Vulcraft Bar Joists

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VUL-238 Inside covers:Layout 1
11/29/07
9:54 AM
Page 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
VULCRAFT DESIGN NOTICE ......................................................................................
4
GENERAL INFORMATION............................................................................................
A. Joist Design Commentary
1. Vibration
2. Deflection
3. How to Specify Concentrated &Other Non-Uniform Loads on Steel Joists
4. Recycled Content – LEED Program
5
K AND KCS SERIES......................................................................................................
A. General Information
B. K Series Specifications
C. K Series LRFD and ASD Load Tables
D. KCS Series LRFD and ASD Load Tables
9
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS ..................................................................................... 35
A. K Series Joist Substitutes
B. 2.5K Series and Loose Outriggers
C. K Series Top Chord Extensions and Extended Ends
D. K Series Extensions LRFD and ASD Load Tables
E. K Series Open Web Steel Joists
F. LH and DLH Series Details
LH AND DLH SERIES ................................................................................................... 49
A. General Information
B. LH and DLH Series Specifications
C. LH Series LRFD and ASD Load Tables
D. DLH Series LRFD and ASD Load Tables
SLH SERIES .................................................................................................................. 73
A. General Information
B. SLH Details
C. SLH-Load Tables
D. SLH-Specifications
JOIST GIRDERS............................................................................................................ 89
A. General Information
B. Joist Girder Details
C. Bottom Chord Brace Tables
D. Joist Girders in Moment Resistant Frames
E. Joist Girder Specifications
F. Joist Girder LRFD and ASD Weight Tables
FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS WITH STEEL JOIST AND JOIST GIRDERS ............... 113
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE....................................................................................... 123
RECOMMENDED CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE ................................................ 135
GLOSSARY.................................................................................................................... 144
OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS FOR STEEL ERECTION .............................................. 148
PUBLICATIONS............................................................................................................. 157
FRONT COVER PICTURE:
The Prairie School - Racine, Wisconsin
This 68,000 sq. ft facility included a new locker room, fitness and weight training areas, a field house, and a track. The primary
framing system consisted of a braced, compound-curved steel frame supporting long span barrel vaulted steel joists at the
roof with precast plank supported on a steel frame and load bearing masonry walls at the floor. The structure was supported
on conventional spread footings. The building featured large areas of clerestory glazing and curvilinear form.
1
ALABAMA
7205 Gault Avenue N.
Fort Payne, Alabama 35967
P.O. Box 680169
Fort Payne, Alabama 35968
(256) 845-2460 • Fax: (256) 845-2823
email: [email protected]
ISO 9001 Certified
ISO 14001 Certified
Joists & Deck
INDIANA
6610 County Road 60
P.O. Box 1000
St.Joe, Indiana 46785
(260) 337-1800 • Fax: (260) 337-1801
email: [email protected]
ISO 9001 Certified
ISO 14001 Certified
Joists & Deck
NEBRASKA
1601 West Omaha Avenue
Norfolk, Nebraska 68701
P.O. Box 59
Norfolk, Nebraska 68702
(402) 644-8500 • Fax: (402) 644-8528
email: [email protected]
ISO 9001 Certified
ISO 14001 Certified
Joists & Deck
NEW YORK
5362 Railroad Street
P.O. Box 280
Chemung, New York 14825
(607) 529-9000 • Fax: (607) 529-9001
email: [email protected]
ISO 9001 Certified
ISO 14001 Certified
Joists & Deck
2
SOUTH CAROLINA
1501 West Darlington Street
P.O. Box 100520
Florence, South Carolina 29501
(843) 662-0381 • Fax: (843) 662-3132
email: [email protected]
ISO 9001 Certified
ISO 14001 Certified
Joists & Deck
TEXAS
287 North Main Extension
P.O. Box 186
Grapeland, Texas 75844
(936) 687-4665 • Fax: (936) 687-4290
email: [email protected]
ISO 9001 Certified
ISO 14001 Certified
Joists & Deck
UTAH
1875 West Highway 13 South
P.O. Box 637
Brigham City, Utah 84302
(435) 734-9433 • Fax: (435) 723-5423
email: [email protected]
ISO 9001 Certified
ISO 14001 Certified
Joists
3
A WORD ABOUT QUALITY
NOTICE
In manufacturing steel joists, there can be no compromise on quality. Your business depends on it. Our reputation and success depends on it. As the largest
manufacturer of steel joists in the United States, a lot of
buildings and a lot of people depend on Vulcraft for consistently high standards of quality that are demonstrated in reliable performance.
