http://www.hselibrary.ie/midlands Library & Information Service CITING REFERENCES When writing a piece of work you will need to refer in your text to material written or produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. Consistency and accuracy are important to enable readers to identify and locate the material to which you have referred. The same set of rules should be followed every time you cite a reference. REFERENCING STYLES The two main standard systems for citing references correctly are the Harvard system and the Vancouver system. In journal publishing, versions of both the Harvard and the Vancouver systems are widely used according to the “house style” outlined in the journal’s “Instructions to Authors”. HARVARD SYSTEM In the Harvard system, cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author’s surname and the year of publication and are listed in a bibliography at the end of the text. If details of particular parts of the documents are required, e.g. page numbers, they should be given after the year within the parentheses. Known as the author/date system, references made in the text are listed in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author in the bibliography at the end of the text. If the author is unknown, you should use “Anon” At every point in the text where a particular item is referred to, include the author’s surname and the year of publication in brackets along with page numbers if you are quoting these specifically If there is more that one work by a given author from the same year you can differentiate between them by adding “a”, “b” and so on after the year within the brackets For up to three authors include all names; if there are more than three, give the first author’s surname and initials followed by et al Periodical titles are usually spelt out in full CITATION IN THE TEXT Name of author, year and page number are given in parentheses: e.g. A more recent study (Stevens 1998, p. 468) has shown the way theory and practical work interact. If there are more than two authors the surname of the first author should only be given followed by et al.: e.g. If it is a reference to a newspaper article, the name of the newspaper is given: e.g. More patients are availing of vaccination (The Irish Times 2001, p. 4) If referring to a source quoted in another source, both are cited in the text: e.g. A study by Jones (2001 cited Smith 1998, p. 28) showed that… http://www.hselibrary.ie/midlands BIBLIOGRAPHY At the end of a piece of work, list references to documents cited in the text. This list is called a Bibliography. In the Harvard system, references are listed in alphabetical order of authors’ names. If you have cited more than one item by a specific author, they should be listed chronologically (earliest first), and by letter (1993a, 1993b) if more than one item has been published during the specific year. Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples for the different types of published works you may have cited. Underlining is an acceptable alternative to italics when bibliographies are handwritten. Reference to a book Author’s SURNAME, INITIALS., Year of publication. Title. Edition (if not in the first). Place of publication: Publisher. th e.g. CORMACK, DESMOND, 2000. The Research Process in Nursing. 4 ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Reference to a contribution in a book Contributing author’s SURNAME, INITIALS., Year of publication. Title of contribution. Followed by In: INITIALS, SURNAME, of author or editor followed by ed. Or eds. If relevant. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, Page number(s) of contribution. e.g. KIRBY, CAROL, 2003 Commitment to care: a philosophical perspective on nursing. In: Lynn Basford and Oliver nd Slevin, eds. Theory and Practice of Nursing: an integrated approach to caring practice. 2 ed. Cheltenham: Nelson Thomas, 23-41. Reference to an article in a journal Author’s SURNAME, INITIALS., Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number and (part number), Page numbers of contribution. e.g. TURNBULL, FIONA AND ANUSHKA PATEL, 2007 Acupuncture for Blood Pressure Lowering. Circulation, 115 (24), 3048-3049. Reference to a newspaper article Author’s SURNAME, INITIALS, (or NEWSPAPER TITLE) Year of publication. Title of article. Title of newspaper, Day and month, Page number(s) and column number. e.g. IRISH TIMES, 2001 Uptake of MMR vaccine. Irish Times, 4 June, p. 32a. Reference to a conference paper Contributing author’s SURNAME, INITIALS., Year of publication. Title of contribution. Followed by In: INITIALS, SURNAME, of editor of proceedings (if applicable) followed by ed. Title of conference proceedings including date and place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers of contribution. e.g. Reference to a publication from a corporate body (e.g. a government department or other organization) NAME OF ISSUING BODY, Year of publication. Title of publication. Place of publication: Publisher, Report number (where relevant). e.g. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND CHILDREN (2006) A Strategy for Cancer Control in Ireland. Dublin: Government Publications. Reference to web sites/pages and e-books AUTHOR/EDITOR. (Year). Title. [online]. (Edition). Place of publication, Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: URL [Accessed Date]. http://www.hselibrary.ie/midlands e.g. HANLY, DAVID (2003) Report of the National Task Force on Medical Staffing [online]. Dublin, Department of Health and Children. Available from: http://www.dohc.ie/publications/pdf/hanly.pdf?direct=1 [Accessed 12 July 2007] Reference to e-journals AUTHOR (Year). Title [online]. Journal Title [online], volume (issue), location within the host. Available from: URL [Accessed Date]. e.g. KLASS, P. (2005) Doctors and patients: Shifting Sands. New England Journal of Medicine [online], 352 (1). Available from: http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/352/1/6.pdf [Accessed 12 July 2007] VANCOUVER SYSTEM In the Vancouver system, which is also known as the numeric or the footnote/endnote system, cited publications are numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text. At every point in the text where a particular work is referred to, the number of the reference is included in brackets. Known as the numeric or the footnote/endnote system; references are numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text At every point in the text where a particular work is referred to, include the number of the reference in brackets For up to six authors include all names; if there are more than six, give the first six authors’ surnames and initials followed by et al Periodical titles are commonly abbreviated BIBLIOGRAPHY Reference to a book Author’s SURNAME, INITIALS. (ed. or eds. if editor/s). Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Reference to a contribution in a book Contributing author’s SURNAME, INITIALS. Title of contribution. Editor INITIAL and SURNAME (ed. or eds.), Title of book it appears in. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.