"Living it Up" - Life in Space by Noelle Young Wheeling Jesuit University Professional Writing Student "Living it up" takes a more literal meaning for those aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Weightlessness-or more accurately, microgravity-is the most important and obvious influence on life in space. But floating crewmembers could be on a dangerous collision course if they're not careful. "Microgravity," Dan Woodard of Marshall Space Flight Center's microgravity research progress office said, "is a condition in which the effects of gravity are greatly reduced, sometimes described as weightlessness. The microgravity environment associated with the space shuttle [and space station] is a result of the spacecraft's being in orbit, which is a state of continuous freefall around the Earth." For more information about microgravity from Marshall Space flight Center, visit http://microgravity.nasa.gov/wimg.html. Cosmonaut Gennady I. Padalka (left), Expedition 9 commander, and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, work in the Unity node of the ISS while astronaut C. Michael Foale (right), Expedition 8 commander and NASA ISS science officer, exercises using the Interim Resistive Exercise Device equipment. Although the majority of astronauts find floating in space exhilarating, it does complicate the routines of daily life tremendously. Eating, sleeping, working, recreation, exercises, and physical, mental, and emotional health all are affected. Space adaptation demands significant changes in the human body. Balance depends on an extremely sophisticated sensor system. The vestibular system inside the ear sends a steady stream of signals to the brain indicating motion and direction. But in microgravity these signals are misleading. The usual effect is immediate disorientation. Luckily, the effects are only temporary. Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, Expedition 9 NASA science officer and flight engineer aboard the International Space Station, juggles fresh fruit in the Destiny laboratory. The microgravity environment of space proves to be an ideal location for some tasks not so easily accomplished in Earth's gravity. 15 Dawns While the daily routines aboard the space station might be comparable to those on Earth, the concept of a day is a little more abstract. Every 24 hours astronauts experience 15 dawns because of the number of times the station orbits the Earth in a 24-hour period. And because the sun rises approximately every 90 minutes for the orbiting station, the sunlight and warmth entering the cockpit window can easily be a disturbance. Generally, astronauts are scheduled for eight hours of sleep at the end of each day. However, besides the extra sunlight, crew members also have trouble sleeping because of the excitement of being in space, motion sickness, and the close quarters crewmembers must share. Also, the procedure for sleeping is quite challenging. † In space there is no up or down because of microgravity, astronauts can sleep in any orientation. To keep from floating around and bumping into something, crew members must attach themselves to a wall, seat, or bunk bed. Usually, they sleep in sleeping bags. When it is time to wake up, Mission Control in Houston sends a wakeup call to shuttle astronauts by playing music; however, space station crews wake to an alarm clock. All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. Astronauts choose sleep spots carefully because if they are not in a well-ventilated section, they may wake up the next morning surrounded by a bubble of their own exhaled carbon dioxide. Oxygen starvation is the result of a poor resting area. Astronauts end up with a splitting headache and the feeling of not being able to breathe. If an astronaut does try to tough it out and sleep floating free, he or she most likely ends up colliding with an air filter that is trying to suck them into a grill. Fashion Retakes Once the crew is awake, the astronauts dress as quickly as possible. Obviously, this is no easy task when your arms and legs are floating at odd angles. Disposable Astronauts enjoy a meal specially preclothes are worn in space; they are replaced every three days. There are no washpared by Nutritionalists ensure that a proper balance of vitamins and minering machines. There is a shower at the International Space Station, but water has to als be conserved, so it can be used only sparingly. It is a luxury that the astronauts cherish. Shaving is an interesting endeavor. Water and shaving cream stick to the astronaut's face because of surface tension. Equally challenging is electric shaving. It has to be done next to a suction fan so the hairs do not float away and clog up equipment. Spice It Up After cleaning and dressing, crew members eat the first of three meals during the day. Space food has improved greatly since the days of the aluminum squeeze tubes. Nutritionalists ensure that a proper balance of vitamins and minerals are provided; calorie requirements are carefully calculated. With improved packaging has come better food quality and menus. Astronauts can choose from fruits, nuts, peanut butter, chicken, beef, seafood, candy, brownies, and more. Beverages consist of coffee, tea, orange juice, fruit punches, and lemonade. A meal tray typically holds food containers. The tray