Vulcraft, a Division of Nucor Corporation, has provided
this catalog for use by engineers and architects in designing and using Vulcraft open web joists and open
web girders. It includes all products available at the
time of printing. Vulcraft reserves the right to change,
revise or withdraw any Products or procedures without
notice.
In the manufacturing of steel joists and joist girders,
Vulcraft uses high quality steel. Welding to exact specifications is the key to making structurally sound joists
— and the most critical step in the entire process. This
being the case, all Vulcraft welders are qualified to
American Welding Society standards. All welds are in
accordance with the Steel Joist Institute’s welding criteria and all Vulcraft joists are manufactured to meet the
required design loads of the specifying professional.
The information presented in this catalog has been
prepared in accordance with recognized engineering
principles and is for general information only. While it
is believed to be accurate, this information should not
be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability and applicability by an
engineer, architect or other licensed professional.
Vulcraft is a manufacturer of open web steel joists, joist
girders, floor deck and roof deck. Vulcraft employs a
staff of engineers for the design, manufacture and
marketing of its products. Vulcraft does not accept the
responsibility as the design professional of record for
any structure. Vulcraft accepts the delegation of the
engineering responsibility only for the products it manufactures, provided the application and applicable
loading for these products are specified by the design
professional of record. Vulcraft provides engineering
for the design of its products and does not displace the
need on any project for a design professional of
record.
To further insure the precision and quality of every
weld, every Vulcraft quality assurance inspector is also
certified to these same high standards. Furthermore
Vulcraft’s quality assurance supervisors report directly
to the engineering manager. Vulcraft also employs an
ongoing program of mechanical testing that includes
full scale load tests at every facility.
As the leading manufacturer of steel joists and joist
girders in the United States, Vulcraft’s reputation depends on successfully managed quality control programs. That’s why quality is important at Vulcraft. You
have our word on it.
4
JOIST DESIGN COMMENTARY
FLOOR VIBRATION
Floor vibration occurs, in varying degrees, in all types
of building construction. Unlike steady state vibration,
which can be isolated, vibration due to human impact
is inconsistent in amplitude and frequency and therefore, more difficult to control.
significantly to the composite section. When used with
a thicker slab, greater resistance to vibration can be
achieved, and, since fewer pieces must be installed,
may be more economical.
PARTITIONS introduce damping and usually eliminate
vibration problems. They will be effective either above
or below a floor as long as they are connected to the
floor. Partitions below a joist supported floor ideally
should be in direct contact with the steel deck. If partitions below a joist supported floor are in direct contact
with the joists, the joist bottom chord and webs must be
designed for such intermediate support conditions.
The Steel Joist Institute and Nucor Research and Development have studied this phenomenon for many
years. Laboratory research has been performed and
numerous buildings, exhibiting both good and bad
characteristics, were tested using seismic recording
instruments. SJI Technical Digest #5 (1988) and AISC
/ CISC Steel Design Guide 11 (1997) discuss in detail
methods for calculating vibrational properties for joist
supported floors.
SUPPORT FRAMING BEAMS sometimes contribute
to floor vibration. The natural frequency and amplitude
for both the joist and supporting joist girders or hotrolled girders need to be calculated. In this manner the
resulting system acceleration or displacement and frequency can be determined from which the performance of the system can be predicted.
The vast majority of structures, including those utilizing
steel joists, do not exhibit floor vibrations severe
enough to be considered objectionable. However,
human sensitivity to vibratory motion varies, and a satisfactory framing solution is dependent upon the sound
judgment of qualified structural engineers.
DEFINITIONS
Floor vibration is measured in terms of acceleration
amplitude, displacement amplitude, and frequency.
These factors are not objectionable to all people at the
same level since human sensitivity varies.
