The Five Tribes of Machine Learning And What You Can Take from

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And What You Can
Take from Each
Pedro Domingos
University of Washington
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Evolution
Culture
Experience
Evolution
Experience
Culture
Computers
Most of the knowledge in the world in the
future is going to be extracted by machines
and will reside in machines.
– Yann LeCun, Director of AI Research, Facebook
1. Fill in gaps in existing knowledge
2. Emulate the brain
3. Simulate evolution
4. Systematically reduce uncertainty
5. Notice similarities between old and new
Tribe
Origins
Master Algorithm
Symbolists
Logic, philosophy
Inverse deduction
Connectionists
Neuroscience
Backpropagation
Evolutionaries
Evolutionary biology
Genetic programming
Bayesians
Statistics
Probabilistic inference
Analogizers
Psychology
Kernel machines
Tom Mitchell
Steve Muggleton
Ross Quinlan
Addition
Subtraction
2
+ 2
―――
――
= ?
2
+ ?
―――
――
= 4
Deduction
Induction
Socrates is human
+ Humans are mortal .
―――――――――――
――――――――――
?
=
Socrates is human
?
+
―――――――――――
――――――――――
= Socrates is mortal
Yann LeCun
Geoff Hinton
Yoshua Bengio
John Koza
John Holland
Hod Lipson
David Heckerman
Judea Pearl
Michael Jordan
Peter Hart
Vladimir Vapnik
Douglas Hofstadter
Tribe
Problem
Solution
Symbolists
Knowledge composition
Inverse deduction
Connectionists
Credit assignment
Backpropagation
Evolutionaries
Structure discovery
Genetic programming
Bayesians
Uncertainty
Probabilistic inference
Analogizers
Similarity
Kernel machines
Tribe
Problem
Solution
Symbolists
Knowledge composition
Inverse deduction
Connectionists
Credit assignment
Backpropagation
Evolutionaries
Structure discovery
Genetic programming
Bayesians
Uncertainty
Probabilistic inference
Analogizers
Similarity
Kernel machines
But what we really need is
a single algorithm that solves all five!
Representation
Probabilistic logic (e.g., Markov logic networks)
Weighted formulas → Distribution over states
Evaluation
Posterior probability
User-defined objective function
Optimization
Formula discovery: Genetic programming
Weight learning: Backpropagation
Much remains to be done . . .
We need your ideas
Home Robots
World Wide Brains
Cancer Cures
360o Recommenders
If we used all our technology resources,
we could actually give people personalized
recommendations for every step of your life.
– Aneesh Chopra, former CTO of the U.S.
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