becomes the astronaut's dinner plate. It allows the astronaut to choose from several foods at once. The tray also holds the food packages in place and keeps them from floating away. Astronauts use traditional forks, knives, and spoons along with scissors to open packages. Garbage goes into a trash compactor. After breakfast the crew begins the assigned tasks for the day. The work focuses on experiments or performing routine maintenance on equipment. Bring Your Treadmill and Guitar to the ISS Regular exercise is essential for astronauts. The human body loses muscle and bone density in microgravity. A few hours a day strapped to the treadmill or exercise bike helps keep some muscle tone. Regular exercise also helps relieve what is commonly called "space sniffles." Body fluids, which are no longer tugged downward by gravity, accumulate in the head and block sinuses. James S. Voss, Expedition 2 flight engineer, reads while exercising on the cycle ergometer in the Zvezda service module. It's important for astronauts to have fun, especially if they are on a mission lasting a few months. They need a break from their busy schedules to alleviate stress and to relax. Astronauts bring their guitars and other instruments with them. Playing music together is a great way to relax and enjoy the ride. Looking out the window and observing the Earth below or looking into the deep blackness of space is most crewmembers' favorite pastime. In addition, astronauts can watch movies, read books, play cards, and play games. Regular communication with families is also part of everyone's routine and keeps morale high. All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. NASA In-Flight Education Program by Noelle Young Wheeling Jesuit University Professional Writing Student Many classrooms across the United States are using NASA missions and discoveries as a foundation for learning. For example, the NASA In-Flight Education Program provides an innovative way to link to the International Space Station crew. Teachers and students can access live interviews with crew members living and working aboard the International Space Station, or they can access the onboard research. These "live links" provide teachers with a unique vehicle to offer students' authentic learning experiences. Two live chat programs are offered each month in which classrooms can "talk" to An astronaut aboard the ISS takes place the station crew members. Each program is approximately 20 minutes. The disin a videoconference with students. cussion is usually a question and answer session. Topics included bone density and muscle loss that astronauts suffer from while in space, ways that astronauts stay fit while living in space, and other intricacies of space exploration. Giving students a firsthand experience with the space program invigorates student interest in science and technology. Recommended Activities For schools unable to participate in the In-Flight Education Program, here are two activities for students to participate in: The first activity is All Systems Go This video resource guide for grades 5-12 provides background material and activities that allow students to learn about the effects of microgravity on humans. http://spacelink.nasa.gov/Instructional.Materials/NASA.Educational.Products/All.Systems.Go/ The second activity The second activity is The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide With Activities for Neuroscience. The lessons and activities in this guide are designed for middle and high school teachers and students. The activeties focus on specific effects of weightlessness on the development of cells, vestibular functions, spatial orientation, motor performance, nervous system regulation, sleep and circadian rhythms. http://spacelink.nasa.gov/products/The.Brain.in.Space/ Shuttle Fleet Stands Idle As NASA Works to Make Safer Is the space shuttle unsafe? The space shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff in 1986, and the shuttle Columbia broke up when it reentered Earth's atmosphere on a mission in 2003. Fourteen astronauts lost their lives in the two accidents. Investigators determined the Challenger explosion was related to mechanical failure in a solid rocket motor. Columbia investigators concluded that the second shuttle accident was caused by technical and organizational failures. These included what the experts called a "broken safety culture" at NASA, an aggressive schedule related to construction of the International Space Station, budget pressures, and staff reductions. How can NASA make space shuttle flight safer? The Columbia Accident Investigation Board made 29 recommendations, 15 of which must be completed before the shuttle can return to The Space Shuttle Columbia launches from Kennedy Space Center January 16, 2003. All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. flight. NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe told journalists last fall that NASA is using these recommendations as a guide to safely returning to shuttle flight operations. "We have vowed to raise the safety bar even higher by finding additional ways to improve the way we conduct business in all aspects of our work," he said. The renewed emphasis on safety affects every aspect of every job at NASA. Ron Ernst, an aerospace education specialist at the Goddard Space Flight Workers