL
PRESSURE!”
WHEN N1 AT 15%: SET CONDITION LEVER TO
LOW IDLE “FUEL ON!”
AT FUEL FLOW RISE: “FUEL FLOW!”
START TIME – ITT SHOULD RISE WITHIN 10
SECONDS.
AT ITT RISE: “ITT!” NOTE: MAXIMUM ITT
DURING STARTUP IS 1000ºC
WHEN RPM INCREASES: “RPM!”
WHEN OIL PRESSURE LIGHT OFF: “OIL
PRESSURE!”
WHEN N1 AT 50%: SET THE IGNITION AND
ENGINE START SWITCH TO OFF
WHEN IGNITION GREEN LIGHT GOES OFF:
“IGNITION OFF!”
AFTER ENGINE STABILIZATION:
“STABILIZED!”
REPEAT THE PROCEDURE WITH ENG 1
AFTER BOTH ENGINES START: “ALL
PARAMETERS CORRECT!”
After both engines are started, CM1 requests ground crew to disconnect external electrical
power and to give an OK sign if all is clear for taxi.
After the engines are started and the ground crew and ground equipment is clear from the
aircraft, CM1 requests the AFTER START CHECKLIST.
WARNING: Only request the after start checklist after the ground crew has cleared
the aircraft and given the OK sign.
Engine Idle Values
ITEM
N1 RPM
ITT
FUEL FLOW
VALUE PT6A-42
56%
500oC
160 lbs/hrs
Page 75 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.9
AFTER START PROCEDURES
AFTER START CHECKLIST
GROUND CREW
CLEARANCE
PROPELLER LEVERS
OBTAINED
CM1
Wait for the ground crew to give an OK sign before
continuing with the checklist
FULL FORWARD
CM1
L & R GEN
RESET/ON
CM1
FD
CM1
ANTI-ICE
HDG PUSH
set 12º UP
set RWY HDG
AS REQUIRED
Advance both PROPELLER LEVERS to the full forward
position
Connect one generator at a time. Hold the generator switch
in the RESET position for at least 1 second. Check L & R DC
GEN annunciator lights goes off
Push the HDG on the FD/AP mode selector panel. Check
that the green HDG label comes on. Set the FD to 12º pitch
up using the VS control. Set RWY heading on the HDG bug.
CM1
PITOT HEAT
STALL WARNING
ON
ON AND TESTED
CM1
CM1
L & R BLEED VALVES
AFT BLOWER
RADIANT HEAT
FLAPS
PNEUMATIC PRESSURE
RUDDER BOOST
ELEVATOR TRIM
OPEN
ON
ON
T.O./APPROACH
CHECKED
ON
ON /CHECKED
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
CM2
BOTH
Set A-Ice to on if temperature is below +8ºC and there is
visible moisture
Turn Pitot Heat switches to on
Turn the Stall warning heating switch to on and perform the
stall warning test. The stall warning sound will come up.
Check that both L/R BL AIR OFF lights are extinguished
Set the Aft Blower switch to the on position
Set the Radiant Heat switch to the on position
Set the Flap Lever to TO/APPROACH position
Check the Pneumatic Pressure indicator in the Green Arc
Set the Rudder Boost switch to on
Set Electric Trim switch to on. CM1 checks trim forward and
backward to zero. CM2 does the same and sets the trim to
2,5 units UP
AFTER START and TAXIING Check List
The CM1 must receive the clear signal from ground crew before commencing the taxi.
CM1 now directs CM2 to request TAXI clearance. When the TAXI clearance is received, CM1
requests the TAXI CHECKLIST.
TAXI LIGHT
PARKING BRAKES
TAXI CHECKLIST
ON
RELEASED
CM1
CM1
BRAKES
CHECKED
CM1
Turn on the Taxi Light
Set Parking Brakes to
OFF
Test brakes for
efficiency.
Both CM verify that taxi area is free of obstructions and traffic.
CM1l announces:" LEFT SIDE CLEAR" and CM2: "RIGHT SIDE CLEAR" after positive verification.
TAXI LIGHT
CM1 switch on taxi light.
PARKING BRAKE
CM1 release parking brake and smoothly increase power to minimum required(about 40% N1)
for the airplane to roll forward then reduce to lower power as Required.
BRAKES
The CM1applies brake smoothly and verify proper operation.
TAXI
Nose wheel (by use of brakes) and rudder pedal steering are used for manoeuvring the airplane.
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Both CM will check compasses and turn coordinator for proper turning indication.
Page 76 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
FLAPS
CM1 command: "FLAPS 40%" and CM2 set flaps to assigned take-off flap setting. FLAP EXT
flap position indicator shows commanded flap position. Both CM must confirm that the selected
is the same as calculated with.
FLIGHT CONTROLS
CM1 asks "READY FOR FLIGHT CONTROLS" and after CM2 stated "READY" the CM1 checks
aileron and elevator free movement through full travel movement.
CABIN REPORT
CM1 shall receive the "CABIN CLEAR" report from the cabin manager.
EVENT
During Taxi
TAXI STANDARD CALLS AND TASK-SHARING
CM1
BEFORE TAKE-OFF C/L TO THE LINE
CM2
BEFORE TAKE-OFF
CHECKLIST TO THE LINE
When cleared to line up
BELOW THE LINE
BEFORE TAKE-OFF C/L
COMPLETE
CM1 now requests the BEFORE T.O. CHECKLIST.
4.1.10 BEFORE T.O. CHECKLIST
The BEFORE T.O. procedures and checklist may be done while taxiing to the holding point.
However, only the three first items are performed, down to the black line. When ATC gives the
line-up clearance, CM1 requests the checklist to be continued below the line.
The items below the line should be done, if possible, with the aircraft stopped.
BEFORE TAKE OFF PROCEDURES
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
BRIEFING
CONDITION LEVERS
CHECKED
CHECKED
CONFIRMED
HIGH IDLE
L & R AUTO IGNITION
ARMED
AUTO FEATHER
LANDING LIGHTS
STROBE LIGHTS
TRANSPONDER
WARNING LIGHTS
ARMED
ON
ON
ON
ALL OFF
BEFORE TAKE
CM2
BOTH
PF
CM1
CM1
Check for full deflection and freedom of movement
Check flight instruments for flags
Make a final revision of the SID and T.O. conditions
Slowly advance the CONDITION LEVER to full forward
Set the Auto Ignition Switch of both engines to the ARM
position.