INCREASING JOIST STIFFNESS above that which is
required by live load deflection may be beneficial. A
higher frequency floor is generally a better floor for
most applications. Increasing the stiffness of the steel
joists themselves results in increasing the frequency
and slightly decreasing the acceleration or displacement of the floor vibration.
Acceleration amplitude is the maximum acceleration
caused by a force excitation.
BRIDGING of all standard types provide equal floor
vibrational characteristics.
Displacement amplitude is defined as the magnitude
or total distance traveled by each oscillation of the
vibration.
LONGER FLOOR SPANS have many advantages
over shorter spans, both in construction cost and in
vibrational response. Floor spans over 40 feet with a
2-1/2" thick concrete slab give a vibrational frequency
in the 3 - 5 cycles per second range. There are many
long spanning joist supported floors that perform satisfactorily.
Frequency is the term used to describe the speed of
the oscillations and is expressed in cycles per second
or Hz.
Acceleration is the only vibration factor which humans
can sense.
PC-based software to evaluate vibration of joist supported floor systems is available from the
Damping is defined as the rate of decay of amplitude.
STEEL JOIST INSTITUTE
3127 Mr. Joe White Avenue
Myrtle Beach, SC 29577
phone (843) 626-1995
The following observations, which were determined
from research data to be beneficial in reducing vibration
levels, are recommended only as a guide.
and
OPEN FLOOR AREAS are most subject to vibrational
problems. Modern “electronic offices” tend to have
lower live loading and damping, and hence can potentially be more prone to floor vibration. Partitions, file
cabinets, book stacks, heavy furnishings and even
crowds of people provide additional damping and minimize complaints.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, INC.
537 Wisteria Drive
Radford, VA 24141
phone (540) 731-3330
CONCLUSIONS:
Partitions eliminate vibration problems. When a floor
area cannot have partitions, increasing the slab thickness and/or increasing the joist stiffness are the most
economical and effective ways to reduce objectionable
vibrations.
THICKER FLOOR SLABS are an economical solution
to floor vibration. Additional thickness increases floor
system stiffness transverse to the joists, thus reducing
the vibration. The additional mass of the system will
reduce the objectionable vibration.
For more information refer to Steel Joist Institute Technical Digest No. 5 "Vibration of Steel Joist-Concrete Slab Floors", and the AISC / CISC Steel Design
Guide 11 “Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity”.
WIDER JOIST SPACINGS improve vibrational characteristics only when combined with thicker floor slabs.
The resulting increase in joist size does not contribute
5
JOIST DESIGN COMMENTARY
DEFLECTION OF STEEL JOISTS
The deflection of a steel joist when loaded with a
uniformly-distributed load depends upon the following
factors:
w= uniformly-distributed load carried by the joist (plf)
L= (span of the joist -.33)(ft.)
E= modulus of elasticity of steel (29,000,000 psi)
I= 26.767 WLL (L3) (10-6) where WLL=red figure in load
table
Web members have a 5% stress reversal reserve
capacity. If a stress reversal is larger than 5%, clearly
specify the stress reversal with the joists. An “SP” is not
required as long as the stress reversal requirement is
clearly specified.
When a suitable K or LH series joist cannot be specified, use the required moment and shear to select a
KCS series joist or use double joists to attain the
required capacity. Note that LH series have deeper
standard bearing depths than K or KCS series joists.
Tests have shown that deflection at mid-span may
be determined with reasonable accuracy using the
following formula:
Deflection (inches)=
1.15x5wL4 (123) =
384El
In some cases, a standard joist cannot be reasonably
specified. In this case, all uniform, non-uniform (such
as drift loads or varying uniform loads) and concentrated loads must be given on the drawing or load diagram with all dimensions given. The drawback of this
method is that the exact dimensions and locations must
be given. Often this information is not available at
the time of joist fabrication.
25.88wL4
El
Example: Determine the approximate total load deflection of a 24K8 for the following conditions:
W=280 plf
L=40.0 ft
WLL= 161 plf
E=29,000,000 psi
I=26.767(161) (40-.33)3 (10-6)= 269.0 in.4
Regardless of whether K-series, KCS-series or LHseries joists are specified, it is important to note that
even though sufficient shear and moment capacity are
provided within the special joist, the localized bending
of the chord members due to concentrated loading
between panel points is not considered. The joist
design generally presumes that all concentrated loads
are to be applied at panel points. When this is not the
case, the specifying professional must specify on the
structural drawings of the contract documents that a
field installed member be located at all concentrated
loads not occurring at panel points (see detail C1).