in the Orbiter Processing Center in Maryland, Facility check the placement of the reinsaid inspections have forced carbon-carbon (RCC) chin panel never been more thoron Discovery. The chin panel is the ough. "Every tile on the smile-shaped section of RCC directly shuttle-and there are below the nose cap that provides a more than 23,000 tilesthermal barrier during reentry. must be inspected by hand," Ernst said. Any tile replacements must be done by hand. Each shuttle contains thousands of miles of wiring that must be inspected as well. NASA also is putting into place stricter protocols for astronaut missions, Ernst said. "For instance, NASA will most likely not send another crew to work outside the shuttle on the Hubble Space Telescope," he said. NASA has conducted several missions in which the astronauts on the shuttle have captured the telescope and serviced it to full capacity. As a result, Hubble has provided remarkable new views of the universe. "We did it, at a high risk to our astronauts," Ernst said. "Now we're looking back on tasks like that and looking at the possible use of robotics." Some believe the shuttle is getting to the point of outliving its usefulness. "The first shuttle flew in 1981, so we're 23 years old. It's old technology," Ernst said. "It's still useful, and commercial airlines are flying planes that are older than that and doing well, but it's old technology." The vehicles were designed to make 100 flights, with a turnaround time between flights of 90 days. Most will not make it to 100 flights, Ernst said, and the turnaround time is at least double the 90 days that had been anticipated, especially in view of the new safety requirements. NASA and the astronauts like the space shuttle because of its tremendous hauling capacity. The shuttle is the only U.S. vehi- The View from Space Astronomer Ron Parise flew two space shuttle missions, serving as a payload specialist aboard Columbia in 1990 and Endeavor in 1995. Today he is a senior scientist for Computer Sciences Corp., supporting the advanced architectures and automation branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. As a former shuttle astronaut, he has a unique perspective on safety issues. Parise believes the question of safety requires a delicate balancing act. "I think that NASA and the contractors who operate the space shuttle program do an excellent job of mitigating whatever risks there are," he said. Ultimately, "it's a tradeoff between the benefits of human exploration of space and how much risk to the human crew we are willing to accept." Humans are surrounded by safety risks, whether they're soldiers riding in a military helicopter or commuters driving to work. "There's always a tradeoff. When you drive your car to work, you have to trade off the risk of getting killed versus the benefits you get by driving your car to work," Parise said. He acknowledges that space travel is far riskier than navigating freeway traffic, but he believes that flying the shuttle involves accepting the same balance between risks and benefits. "Human spaceflight is a fairly risky business because it involves a very hazardous environment when you get into space, but on the other hand, there's a lot of benefit in our learning how to live and work in space." Parise's first space mission occurred after the Challenger accident. "Those of us training to fly back then had a lot of concern about the solid rocket boosters," he said. "We knew a lot of work had been done to improve the integrity of the boosters, and a lot had been done procedurally to change how we use the boosters to eliminate the particular risk that arose on the Challenger flight." Nonetheless, he couldn't help thinking about possible problems with the boosters when he was on the launch pad preparing for takeoff. "You know technologically what has been done to mitigate risks," he said. "You get strapped in and you go fly." Would he fly another space shuttle mission today? Without hesitation he replied, "Sign me up." All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. cle that can launch up to eight humans and payloads of 60,000 pounds into space and safely return them from an Earth orbit. "It is a tremendous delivery truck for us," Ernst said. "You can put something 50 feet long and 12 feet in diameter in the cargo bay. It's big enough to hold a Greyhound bus in the back. You don't get the sense of how big the shuttle is until you stand under it. It's awesome." The most compelling reason that the shuttle isn't yet ready to be retired is that NASA has not yet come up with a replacement vehicle. "We're in the development stages of a new multifunctional spacecraft that will take us to the space station and to the moon," Ernst said. "The shuttle is nothing more than a shuttle bus to get us to and from the space station." Ernst anticipates the shuttles will complete 15 or 20 more missions to complete construction of the International Space Station. Is he concerned about safety for those missions? "I think the shuttle is a safe vehicle. I'd fly it in a second," he said. "I'm just waiting for the phone to ring." In his position as an education specialist, Ernst has had the opportunity to work on the shuttle flight simulator. "I'm OK as long as I don't have to land it." Workers install Discovery's cargo bay wiring that will support