Set Auto Feather switch to the ARM position
CM1
Set both Landing Lights to ON
CM2
Set the Strobe Lights to ON prior to entering a runway
CM2
Set the Transponder to ON
CM2
Check that all Warning lights are extinguished
CM2
OFF CHECK LIST
Page 77 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.11 Normal Takeoff Procedure
TAKE-OFF STANDARD CALLS AND TASK SHARING
EVENT/ACTION
PF advances the THRUST LEVERS half way to
allow engines spool-up and announces….
When T.O. Torque and RPM stabilizes
PM(CM1)
PF (CM2)
“TAKE-OFF!”
“STABILIZED!”
PF advances the THRUST LEVERS to a
vertical position and removes his/her hand
saying
“SET T.O. THRUST!”
“THRUST SET!”
PM Adjust T.O. THRUST to 2000RPM and
2200 LBS/FT Torque
At 60kts
At 85kts
CM1 removes hands from THRUST LEVER
“CHECKED!”
“60 KTS!”
“CHECKED!”
“V1”
AT 96KTS
PF rotates to 12º with a rate of 3 deg/sec
“ROTATE!”
At positive rate of climb on Baro Alt and V/S
“POSITIVE CLIMB!”
“GEAR UP!”
“GEAR IS COMING UP!”
PM set gear up, switch all Lights off
and set Prop Sync to ON
“GEAR IS UP”
At 500ft AGL Minimum
PM Sets Rudder Booster to OFF and push AP
“ENGAGE AP!”
“AP ENGAGED!”
“CHECKED!”
“SET CLIMB THRUST!”
PF at THRUST reduction ALT (1500’ AAL
minimum)
PM Sets CLIMB THRUST (TQ 2200, RPM
1800)
“CLIMB THRUST SET!”
“CHECKED!”
“ACCELARATION”
AT 3000’ AAL
When passing 140kts
“FLAPS UP!”
“SPEED CHECK, FLAPS
UP!”
At Transition Altitude or as soon as ATC gives
a clearance to climb to a FL
“ STANDARD AFTER T/O
CHECKLIST!”
STANDARD CROSSCHECKED, PASSING
_____ FT”
“AFTER T.O. CHECKLIST
COMPLETED!”
Page 78 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
T.O. TECHNIQUE
When VR is reached at 96kts, PF pulls the control wheel to obtain a 3º/second rotation up to
12º target attitude. That’s about 4 seconds. This attitude will allow the aircraft to lift-off
avoiding a tail-strike and to accelerate to the optimum single-engine climb speed of 120kts.
This speed will be maintained during initial climb so that in case of an engine failure the aircraft
is already at its optimum single engine climb speed.
When reaching 1500ft AAL, the THRUST is reduced to CLIMB THRUST of 2200 LBS/FT TQ
and1800RPM. This THRUST reduction may be done by the PF if the AP is engaged, or he/she
may request PM to set the CLIMB THRUST for him/her if he/she is too busy with other tasks.
But in this case he/she must make a small reduction on the THRUST LEVERS of about 100
FT/LBS (to avoid overboosting the engines at PROP reduction).When reaching 3000’ AAL, the
airspeed is increased to the clean climb speed of 160kts, and the flaps retracted to the UP
position at 140kts.
INITIAL CLIMB OUT
With all engines operating, maintain V2+15 and take-off flaps to the flap retraction altitude.
FLAP RETRACTION
At flap retraction altitude, decrease pitch attitude to maintain approximately1000 fpm. climb
(10 pitch up) accelerate and retract flaps on the TAKE-OFF FLAP RETRACTION SCHEDULE.
There is no restriction on retracting flaps while turning at these speeds.
The PM operates the flaps, must check speed, observe the flap position indicator and monitor
the movement. PF should include the flap indication in his instrument scan to assure proper
speed and control during flap retraction.
CLIMB SPEED
After flap retraction accelerate to cruise climb speed. Adjust pitch angle for steady climb
during climb on(1000 fpm). Cruise Climb:
•
Sea Level to 10.000ft
160 Knots
•
10.000ft to 20.000ft
140 Knots
•
20.000ft to 25.000ft
130 Knots
•
25.000ft to 30.000ft
120 Knots
TURBULENT AIR ENROUTECLIMB
In turbulent air it is recommended to maintaining 170 kts.
NORMAL TAKE-OFF PROFILE
Page 79 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.12 After Takeoff Checklist
PF calls for :" AFTER TAKEOFF CHECKLIST", the PM performs after T/O set-up and read the
checklist silent except item "Altimeters "which has to confirmed by both CM.
AFTER TAKE OFF PROCEDURES (Silent)
LDG GEAR
UP
PM
TAXI & LANDING
LIGHTS
PROP SYNC
YAW DAMPER
OFF
PM
ON
ON
PM
PM
FLAPS
UP
PM
CLIMB THRUST
SET
PF
AUTOFEATHER
OFF
CM1
BARO REF
SIGNS
_____ SET
OFF
BOTH
PM
Check the Landing Gear handle is up and check all light
off
Check the Landing Lights and Taxi Lights are all off
Check the Prop Auto-Synchronizer switch is on
If the AP is not engaged immediately after T.O., set the
Yaw Damper to on.
Check on the flap position indicator that the flaps are
retracted to full up position
Check 2200LBS/FT of Torque and 1800RPM on the
propellers
Autofeather is used only to assist the pilot in case of
engine failure at low speeds.
Check all altimeter are set to 1013
Set the Fasten Seatbelt sign to OFF only after passing
FL100 climbing
AFTER TAKE OFF CHECK LIST (Silent)
PM state's "AFTER TAKEOFF CHECKLIST COMPLETED".
4.1.13 Climb Procedure
INITIAL CLIMB OUT
With al l engines operating, maintain V2+15 and take-off flaps to the flap retraction altitude.
TURN AFTER TAKEOFF
Obstruction clearance, noise abatement or departure procedures may require an immediate turn
after take-off. Initiate the turn at the appropriate altitude and maintain VYSE (Blue Line Speeds)
with takeoff flaps . After completion of the turn or at or above the flaps retraction altitude,
retracting flaps on the flap speed schedule while continue acceleration .
FLAP RETRACTION
At flap retraction altitude, decrease pitch attitude to maintain approximately 1000fpm. climb (10
pitch up), accelerate and retract flaps on the TAKEOFF FLAPRETRACTION SCHEDULE. There is
no restriction on retracting flaps while turning a these speeds.