Deflection=
25.88(280)(40-.33)4 =2.30 in.
29,000,000(269)
HOW TO SPECIFY JOISTS FOR CONCENTRATED
LOADS ON STEEL JOISTS
When specifying joists for concentrated loads, the
specifying professional should first attempt to specify a
larger standard joist or a KCS series joist. The joist
specified must have adequate moment and shear
resistance throughout the length of the joist.
If the magnitude and locations of all loads are provided
on the structural drawings, Vulcraft can design for the
localized chord bending due to the load at the locations given.
The shear resistance of K or LH series joists varies
throughout the length of the joist. The shear capacity
of the joist must be checked at every location by use
of a shear diagram showing the allowable shear envelope created by the uniform design load of the joist
(given in the table), versus the actual shear diagram.
This diagram can be easily drawn with free software
(Vulcraft Assistant Program) available at our web site
www.vulcraft.com. The following diagram is an example of a 40’ joist with a 180 plf uniform load plus a concentrated load of 1900 lbs. at 17’ from the left end.
The second alternative is the most economical.
In this case, using the developed 399 plf load, either a
30K10 with an 11% stress reversal, or a standard
26KCS3 could be specified.
DETAIL C1
VARYING UNIFORM LOADS ON STEEL JOISTS
The selection process of a joist for varying uniform
loads such as drift loads or stepped uniform loads is
essentially the same as that for concentrated loads.
For K-series joists where the uniform load exceeds
550 pounds per lineal foot, the only options are: double joists or the use of special (SP) joists. Again a load
diagram should be shown on the structural drawings.
6
JOIST DESIGN COMMENTARY
2006 RECYCLED CONTENT OF NUCOR STEEL
PRODUCTS FOR THE L.E.E.D.® PROGRAM
Nucor Corporation is the nation’s largest recycler, using
almost 21 million tons of scrap steel in 2006 to create
new products. Nucor uses Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)
technology at all of its steel producing facilities. EAFs
use post-consumer scrap steel material for the major
feedstock, unlike blast furnace operations which use
mined iron ore as the major feedstock. Nucor has prepared the following information to help calculate the recycled content for products being used with “Green
Building” applications or for projects
in the L.E.E.D. program. Percentages are approximate and based on
the total weight of the products. Calculations are based on 2006 scrap
steel delivered and finished materials produced. Values do not consider home scrap or scrap
generated onsite. Specific product
information may be available from
facility representatives.
RECYCLED CONTENT - LEED Version 2.2 Credit 4.1 and 4.2
2006 Recycled Steel Content of Nucor Products(*)
(% by Total Weight)
Product Group
Nucor Bar Products
Nucor Sheet Products
Average Recycled Content
>99%
70%
Total Nucor Steel Combined
82.3%
Vulcraft Structural Products
Vulcraft Decking
>99%
70%
REGIONAL MATERIALS - LEED Version 2.2 Credit 5.1 and 5.2
Nucor tracks the origin of all scrap shipments to our mills. Nucor can approximate the amount of scrap extracted
from any project site region. Nucor owns steel and steel products manufacturing facilities throughout the US that
are within 500 miles of almost any project site. Please contact your local sales representative if you have questions about regional materials.
BAR MILL GROUP - Darlington SC, Norfolk NE, Jewett TX, Plymouth UT, Auburn NY,
Birmingham AL, Kankakee IL, Jackson MS, Seattle WA, Marion OH
2006 Approximate Recycled Steel Content Of All Nucor Bar Mill Group Products(*)
Facility
All
Total Scrap Total Alloys and
Steel Use Other Iron Units
>99%
<1%
Total Post Consumer
Recycled Content
Total Pre-consumer
Recycled Content
83%
17%
The Nucor Bar Mill Group produces rebar, angles, flats, rounds and other miscellaneous shapes. The bar mill
group uses recycled scrap steel for over 99% of the feedstock.