the addition of an Orbiter Boom Sensor System - one of the new safety measures for return to flight, equipping the shuttle with cameras and laser systems to inspect the shuttle's thermal protection system while in space. Most important, he said, is the fact that the astronauts believe in the safety protocols for the space shuttle. "Our astronauts have a tremendous confidence in the spacecraft. Their confidence level in what NASA flies and how it flies it is the highest. I have spent time with the astronauts. They put their lives on the line, and they are confident that what NASA does and their skills together will get through the mission and back to Earth safely." ISS Helps Those on Earth by Noelle Young Wheeling Jesuit University Professional Writing Student The International Space Station (ISS) embodies NASA's vision-improve the quality of life here on Earth. Here's how the station has been meeting that goal since it first began to be assembled in 1998. About the International Space Station The International Space Station is now a fully functioning laboratory in space. An The station hovers over the Pacific Ocean. on-orbit assembly began in 1998 with the launch of the Russian-built Zarya (or "dawn" in English). Also in 1998, Space Shuttle Endeavor lifted off on a mission to connect the U.S. Unity, a six-sided aluminum module, to Zarya. Since then several other missions have been planned and launched to add parts to the station. In February 2001 the U.S. Destiny Lab was added. The workshop serves as the centerpiece of research. This lab will support experiments that ultimately will benefit those of us back on Earth. Because of its microgravity environment, the space station opens up unlimited scientific possibilities. As an educational and exploration outpost, the provides an orbital laboratory for long-term, worldwide research in biology, chemistry, physics, ecol- All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. ogy, and medicine. For more information go to http://www.eisenhowerinstitute.org/programs/globalpartnerships/fos/usrussianspace/iss.htm. Experiments Conducted in Space Medical research is perhaps one of the most beneficial reasons to study life sciences in space. Many complex changes take place in astronauts' bodies when they travel in space. With the reduced pull of gravity, their bones become weaker, bodily fluids shift toward the upper body, and body rhythms are disrupted. Experiments conducted in space might help us find ways to counteract balance disorders, osteoporosis, or other types of arthritis. Since muscles of astronauts are greatly affected in space, we hope to understand the effect. That could lead to rehabilitating people on Earth who have been injured or are bedridden and need to regain muscle tone. Additionally, astronauts are exposed to many kinds of damaging radiation when they are outside Earth's protective atmosphere. This radiation can damage cells and increase tumors. Keeping astronauts safe from damaging space radiation might offer a solution for cancer patients who undergo radiation treatments. How Astronauts Are Affected Space tremendously affects astronaut's circulatory system, including the heart. In microgravity less blood flows through the body. As a result, the heart becomes smaller and weaker. Astronauts feel the effects when they return to Earth. They are dizzy and weak, symptoms typical of people with heart failure or diabetes. Echocardiographic images provide quick, safe images of the heart as it beats. While a state-of-the art echocardiograph unit is part of the Human Research Facility on the International Space Station, quick transmission of images and data to Earth is a challenge. NASA is developing techniques to improve the echocardiography available to diagnose sick astronauts as well as study the long-term effects of space travel on their health. Additionally, the study of astronauts' immune systems could also help us to understand many immune system disorders here on Earth. Astronauts also have difficulty because they lose the normal day/night cycle in space because of the numerous dawns in a 24-hour cycle. Strategies to help astronauts with this could also benefit people on Earth with sleep disorders or even those who work multiple shifts as part of their job. Other Reasons for Studying Life in Space Crew members on the space station are performing experiments outside those on themselves. For instance, protein crystals can be grown more pure in space. The analysis of these crystals might lead to a better understanding of the nature of proteins, enzymes, and viruses. That might spur the development of new drugs to fight cancer, emphysema, and immune system disorders. The ISS laboratories can also grow tissue cultures of living cells. These experiments are important because they aren't distorted by gravity. Other experiments might lead to new developments in industries here on Earth. For example, the ISS will conduct research on flames, fluids, and metals in microgravity environments and study the forces hidden by gravity. A collage of protein and virus crystals grown in space. An obvious benefit of the International Space Station is the opportunity it affords astronauts to watch planet Earth. They can record their observations and identify large-scale, long-term changes in the environment. These observations