The PM operates the flaps, must check speed, observe the flap position indicator and monitor
the movement. The PF should include the flap indication in his instrument scan to assure proper
speed and control during flap retraction .
CLIMB SPEED
After flap retraction accelerate to cruise climb speed . Adjust pitch angle for steady climb during
climb acceleration (1000 fpm.).
TURBULENT AIR ENROUTE CLIMB
In turbulent air it is recommended to maintaining 200 kts below FL 150 and 210 kts respectively
above FL 150.
4.1.14 Levelling Off
The AP doesn’t have an ALTITUDE CAPTURE feature. The ALTITUDE SELECTOR is only used to
provide an aural warning 1000’ prior to reaching the selected altitude and again when reaching
the selected altitude.
So, when using the AP it is necessary to use the ALT function to capture the required altitude.
The problem is that the AP will always overshoot the altitude at the time the ALT button is
pushed by exactly10% of the climb (or descent) rate. The trick to capture the required altitude
is to push the ALT button to engage the ALT mode at an altitude equal to about 10% the
present rate of climb before reaching the required altitude. In this way, the level off will be at
the required altitude. But if nothing is done after this, the AP will then direct the aircraft to
descend (or climb) to the altitude at the time the ALT button was pushed, which the system
memorizes. To avoid this, the PF just has to recycle the ALT mode to memorize the correct
altitude as soon as the altimeter pointer stops.
Page 80 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Example: ATC clears to climb from 3000’ to 5000’. If the rate of climb was, for example,
2000’/min, when passing 4800’ PF pushes the ALT button. The altimeter continues climbing up
to 5000’. If nothing was done, the AP would now start a descend to 4800’. To avoid this, when
the pointer reaches 5000’,PF will recycle the ALT mode by pushing the ALT button twice.
Be advised: if you push the second time too soon, the ALT mode will not be engaged. Always
look at the green ALT legend on the mode control panel to be sure that the ALT mode is
engaged. When reaching an altitude, let the aircraft accelerate up to 220 Kts and then set the
CRUISE THRUST of 2200 LBS/FT / 1700 RPM. This power setting will allow the aircraft to
maintain 235 Kts, the cruising speed.
When reaching the final cruise altitude, PF sets the CRUISE THRUST and requests the
CRUISECHECKLIST.
CRUISE THRUST
FUEL (QUANTITY AND BALANCE)
ENGINE INSTRUMENTS
SET
BOTH
CHECK
BOTH
CHECK
BOTH
PRESSURISATION
MONITOR
BOTH
NAVIGATION
MONITOR
BOTH
Check that cruise power of 2200 FT/LBS /
1700 RPM is set
Check
Check all parameters of the engines
instruments
Check on the pressurization instruments for
normal operation
Monitor the RADNAV used for navigation
If a step climb is required after level off, perform the following action in this order:
1. Set the cleared altitude on the ALT SELECTOR;
2. Choose a climb mode. For climbs of 1000’ or less, use V/S. For more than 1000’ use
CLIMB mode. CLIMB mode will be done at 160 Kts by the AP;
3. Set CLIMB THRUST of 1800 RPM / 2200 LBS/FT (first set the RPM and then the
TORQUE);
4. Set the Altimeter setting as required according to the cleared altitude or FL.
Page 81 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.15 Descent procedure
When you are about 30 min prior to the descent point, prepare the instrument approach for
landing. Start by receiving the ATIS or request ATC to give you landing data. Then complete the
LANDINGDATA CARD (one will be provided to you by your instructor at this time).
Set all RADNAV for the approach.LANDING DATA CARD (EXAMPLE)
Perform the Arrival Briefing
STATUS
RWY_ STATE / WIND
NOTAMS
ANTI-ICE / IGNITION
ARRIVAL BRIEFING
APPROACH
TOP OF DESCENT
STAR/MSA/TL/IAF/MINIMUMS
STAR / APP & GA CHECK
RAD NAV
LANDING
LAND CONF
REV
RWY EXIT/TAXI IN
ALT RTE/FUEL
G/A PROCEDURE
LOST COMM
Descent preparation
The Top of decent (TOD) should be calculated by the pilots . Calculate the distance to the OFF
Level Point as follows : Check the time to the destination, check the distance between the
present Altitude or Level and thereafter calculate the Rate of Decent.
For example:
Present FL 100, FAF 3000 ft, Distance to the Airport 10 min.
Descent distance 10000ft - 3000ft = 7000ft : 10 min= approx. 700ft/min Rate .
The early lowering of landing gear results in additional increase of rate of descent. The flaps are
not to be used to increase the descent rate or drag. High sink rates during the approach should
be avoided .To optimize crew efficiency and to minimize cockpit talk level and work load,
continue as follows .
Prior the descent:
Weather Information/ ATIS
Approach Preparation
Descent Set Up
Approach Briefing
Descent CL
received and briefed
performed
performed
performed
completed
The PM should receive the latest weather from destination as well as at least one alternate and
brief it to the PF.
Inbound routing, active RWY and the corresponding approach must be prepared.
To descend, perform the following actions in this order:
1. Set the cleared altitude on the ALT SELECTOR;
2. Push DSC PB on the FD/AP Mode Selector. This will result in a 1500 fpm descent;
3. Reduce the THRUST LEVERS as much as necessary in order to maintain the cruise
speed (about1000 LBS/Ft Torque, 220 kts). Leave the propellers at 1700 RPM;
4. Set the Altimeter setting as required according to the cleared altitude or FL;
When starting the descend, set the cabin SIGN to ON.
When passing Transition Level perform the APPROACH CHECKLIST.
Page 82 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.16 Approach Preparation
The PF prepares the cockpit for intended approach.
SET
1. PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM
FLT ALT indicator ………………………………………
2. OBS
Set on both course pointers the approach course for intended landing RWY. If
necessary (VOR APP) set on PF side intermediate approach course.
3. VHF NAV RADIOS
Set on both VHF NAV Radios the ILS respective VOR (DME) frequency of the
intended landing RWY.
4. ADF RADIOS
Select appropriate ADF frequencies. Set main reference NDB (e.g. OM) on ADF No. 1
and MM respective first outbound on ADF No. 2
5. MINIMUM
Set amber Reference Altitude Marker according valid baro minumim.
6. DECISION HEIGHT
Alt Bug to Decision Altitude to desired DA.