(*)
Studies from 2005 have shown that the recycled steel used for Nucor products consists of approximately 87% post-consumer scrap.
The remaining 13% typically consists of pre-consumer scrap generated by manufacturing processes for products made
with steel.
7
JOIST DESIGN COMMENTARY
Sheet Mill Group - Crawfordsville IN, Hickman AR, Berkeley SC, Decatur AL
2006 Approximate Recycled Steel Content Of Nucor Sheet Mill Group Products(*)
Facility
Crawfordsville, IN
Hickman, AR
Berkley, SC
Decatur, AL
Total Scrap
Steel Used
Total Alloys and
Other Iron Units
Total Post Consumer
Recycled Content
Total Pre-consumer
Recycled Content
82%
70%
56%
71%
18%
30%
44%
29%
68%
58%
46%
59%
14%
12%
10%
12%
The Nucor Sheet Mill Group produces hot band, cold rolled, pickled and galvanized products. Nucor Sheet mills
use varying amounts of recycled materials depending on metallurgical product demands and market conditions.
The combined sheet mill total recycled content is approximately 70%.
VULCRAFT GROUP - Florence SC, Norfolk NE, Brigham City UT, Grapeland TX, St. Joe IN,
Fort Payne AL, Chemung NY
JOISTS - The bar steel for most Vulcraft joists is obtained from one of the nine Nucor bar mills that use
over 99% scrap steel as their feedstock. A breakdown of the recycled content of Nucor bar mill products is detailed above. Vulcraft facilities may receive
steel from sources outside of Nucor that may contain
lower amounts of recycled steel. Specific product information is available from facility representatives.
(*)
DECK – Steel for decking produced by Vulcraft facilities
are typically obtained from one of the four Nucor sheet
mills. A breakdown of the recycled content of Nucor
sheet mill products is detailed above. Vulcraft deck
products contain approximately 70% recycled steel.
Additional information is available online through the
Steel Recycling Institute at http://www.recycle-steel.org.
Studies from 2005 have shown that the recycled steel used for Nucor products consists of approximately 87% post-consumer scrap.
The remaining 13% typically consists of pre-consumer scrap generated by manufacturing processes for products made
with steel.
All figures shown are based on 2006 figures and may vary from year to year. Please contact your local
sales representative for current average recycled content for Vulcraft products.
8
VULCRAFT K SERIES / GENERAL INFORMATION
ECONOMICAL
SJI SPANS TO 60'-0"
HIGH STRENGTH
PAINT - Vulcraft joists receive a shop-coat of
rust inhibitive primer whose performance
characteristics conform to those of the Steel
Joist Institute specifications 3.3.
DESIGN - Vulcraft K Series open web steel
joists are designed in accordance with
specifications of the Steel Joist Institute.
SPECIFICATIONS see page 10.
ACCESSORIES see page 40.
FOR TOP CHORD EXTENSIONS AND
EXTENDED ENDS see page 37.
Round Rod
SECTION
NUMBER**
1 thru 9
10
11 and 12
1/2"DIA
(13mm)
r = .13"
3'-3"
(991mm)
3'-0"
(914mm)
2'-7"
(787mm)
KCS SERIES JOIST see page 29.
BRIDGING FOR STANDING SEAM ROOF
SYSTEMS:
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
BRIDGING MATERIAL SIZE
Equal Leg Angles
1 x 7/64
(25mm x 3mm)
r = .25"
5'-0"
(1524mm)
4'-8"
(1422mm)
4'-0"
(1219mm)
1-1/4 x 7/64
(32mm x 3mm)
r = .25"
6'-3"
(1905mm)
6'-3"
(1905mm)
5'-8"
(1727mm)
1-1/2 x7/64
(38mm x 3mm)
r = .30"
7'-6"
(2286mm)
7'-6"
(2286mm)
7'-6"
(2286mm)
1-3/4 x 7/64
2x 1/8
(45mm x 3mm) (51mm x 3mm)
r = .35"
r = .40"
8'-7"
10'-0"
(2616mm)
(3048mm)
8'-7"
10'-0"
(2616mm)
(3048mm)
8'-7"
10'-0"
(2616mm)
(3048mm)
2-1/2 x 5/32
(64mm x 4mm)
r = .50"
12'-6"
(3810mm)
12'-6"
(3810mm)
12'-6"
(3810mm)
*SECTION NUMBER REFERS TO THE LAST DIGITS OF JOIST DESIGNATION, CONNECTION TO JOIST MUST RESIST 700 POUNDS (3114 N)
UPLIFT BRIDGING:
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR DIAGONAL BRIDGING
BRIDGING ANGLE SIZE-EQUAL LEG ANGLES
JOIST
DEPTH
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Generally, standing seam roof systems will not
adequately brace the top chords of the joists
with standard SJI bridging. We therefore,
recommend that when a standing seam roof
system is specified, the design professional
specifically state that the joist manufacturer is
to check the bridging requirements and
provide bridging as required to adequately
brace the top chord against lateral movement
under full loading conditions.