will increase All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. our understanding of natural resources, such as forests, oceans, and mountains, and the effects of natural disasters such as volcanoes, hurricanes, typhoons, and earthquakes. Equally beneficial are studies that show mankind's effect on our planet. Images can be captured from space that provide a global perspective. Graphic images of pollution, deforestation, and water pollution can be invaluable from an ecological perspective. An astronaut observes and photoObserving from a Different View graphs planet Earth. Many space station experiments will actually take place outside the ISS. These experiments teach us about the space environment and how long-term exposure to space, its vacuum, and its debris affects materials. This could greatly benefit engineering and construction of future spacecraft design. Different Approaches, Equal Results By Michael Hammond The two ships that service the International Space Station show that there's certainly more than one way to reach a goal. As work on the station's construction continues, the two countries spearheading the 16country effort-the United States and Russia-rely on bulwarks of their own space programs. The United States uses the space shuttle to fly to the station, while Russia has long used its Soyuz rocket. The two differ greatly, but each has proven capable of transporting crew and supplies to the station. The Shuttle and the Soyuz: Structure and Design Many structural and design differences exist between the shuttle and the Soyuz. First, the shuttle is the "world's largest glider," making it more like an airplane than a rocket (though it does stand vertically at launch). On the other hand, the Soyuz is based on Cold War ballistic missile technology that's been in use by the Russians for more than 40 years. Second, the shuttle can carry a large payload-up to 60,000 pounds-and a crew of seven, while the Soyuz mainly carries cosmonauts (a maximum of three) and minimal supplies. Against a night sky, the Space Shuttle Endeavour heads toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff from the Kennedy Space Center's launch. Shuttle flights have been on hold since the Columbia shuttle tragedy in February 2003. (The next shuttle mission is tentatively scheduled for March 2005). Since then only the Soyuz has traveled to the space station. Because the Soyuz can carry few supplies, the Russians use a remote-piloted spacecraft called the Proton rocket to supply the station. The Space Shuttle Endeavour flies over Cook Strait, New Zealand, as it approaches the International Space Station during STS-113 rendezvous and docking operations. The Shuttle and the Soyuz: Flight and Construction Another important difference between the shuttle and Soyuz is their construction and consequent flight patterns. Only three shuttles remain after the loss of Columbia. All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. Though they are reusable, the shuttles are extremely large and expensive to operate. The much smaller Soyuz is not reusable, so Russia makes 10-15 of them each year. The two also reenter Earth's atmosphere in vastly different ways. The shuttle lands much like a jet in an assigned landing place (preferably the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, though other sites are available). The Soyuz, though, makes a difficult landing using parachutes, and its landing site is not easily controlled. The Soyuz must also land on a soft surface, usually sand or snow, to minimize the impact. Different Ways of Exploring Space The differences between the shuttle and Soyuz exemplify the two countries' different philosophies of space exploration, says Ron Ernst, aerospace education A Soyuz spacecraft approaches the Pirs specialist at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. This difference docking compartment on the space station. extends from how missions are carried out (American shuttle missions are more tightly choreographed, while Russian flights are more loosely planned) to the safety precautions taken at the launch of space vehicles (the nearest person to the shuttle at launch is 3.5 miles away, whereas people are in the immediate vicinity at a Soyuz launch). It looks like those different paths will continue. The Russians have no plans to make major changes to the Soyuz or to design a new primary space vehicle. NASA, meanwhile, plans to phase out the shuttle by the end of the decade once the space station is completed. One idea NASA is developing is the crew exploration vehicle. Check it out at http://www.exploration.nasa.gov/constellation.html . Despite the different styles of space travel, the American and Russian space programs have been able to operate well together. American astronauts train in Star City in Russia before ISS space station missions, while Russian cosmonauts prepare at Kennedy. Says Ernst, "The cooperative effort is definitely working." Space Sites It's tough to teach if students don't have much interest in the subject material. Many teachers find it especially challenging to get students interested in science. Here are a few compelling resources that have helped other top teachers get their students excited about science. The following web sites are designed to engage your students with interesting (and a few