SET
SET
SET
SET
SET
4.1.17 Approach Briefing
The APPROACH BRIEFING is a description of the flight path with emphasis on anticipated track
and altitude restriction. It assumes normal operation. Additional briefing may be required when
any elements of the approach and landing are different from those routinely used. These may
be include weather, adverse runway condition, unique noise abatement requirements, dispatch
using the minimum equipment list or any other situation where it is necessary to review or
define crew responsibilities. During briefing both pilots verify that radios and minimums are
correctly set and cross-checked with the published route.
A typical briefing is stated in the table below:
PM (CM1)
“CHECKED”
“CHECKED”
“CHECKED”
“CHECKED”
PF (CM2)
STAR page 10-2D, date …..
MSA around SPA is 4500ft within the approach sector
Speed Limit 250 knts below FL 100
We expect VELOP 1B, IAF is KEA VOR with holding, inbound track
357o , right turn, min. holding altitude 6000 ft
From KEA VOR we expect radar vector for ILS Z approach 21R
ATH chart 11-7, date ….. , ILS Z RWY 21R
ILS freq. 110.5 set on NAV 1 and 2,
EGN NDB 382 set on ADF 1 and 2
“CHECKED”
Final App. CRS 214o set in both OBS
“CHECKED”
Final altitude is 3000 ft, 4.0 DME altitude 1610ft, DA 682 ft set
“DA 682 ft set”
In case of GA climb STRAIGHT AHEAD to SAT VOR, then turn
RIGHT to intersept R-230 SAT. At D8.0 SAT turn RIGTH onto
255o to NDB climbing to 5000ft and hold.
“CHECKED”
Page 83 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Approach Setup
On PF's command the PM performs the approach set up. The approach set up procedure
completes the approach preparation and includes a final check that all necessary items for the
approach have been carried out. The PM follows a fixed setup sequence announcing every step.
APPROACH SETUP
The PM announce tuned navigation frequencies
PM verify and announce that appropriate or
final inbound courses are set
Announce ADF/VOR bearing pointer setting from
left to right for the approach.
The PF repeat his setting
The PM identifies all tuned radio aids
NAV FREQUENCIES
OBS
RMI ADF/VOR BEARING
POINTERSWITCHES
NAV AID IDENTIFICATION
• The approach SET UP should be made at a distance of approximately 20NM before
intercepting the final course.
• The appropriate set up procedure is valid for VOR/DME, LOC/DME or NDB/DME approach.
Descent Procedures
After commencing of the descent PF calls for "DESCENT CHECKLIST" and both pilots confirm
that have already performed their items.
DESCENT CHECKLIST
PM(CM1)
ARRIVAL BRIEFING
ICE AND RAIN PROT
AS REQUIRED
CABIN PRESS
FSS
PM reads it and both CM responds their respective parts.
PM state's "DESCENT CHECKLIST COMPLETED".
PF(CM2)
COMPLETED
CABIN PRESS
ON
Crew Coordination during Descent
APPROACH CHECKLIST
PM(CM1)
Passing TL
“TRANSITION LEVEL”
PF(CM2)
“QNH XXXX APPROACH CHECK LIST”
“XXXX SET”
ALTIMETERS
“SET X-CKD”
“SET X-CKD”
NAV AIDS
“SET X-CKD”
“SET X-CKD”
PM state
“APPROACH CL COMPLETED”
4.1.18 Approach
During an ILS approach the initial approach configuration should be flaps up and gear retracted
(no tailwind) . With approaching the glide slope start with final configuration (flaps and gear).
A standard profile of 3° will result in a descent rate of 500-800 ft/min . Trim the airplane during
the approach to reduce elevator forces.
High, low or offset condition should be corrected as early as possible, in order to have stabilized
conditions through the last 1000ft of the approach.
Control the path profile by pitch and power. When visual contact to the RWY is established,
maintain attitude by scanning the AI and VSI.
Page 84 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Flap Setting
PF commands flap extension according to flaps speed schedule, announces and vsets respective
target speed, if autopilot is engaged, or commands the corresponding flaps manoeuvring speed
while in manual flight.
Next flaps setting should be ordered maximum 15 kts, optimum 5 kts before manoeuvring speed
for present flap configuration.
PM positions flaps as directed and monitor flap position indicator and leading edge lights. Select
flaps 40 when approaching under tailwind condition, wet or short RWY. In general try to keep
speed between target speed and Ref.
FLAP POSITION
40%
60%
100%
FLAP EXTENSION SCHEDULE
COMMAND/SELECT
MAXIMUM SPEED
“FLAPS”
200
“FLAPS 40”
170
“FLAPS 60”
145
“FLAPS DOWN”
MANOEUVER SPEED
160
VBLUE LINE
VBLUE LINE
Gear
On PF's command PM positions gear lever to DOWN and checks 3green lights ON.
STANDARD LANDING CONFIGURATION DURING THE TRAINING
FLAPS 40 & LANDING GEAR DOWN
Approach speed
The target speed on final approach in landing configuration is the VBLUE LINE.
Before Landing Checklist
The PF calls for: " LANDING CHECKLIST", the PM reads and both responds to its respective
items.
PM state's " LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETED".
Approach Technique and Guideline
Basic Procedure
Approach set up & Checklist must be completed
initial approach configuration flaps 40/g ear down
on intercept course in manual flight
cleared for approach
Start final configuration when glide slope alive and it should be accomplished at least at start of
descent
4.1.19 VISUAL APPROACHES
This type of approach will be used in good weather conditions only. All useful NAV aids must be
tuned and used to monitor the approach.
FD/AP can be used and the AP may remain engaged until late in the approach. The AP must be
disconnected not later than 80’ AGL. Above 1000’ AAL you may use IAS or V/S modes. Do not
use IAS mode below 1000’ AAL.
When entering the traffic pattern, maintain 200 kts (1380 LBS/Foot Torque / 1700 RPM). When
abeam the RWY threshold, set propellers to MAX and set flaps to 40. Reduce your airspeed to
140 KTS. Start time.
When ready to turn for base leg, start your descent and when passing 1500’ AAL set the L/G
down When established on final, reduce to VAPP of 120Kts to be stabilized by 500’ AAL and
perform the LANDING CHECKLIST.
Page 85 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Page 86 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.1.20 NON PRECISION APPROACHES
Non precision approaches are “STABILIZED” approaches, which mean that the aircraft must be
in its landing configuration by the FAF or equivalent.