1 x 7/64
(25mm x 3mm)
r = .20"
1 1/4 X7/64
(32mm x 3mm)
r = .25"
1 1/2 X 7/64
(38mm x 3mm)
r = .30"
1 3/4 x 7/64
(45mm x 3mm)
r = .35"
6'-6" (1981mm)
6'-6" (1981mm)
6'-6" (1981mm)
6'-6" (1981mm)
6'-5" (1955mm)
6'-4" (1930mm)
6'-4" (1930mm)
6'-3" (1905mm)
6'-2" (1879mm)
6'-2" (1879mm)
8'-3" (2514mm)
8'-3" (2514mm)
8'-2" (2489mm)
8'-2" (2489mm)
8'-2" (2489mm)
8'-1" (2463mm)
8'-1" (2463mm)
8'-0" (2438mm)
8'-0" (2438mm)
7'-11" (2413mm)
9'-11" (3022mm)
9'-11" (3022mm)
9'-10" (2997mm)
9'-10" (2997mm)
9'-10" (2997mm)
9'-10" (2997mm)
9'-9" (2971mm)
9'-9" (2971mm)
9'-8" (2946mm)
9'-8" (2946mm)
11'-7" (3530mm)
11'-7" (3530mm)
11'-6" (3505mm)
11'-6" (3505mm)
11'-6" (3505mm)
11'-6" (3505mm)
11'-5" (3479mm)
11'-5" (3479mm)
11'-5" (3479mm)
11'-4" (3454mm)
K-series--all sections numbers use A307 bolt 3/8" (9mm) diameter.
See page 16 for number of rows of bridging required.
9
Where uplift forces due to wind are a design
requirement, these forces must be indicated
on the structural drawings in terms of net uplift
in pounds per square foot or pounds per linear
foot. When these loads are specified, they
must be considered in the design of joists and
bridging. As a minimum, a single line of bottom
chord bridging must be provided near the first
bottom chord panel point, at each end of the
joist, whenever uplift is a design
consideration.*
*See Section 5.11 of the specifications.
American National Standard SJI-K–1.1
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute November 4, 1985
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
SECTION 1.
SECTION 3.
SCOPE
MATERIALS
3.1 STEEL
This specification covers the design, manufacture and use
of Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series. Load and Resistance
Factor Design (LRFD) and Allowable Strength Design (ASD)
are included in this specification.
The steel used in the manufacture of chord and web sections
shall conform to one of the following ASTM Specifications:
• Carbon Structural Steel, ASTM A36/A36M.
SECTION 2.
• High-Strength,
A242/A242M.
DEFINITION
Low-Alloy
Structural
Steel,
ASTM
• High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of Structural
Quality, ASTM A529/A529M, Grade 50.
The term “Open Web Steel Joists K-Series,” as used herein,
refers to open web, parallel chord, load-carrying members
suitable for the direct support of floors and roof decks in buildings, utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel, including coldformed steel whose yield strength* has been attained by cold
working. K-Series Joists shall be designed in accordance
with this specification to support the uniformly distributed
loads given in the Standard Load Tables for Open Web Steel
Joists, K-Series, attached hereto.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural
Steel, ASTM A572/A572M, Grade 42 and 50.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi (345
MPa) Minimum Yield Point to 4 inches (100 mm) Thick,
ASTM A588/A588M.