off-the-wall) topics about space travel and the wonderful people on Earth and in space who make it possible. There's a wealth of information available to capture the imagination of students from kindergarten through college-and more than a few sites dedicated to enriching teachers' lives too. We hope you enjoy these sites. We'd appreciate hearing from you about other sites you've found useful in your classroom. Write to us at email@example.com. We appreciate the information teachers share with us. Astronauts' Dirty Laundry (K-4 students) In space no one can hear you Shout . So how do the astronauts get clean clothes? Learn the dirty little secrets at http://www.nasaexplores.com/show2_k_4a.php?id=03-026&gl=k4. All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. Astronauts' Weekend Plans Are Up in the Air (K-4 students) All work and no fun can make astronauts dull boys and girls. Find out what astronauts do for fun in space at http://www.nasaexplores.com/show2_k_4a.php?id=02-020&gl=k4. Got an Idea? See If It'll Fly (5-8 students ) If you have a suggestion about making the next space shuttle flight safer, NASA wants to hear from you. More than 2,000 people from 28 countries have already shared their ideas via NASA's virtual suggestion box. Send your idea to http://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/preparingtravel/rtf_suggestions.html. Veggie Burgers in Space (9-12 students) Imagine a robot asking, "You want fries with that?" It's not too far from becoming a reality. NASA is testing robots that will grow crops to make yummy veggie-burgers for astronauts on extended space missions. Get the super-size picture at http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/people/journals/space/hogue/12-10-97.html. Don't Look Now, But Your Assistant Is Floating Behind You! (College Students) Wouldn't your life be easier if you had a floating, talking, ball-shaped robot to follow you around all day? NASA has developed just such a personal assistant to help astronauts with their jobs and to make sure the spacecraft is safe. It's not available at Sharper Image yet, but you can check out this cool new robot at http://ic.arc.nasa.gov/story.php?sid=57&sec. JUST FOR TEACHERS Stay Out of the Sun (K-4 Educators) Solar flares are powerful events-they can even cause satellites to stop working, which shuts down cell phones and cable TV on Earth. Is the sun even more dangerous for astronauts in space? Learn how the space shuttle and International Space Station are protected from the sun by Earth's magnetic field at http://nasaexplores.com/show2_k_4a.php?id=02-002&gl=k4. Space Dummy Gives Scientists Answers (9-12 Educators) Scientists finally have a good way to monitor how much radiation astronauts are exposed to. Radioactive Fred is a dummy that traveled to space on the space shuttle in 2001 to absorb and record radiation levels. With Fred's help scientists will know how the body responds to specific levels of radiation, which will help engineers to create shielding. The site at http://nasaexplores.com/show2_912a.php?id=02-016&gl=912 includes additional resources for students and teachers. For more in-depth information on the effect of radiation on human DNA, check out this Johnson Space Center site: http://srhp.jsc.nasa.gov/. All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved. Credits Publisher: ISS Challenge™ Team NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future (COTF) Center for Educational Technologies® (CET) Wheeling Jesuit University 316 Washington Ave. Wheeling, WV 26003-6243 www.cet.edu ISS Project Director: Enrique Garcia Moreno Tech Check Editor: Laurie Ruberg, Ph.D. Writing Services: Janet Boyle, Ghost Writers, LLC., www.ghost-writers.com Student Writer: Noelle Young Additional writing services: Michael Hammond Additional Support Provided by: • • • • Sean P. Duffy, CET intellectual property coordinator Chris Kreger, CET webmaster Kirsten Ruben, CET graphic designer Janis Worklan, CET editor/curriculum writer To Subscribe to the ISS Tech Check: You can subscribe to receive an e-mail announcement that will be sent to you when the winter, spring, and fall issues are published. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org and leave the subject line empty. Type the following message: subscribe isstechcheck. You will automatically be subscribed to the list. ISS Tech Check is a triannual newsletter of the International Space Station Challenge project of the NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future program at the Center for Educational Technologies, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV. To change your e-mail address: Please notify us of a change in your e-mail address. Simply provide your old e-mail address along with your new e-mail address and send to email@example.com. To submit articles send materials to: Laurie Ruberg, ISS Challenge Project NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future Center for Educational Technologies® Wheeling Jesuit University 316 Washington Ave. Wheeling, WV 26003-6243 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: 304-243-2388 FAX: 304-243-2497 All photographs used courtesy of NASA. Illustrations copyright © 2004 www.arttoday.com. Privacy Statement and Copyright © 2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future. All rights reserved.