To allow for proper aircraft deceleration perform the following actions:
At 2 NM from FAF, set FLAPS to 40, L/G Down and PROPS TO MAX .Your target speed
will be 120 Kts.
When NAV becomes engaged (NAV GREEN), set RWY HDG.
At 500 ft above elevation (final incapacity check), set MAA.
When reaching the MDA, PM states “MINIMUM DESCEND ALTITUDE!”.
When reaching the MAP, PM states “MISSED APPROACH POINT!”
On Non Precision Approaches, do not continue to descend below MDA and a missed approach
must be performed at MAP unless at least one of the following visual references for the
intended runway is distinctly visible to and identifiable by the Pilot:
Elements of the approach light system or
The threshold, or its markings, lights or indication lights or
The visual Glide Slope Indicator(s) or
The touchdown zone, zone markings or zone lights or
The runway edge lights, or
Other visual references accepted by the appropriate authority
4.1.21 CIRCLING
When the prevailing wind dictates that a runway without an instrument approach must be used,
a CIRCLING MANEUVER must be performed.
Perform the approach as for a non precision approach, but maintain FLAPS 40 and L/G DOWN
with 140 Kts.
Extend the downwind beyond the RWY end by 20’ for each 500’ ± 1’ for each Kts of tail or head
wind.
When ready to turn to FINAL, set RWY heading and maintain speed 120 Kts, switch off the AP
and FD and request LANDING CHECKLIST.
The turn on final must be completed (wings leveled) at 300’ minimum.
Page 87 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Page 88 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Crew Coordination during a VOR/DME and NDB approach procedures
POSITION
PM (CM1)
PF (CM2)
At initial approach altitude
“SET MDA”
“MDA SET”
First Positive inward Motion
“RADIAL ALIVE”
“CHECKED”
to lateral deviation
indicator bar (only for VOR)
Established inbound
“SET RWY HDG”
“RWY HDG SET”
2 miles to POD
“FLAPS 40, GEAR DOWN”
“FLAPS 40 , GEAR DOWN
,THREE GREEN”
PM reads landing checklist
While approaching POD
AT 0,1 NM TO POD
PM Announce step descent
altitudes Continuously
during descent down to
MDA
PF adjust rate of descent
as necessary
500 ft above elevation
(final incapacity check)
100ft above MDA
At MDA and visual
references established
At MDA and NO visual
references established
“LANDING CHECKLIST”
“1 MILE TO START OF
DESCENT”
“START DESCENT NOW”
“CHECKED”
7 MILES-2100FT
“500”
“CHECKED SET MAA”
“APPROACHING MINIMUM”
“MINIMUM”
“MINIMUM NO CONTACT”
“CONTINUE”
“GO AROUND”
4.1.22 PRECISION APPROACHES
Precision Approaches are flown with the CM1 as PM and CM2 as PF.
In this course we will only conduct CAT I ILS Approaches.
The AP doesn’t have an Auto-Land capability. FD/AP must be used to fly a CAT I ILS approach.
In a CAT I ILS approach, do not continue below DA and a missed shall be performed unless at
least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible to and
identifiable by the pilot:
Elements of the approach lighting system;
The threshold, or its markings, lights or identification lights;
The visual glide slope indicator(s)
The touchdown zone, zone markings or zone lights or
The runway edge lights
Precision Approaches are “DECELERATED APPROACHES” which means that the aircraft speed is
reduced progressively during final approach.
When GS is alive, reduce THRUST LEVERS to 800 FT/LBS and let the airspeed drop
below 200Kts;
At one dot GS set FLAPS to 40, L/G down and PROPS TO MAX. Maintain the airspeed of
120 KTS
Perform the Landing Checklist;
Always be “go-minded”, ready to initiate a missed approach, if necessary.
WARNING or MASTER CAUTION will imply an immediate overshoot, unless visual conditions are
obtained.
Page 89 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Crew Coordination during an ILS approach procedure
POSITION
PM (CM1)
First Positive inward Motion
“LOCALIZER ALIVE”
of LOC pointer
First Positive inward Motion
“GLIDE SLOPE ALIVE”
of GS pointer
Established inbound
“RWY HDG SET”
1 dot glide slope
PF (CM2)
“CHECKED”
“CHECKED”
“SET RWY HDG”
“FLAPS 40, GEAR DOWN”
“FLAPS 40 , GEAR
DOWN ,THREE GREEN”
PM reads landing checklist
Established on GS
“LANDING CHECKLIST”
“ON GLIDE , SET MAA”
Passing OM or FINAL FIX
“MAA SET”
“OM ALT xxx FT”
500 ft above elevation
“500”
“CHECKED”
“CHECKED”
100ft above DA
At DA and visual references
established
At DA and NO visual
references established
“APPROACHING
MINIMUM”
“MINIMUM”
“MINIMUM NO
CONTACT”
“CONTINUE”
“GO AROUND”
4.1.23 GO-AROUND
Going Around is a critical manoeuvre. To initiate it, PF will perform the following actions:
state “GO-AROUND, FLAPS!”
advances the THRUST LEVERS to GO-AROUND THRUST OF 2200LBS/FT TQ – 2000RPM
activates the Go-Around switch on the THRUST LEVER
rotate to follow F/D.
The AP will disengage automatically. The FD will command about 7º nose up attitude, wings
level. But wings level is hardly what you want. So as soon as the climb is established, the gear is
retracted and as speed increases above 120 Kts, switch the FD to HDG . PM will set flaps to UP
initially at the “GO-AROUND, FLAPS” command of the PF.
The PF may request the AP to be reengaged. At 1500’ AAL set CLIMB THRUST (2200 LBS/FT –
1800RPM) .Maintaining speed 120 Kts, up to 3000’ and then accelerate to 160KTS. After the
aircraft is cleaned from its landing configuration, PF requests the “AFTER T/O CHECKLIST!”.
The aircraft will continue to climb at 160 Kts.
Page 90 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
GO-AROUND STANDARD CALLS AND TASK SHARING
EVENT
PM
PF
When a need to GO-AROUND
“GO-AROUND, FLAPS!”
Retract flaps to UP
“FLAPS UP!”
With a positive rate of climb
“POSITIVE CLIMB!”
“GEAR UP!”
When flaps are up and L/G retracted
“FLAPS UP GEAR UP
If speed is above 120 Kts
“HDG PUSH!”
When the HDG green lights come on in
the FMA
“HDG PUSHED”
“HDG!”
After confirming that the HDG green
lights come on in the FMA
“CHECKED!”
“ENGAGE AP!”
“AP ENGAGED!”
After checking that AP green lights up on
FMA
At 1500’ AAL adjust normal CLIMB
THRUST of 2200LBS/FT-1800RPM
At 3000’ AAL accelerate to 160kts
Continue climb at 160 Kts
“CHECKED!”
“SET CLIMB THUST!”
“CLIMB THRUST SET!”
ACCELERATION
“AFTER T.O.
CHECKLIST
COMPLETED”
“AFTER T.O.
CHECKLIST”
4.1.24 LANDING
When the landing configuration is set, PF requests the LANDING CHECKLIST
Check that the three green lights are on.
LANDING GEAR
DOWN/3 GREENS
PF
Turn the Propeller Auto-Synchronizer to OFF
PROP SYNC
OFF
PF
Turn the Auto-Feather to ON
AUTO-FEATHER
ON
PF
Push both PROPELLER LEVERS to full forward.
PROPELLER LEVERS
MAX
PF
Call the actual Flaps setting
FLAPS
AS REQUIRED
PF
Even during the day turn on the Landing and Taxi
LANDING & TAXI
ON
PF
Lights to prevent a bird strike.
LIGHTS
As soon as you cross the runway threshold, set the THRUST LEVERS to IDLE and allow the
airspeed to bleed of all the way to touchdown. With FLAPS 40, the optimum approach speed is
120 KTS. You have to maintain 120 KTS during approach because of the possibility of an engine
failure occurring.
Even though you can continue the approach in a CAT II ILS using the autopilot with an engine
failed, if you have to overshoot, 120 KTS would be optimum climb speed single engine.
As soon as the aircraft lands, set the nose wheel on the ground and keep forward pressure on
the flight control wheel. Set full reverse on both engines. If you feel the aircraft veering to a
side, immediately deselect the reverse on both engines.
Smoothly apply the toe brakes and using the rudder pedals keep the aircraft in the centre line.
At 40 KTS PM says “TAXI SPEED!”. PF deselect the reversers on both engines.
CM1 takes control from now on and vacates the runway.
Do not perform any after landing task before the runway is vacated.
Page 91 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
AFTER LANDING
As soon as the runway is vacated, CM1 requests the AFTER LANDING CHECKLIST
LOW IDLE
CM2
LANDING LIGHTS
OFF
CM2
STROBES
OFF
CM2
UP
ZERO
CM2
CM2
ELECTRIC ELEV TRIM
OFF
CM2
TRANSPONDER
STBY
CM2
FD
OFF
CM2
CONDITION LEVERS
FLAPS
ELEVATOR TRIM
Set both CONDITION LEVERS to idle and allow the engine to cool
down for 1 minute before shutdown
Turn off both landing lights. They are not design to be used at
slow speeds and may overheat
As soon as the aircraft exits the runway the Strobes must be
selected to Off
Retract the Flaps to the full up position
Set Elevator Trim to zero using the electric trim motor.
Switch of the Electric Elevator Trim pushing the AP Instinctive
disconnect PB all the way down and then setting the Electric
Elevator Switch to Off.
Set the Transponder to STBY and code 2000 unless required by
ATC
Push the HDG button on the AP/FD control panel as many times
as required until the FD are OFF
Taxi speed is limited to the equivalent of a man walking at a fast walking pace
4.1.25 PARKING
When turning facing the ramp marshal, turn off all lights to avoid glaring him.
When the aircraft stops, set the parking brake to ON. The engines should only be shut down
after a 1minute cool down period.
CM1 requests the PARKING CHECKLIST
TAXI LIGHTS
OFF
CM1
Turn off the Taxi Light when turning into the gate to
avoid glaring the ramp marshal.
PARKING BRAKE
L&R ENG AUTO IGNITION
ON
CM1
Set the Parking Brake to on
OFF
CM1
Set both L&R Auto Ignition Switches to OFF
AUTO FEATHER SWITCH
THRUST LEVERS
PROPELLER LEVERS
L & R BLEED VALVES
FUEL CONDITION LEVERS
OFF
IDLE
LOW
ENVIR OFF
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM2
Set the Auto Feather Switch to OFF
CUTOFF
CM1
Set both CONDITION LEVERS to the Cutoff position.
Monitor Fuel Flow, ITT and N1 decreasing
PROPELLER LEVERS
L & R GENERATORS
PITOTS
ICE & RAIN PROTECTION
STALL WARNING
AFT BLOWER
RADIANT HEAT
FEATHER
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM1
CM2
CM2
Set both PROPELLER LEVERS to Feather
CABIN SIGNS
ALL OFF
CM2
OFF
CM1
Turn Off the Cabin signs to advise cabin crew to open
cabin doors
Switch off the Beacon so that ground crew may approach
the aircraft for unloading
GROUND CREW
OK RECEIVED
CM1
Confirm that the aircraft is chocked using the interphone.
CABIN CREW
OK RECEIVED
CM1
Cabin Crew should notify CM1 that the cabin doors are
ready to be opened
BEACON
Confirm both THRUST LEVERS are in the Idle position
Set both PROPELLER LEVERS to low
Set both switches to Env Off
Set both Generators switches to OFF
Turn both Pitot heathers to OFF
Turn off any Ice & Rain protection being used for landing.
Turn the Stall Warning to off
Set the Aft Blower switch to the Off position
Turn off the Radiant Heater
SECURING THE AIRCRAFT
When ready to leave the aircraft, perform the SECURING THE AIRCRAFT CHECKLIST
INVERTER
OFF
CM1 Turn the Inverter OFF
AVIONICS MASTER PWR
OFF
CM1 Turn Off the avionics Master Power switch
NAV LIGHTS
OFF
CM1 Turn Off the NAV lights except for a quick turn
around
COCKPIT LIGHTS ON
Turn off the Cabin Lights Switch on Overhead Panel.
OFF
CM1 No need to set the light regulators to off
OVERHEAD PANEL
AFTER GPU CONNECTION OR JUST BEFORE LEAVING THE AIRCRAFT
BATTERY
OFF
CM1 Turn the Battery switch to Off
Page 92 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.2 ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Abnormal and emergency procedures are the actions the crew must take after a failure occurs.
The crew uses the "READ AND DO" principle in when reading abnormal and emergency
checklists.
ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY CALL OUTS
1. Emergency checklist is commanded by PF when required.
2. "EMERGENCY CHECKLIST COMPLETED!" is the announcement by the PM that ALL
APPLICABLE ACTIONS have been completed.
3. Should the PF require an action from the PM during ABN / EMERG Procedures, like a
configuration change, the order "STOP CHECKLIST!" will be used. When ready to
resume the ABN/EMERG procedures the order "CONTINUE CHECKLIST!" will be
used.
4.2.1 TASK SHARING
The following general task sharing shown below applies to all procedures.
PF controls the aircraft throughout the procedure.
PF is responsible for:
THRUST LEVERS;
control of flight path and airspeed;
aircraft configuration (request PM to perform configuration change);
navigation (request PM to tune NAVAIDS);
communications (request PM to change frequencies);
execute the required action as directed by the ABN / EMERG checklist when instructed
to do so by the PM.
PM is responsible for:
PROPELLERS LEVERS;
CONDITION LEVERS;
reading out loud the ABN/EMERG checklists;
executing the required ABN/EMERG checklists actions or actions requested by the PF, if
applicable
4.2.2 MEMORY ITEMS
For training purposes the only recall items that you have to perform by memory are all PRIMARY
ACTIONS that are referenced to the following emergencies:
ENGINE FIRE
CABIN FIRE / SMOKE
EMERGENCY DESCENT
4.2.3 INITIATION OF PROCEDURES
Procedures are initiated on the PF's command.
No action is taken (apart from cancelling the MASTER WARN or MASTER CAUTION signs by
pushing its respective lights) until:
The appropriate flight path is established, and
The aircraft is at least 400 feet AGL, if a failure occurs during takeoff, approach or goaround.
A minimum height of 400 feet is recommended to be achieved before starting any emergency
procedure, because it is a good compromise between the necessary time for stabilization, and
excessive delay in procedure initiation.
In some emergency cases, like an engine fire, PF may initiate actions before this height,
provided that the appropriate and safe flight path is established.
Always remember these golden rules:
FLY (Control the aircraft)
NAVIGATE (Return to the normal SID or perform the required EOSID)
COMMUNICATE (contact tower/approach and notify them of your intentions)
MANAGE (what to do next)
Page 93 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.2.4 PROCEDURES IN FLIGHT
When in flight, some controls and all irreversible actions must be performed only after both
pilots confirm that the correct action is going to be taken. Items that require cross confirmation
are:
Retarding THRUST LEVERS;
Retarding PROPELLER LEVERS;
Retarding CONDITION LEVERS;
Closing FUEL FIREWALL VALVES;
Discharging FIRE EXTINGUISHERS;
If a failure occurs during Takeoff/Go Around phase, ABN/EMERG Checklists must be performed
only after completion of the After Takeoff Checklist except for situations listed below, which
require immediate action as soon as a minimum height of 400’ AGL is achieved:
Engine Failure, Fire, Stall, Low Oil Press, and Over limit;
Landing Gear recycling;
Abnormal Slats/Flaps;
Any action deemed necessary to fly the aircraft safely;
In these situations, primary actions must be completed before acceleration and cleanup. The
minimum altitude for aircraft cleanup is 1500’ AAL. When the aircraft is cleaned from the T.O.
configuration, continue the ABN/EMERG Checklists. The primary actions are marked in BOLD
LETTERS in the relevant checklist.
When all the ABN/EMERG Checklists are completed, perform the AFTER T.O. CL.
4.2.5
CREW COORDINATION
PF will state “I HAVE CONTROLS AND COMMUNICATIONS!” which will be
acknowledged by the PM with “YOU HAVE CONTROLS AND COMMUNICATIONS!”.
Emergency checklist is commanded by PF when required (above 400’ AGL).
Should the PF require an action from the PM during ABN/EMERG procedures, the order
"STOP CHECKLIST!" will be used. When ready to resume the ABN/EMERG procedures
the order "CONTINUE CHECKLIST!" will be used.
"EMERGENCY CHECKLIST COMPLETED!" is the announcement by the PM that all
APPLICABLE ACTIONS have been completed.
During our simulator training we are practicing the engine fire during take-off climb and cruise.
Example of crew coordination and cross confirmation during engine fire
CONDITION
PM(MC1)
PF(CM2)
One pilot realizes
He calls out “ENGINE FIRE”
engine fire
“IDENTIFY”
“ENGINE FIRE NO.x”
“ENGINE FIRE NO.x,
TAKE ACTION”
“CONFIRM CONDITION LEVER N.x”
“CUT-OFF”
“N.x COMFIRMED”
MEMORY ITEMS
“CONFIRM PROP. LEVER N.x”
(While PM is
“FEATHER”
“N.x COMFIRMED”
performing the memory
“CONFIRM POWER LEVER N.x”
item the PF is
“IDLE”
“N.x COMFIRMED”
controlling the a/c.)
“CONFIRM FUEL VALVE NO.x”
“CLOSED”
“N.x COMFIRMED”
“MEMORY ITEMS COMPLETED”
Read/performs the
“EMERGENCY ENGINE SHUTDOWN
“EMERGENCY ENGINE
Emergency engine
C/L COMPLETED”
SHUTDOWN C/L”
checklist.
If appropriate
SINGLE ENG. APPR,+LDG.
CHECKLIST
SINGLE ENG GO AROUND
CHECKLIST
Page 94 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Although it is the PF responsibility to request ABN/EMERG Checklists, CM1 has the authority to
change roles at any time and take control of the aircraft or ordering actions as he/she see fit.
4.2.6 REJECTED TAKEOFF
The decision to reject the takeoff and the stop action is made by CM1.
Therefore CM1 should keep his/her hand on the THRUST LEVERS until V1 is reached whether
he/she is PF or PM. If CM1 wishes to initiate a RTO he/she will say “STOP!”, takes over the
aircraft control, and performs the stopping actions.
If he/she wishes to continue the T.O. he/she will say “GO!”.
Rejected takeoffs have sometimes resulted on runways overrun even though the performance
was correctly calculated.
This may be due to the following:
delay in initiating the stopping procedure;
tires damaged;
brakes worn or not working correctly, initial temperature higher than normal;
brakes not fully applied;
runway friction coefficient lower than expected;
error in gross weight determination.
Above 60knots, rejecting the takeoff becomes a serious action that may lead to a hazardous
situation.
As speed approaches V1, the pilot should be "go-minded".
Page 95 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.2.7 DECISION MANAGEMENT
The decision to reject the takeoff may be taken at the CM1's discretion, depending on the
circumstances.
Although we cannot list all the causes, CM1 should seriously consider discontinuing the takeoff,
if any warning is activated.
Below 60 knots:
The speed of 60knots is not critical. It was chosen in order to help CM1 make his/her decision,
and to avoid unnecessary stops from high speed. Any warning below 60 kts should result in a
discontinued TO. As a general rule, any MASTER CAUTION or MASTER WARNING should result
in a Rejected T.O.
Above 60 knots and below V1:
Rejecting the takeoff at these speeds is a more serious matter, particularly on slippery runways.
It could lead to a hazardous situation, if the speed is approaching V1.Very few situations should
lead to the decision to reject the takeoff at speeds above 60 kts.
The main ones are:
Fire warning or severe engine damage;
Sudden loss of engine THRUST;
Malfunctions or conditions that give unambiguous indications that the aircraft will not fly
safely.
Nose gear vibration should not lead to a RTO above 60 knots.
In case of tire failure between V1 minus 10 knots and V1:
Unless debris from the tires has caused serious engine anomalies, it is far better to get
airborne, reduce the fuel load, and land with a full runway length available.
As a general rule, any MASTER WARNING above 60 kts should result in a Rejected T.O.
but not a MASTER CAUTION.
The V1 call has precedence over any other call.
Above V1 takeoff must be continued, because it may not be possible to stop the aircraft
on the remaining runway.
If the decision to perform a RTO is taken, apply the following procedures:
Reduce THRUST LEVERS to IDLE;
Simultaneously apply full brake pressure;
Unless in case of an engine fire or failure, apply full reverse;
When passing 40kts, CM2 advised “TAXI SPEED!”;
If it is not necessary to stop the aircraft, CM1 cancels the reverse and continue taxing
the aircraft until the runway is vacated;
If it is necessary to stop the aircraft on the runway, as soon as it stops CM1 sets the
parking brakes and advises cabin crew: “CABIN CREW AT STATIONS!” over the PA;
CM2 Notifies ATC;
CM1 call for the appropriate checklist;
There is no requirement to confirm any actions when the aircraft is on the ground;
If necessary to evacuate the aircraft, CM1 notifies cabin crew: “PASSENGER
EVACUATION BY THE LEFT/RIGHT SIDE OF AEROPLANE!”
CM2 Continues checklists and when done, exits the aircraft to assist passengers on the
ground;
CM1 is the last person to exit the aircraft after ascertaining himself that everyone has
safely evacuated the aircraft;
If evacuation is not necessary, CM1 notifies cabin crew:“CABIN CREW NORMAL
OPERATIONS!”
Page 96 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.2.8 ENGINE FAILURE AT TAKE-OFF
If an engine fails after the aircraft passes V1, the takeoff must be continued. Apply the following
procedures:
Use rudder conventionally to stay on the runway centreline.
At VR, rotate the aircraft smoothly using a continuous pitch rate to a pitch attitude of
5°degrees
nose up to allow airspeed to increase to 120Kts and after that to 7º.
When airborne and with a positive rate of climb, select the landing gear up.
Use rudder to prevent yaw. Adjust Rudder Trim. Control heading conventionally with
bank.
maintain 120Kts (V2) speed or actual speed if higher (not greater thanV2+15).
Adjust MAX THR on the remaining engine. Max TAKEOFF THRUST is allowed for 10 min
in emergency condition.
Consider the use of autopilot. Autopilot will only engage after the Rudder Boost is
disconnected and the rudder trim properly set.
PF will say “I HAVE CONTROLS AND COMMUNICATIONS!” to what PM replies
“YOU HAVE CONTROLS AND COMMUNICATIONS!”.
While waiting to reach the minimum altitude for checklists execution PF will call ATC
(better talk to APPROACH, not to TOWER) and declare emergency (MAYDAY,
MAYDAY, MAYDAY) and state his/her intentions.
At 400 feet AGL minimum, apply the ABN/EMERG checklist primary actions (bold) by
requesting the ENGINE FAIL CHECKLIST.
At or above acceleration height (1500’ AAL minimum), if primary actions are completed,
push ALT on FD/AP mode selector for level off and allow the airspeed to increase.
At 140kts select Flaps 0.
At 160kts (engine-out operating speed in clean configuration) resume the climb .
Set MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS THRUST (MCT) (2200LBS/FT – 1900RPM) and climb at
160kts to a safe altitude (check MSA).
Continue Emergency checklist.
When checklist is completed, perform the After TO checklist
4.2.9 PILOTS INCAPACITATION
If one pilot confirms that the other pilot is incapacitated he/she shall take over the controls and
check the position of essential controls and switches.
If airborne, an emergency should be declared and the autopilot used to reduce
workload.
After the autopilot is engaged and the airplane is under control, notify and utilised the
cabin crew.
If practicable, try to restrain the incapacitated pilot and slide the seat to the full back
position. The shoulder harness lock should be used to restrain the incapacitated pilot.
Flight deck duties should be organised to prepare for landing. Consider using help from
other pilots or crew members who may be among the passengers.
For our training purposes we are practicing the pilot’s incapacitation during T/O. Normally the
PM does not respond to the incapacitation call (60kts).
Thereafter PF take over the controls, abort the T/O and informs ATC.
Page 97 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
4.3 ABNORMAL/EMERGENCY CHECKLISTS
On the ABNORMAL/EMERGENCY checklists, the following rules apply:
BOLD items are PRIMARY ACTIONS to be performed as soon as the minimum altitude for
checklist execution is attained (400’ AGL minimum).
After all PRIMARY ACTIONS are completed, stop reading the checklist, wait for EO Minimum
Acceleration Altitude (1500’ AAL), level off if engine failure, accelerate, clean up and climb to a
safe altitude. Then complete all the SECONDARY ACTIONS. After completing the SECONDARY
ACTIONS, perform the AFTER T.O. CHECK LIST.
Emergencies procedures within a bold box are memory items.
Emergencies procedures are identified by a black box label:
For example:
EMERGENCY PROCEDURE
Abnormal procedures are identified by a diagonal lined box label.
For example:
All checklist actions are to be performed by the PM except the THRUST LEVERS, which are
actuated by the PF as well as any other unreachable item to the PM.
Page 98 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Page 99 of 100
GLOBAL AVIATION
MCC TRAINING MANUAL
Page 100 of 100
Download