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, High-Strength, Low-Alloy, HotRolled and Cold-Rolled, with Improved Corrosion Resistance, ASTM A606.
The KCS Joist is a K-Series Joist which is provided to
address the problem faced by specifying professionals when
trying to select joists to support uniform plus concentrated
loads or other non-uniform loads.
• Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, HighStrength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with
Improved Formability, ASTM A1008/A1008M
The design of chord sections for K-Series Joists shall be
based on a yield strength of 50 ksi (345 MPa). The design
of web sections for K-Series Joists shall be based on a yield
strength of either 36 ksi (250 MPa) or 50 ksi (345 MPa).
Steel used for K-Series Joists chord or web sections shall
have a minimum yield strength determined in accordance
with one of the procedures specified in Section 3.2, which is
equal to the yield strength assumed in the design.
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural,
High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with
Improved Formability, ASTM A1011/A1011M
or shall be of suitable quality ordered or produced to other than
the listed specifications, provided that such material in the state
used for final assembly and manufacture is weldable and is
proved by tests performed by the producer or manufacturer to
have the properties specified in Section 3.2.
3.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
* The term “Yield Strength” as used herein shall designate the yield level of a material as determined by the
applicable method outlined in paragraph 13.1 “Yield
Point”, and in paragraph 13.2 “Yield Strength”, of
ASTM A370, Standard Test Methods and Definitions
for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products, or as specified in paragraph 3.2 of this specification.
The yield strength used as a basis for the design stresses
prescribed in Section 4 shall be either 36 ksi (250 MPa) or
50 ksi (345 MPa). Evidence that the steel furnished meets
or exceeds the design yield strength shall, if requested, be
provided in the form of an affidavit or by witnessed or certified test reports.
For material used without consideration of increase in yield
strength resulting from cold forming, the specimens shall be
taken from as-rolled material. In the case of material, the mechanical properties of which conform to the requirements of
one of the listed specifications, the test specimens and procedures shall conform to those of such specifications and to
ASTM A370.
Standard Specifications and Load Tables, Open Web
Steel Joists, K-Series,
Steel Joist Institute - Copyright, 2005
10
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
In the case of material, the mechanical properties of which
do not conform to the requirements of one of the listed specifications, the test specimens and procedures shall conform
to the applicable requirements of ASTM A370, and the specimens shall exhibit a yield strength equal to or exceeding the
design yield strength and an elongation of not less than (a)
20 percent in 2 inches (51 millimeters) for sheet and strip, or
(b) 18 percent in 8 inches (203 millimeters) for plates,
shapes and bars with adjustments for thickness for plates,
shapes and bars as prescribed in ASTM A36/A36M,
A242/A242M, A529/A529M, A572/A572M, A588/A588M,
whichever specification is applicable on the basis of design
yield strength.
SECTION 4.
DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURE
4.1 METHOD
Joists shall be designed in accordance with these specifications
as simply supported, uniformly loaded trusses supporting a
floor or roof deck so constructed as to brace the top chord of
the joists against lateral buckling. Where any applicable design
feature is not specifically covered herein, the design shall be in
accordance with the following specifications:
The number of tests shall be as prescribed in ASTM A6/A6M
for plates, shapes, and bars; and ASTM A606,
A1008/A1008M and A1011/A1011M for sheet and strip.
a) Where the steel used consists of hot-rolled shapes, bars or
plates, use the American Institute of Steel Construction,
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.
If as-formed strength is utilized, the test reports shall show
the results of tests performed on full section specimens in
accordance with the provisions of the AISI North American
Specifications for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members. They shall also indicate compliance
with these provisions and with the following additional
requirements:
b) For members that are cold-formed from sheet or strip steel,
use the American Iron and Steel Institute, North American
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members.
Design Basis:
a) The yield strength calculated from the test data shall
equal or exceed the design yield strength.
Designs shall be made according to the provisions in this Specification for either Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
or for Allowable Strength Design (ASD).
b) Where tension tests are made for acceptance and control purposes, the tensile strength shall be at least 6 percent greater than the yield strength of the section.
LRFD:
Load Combinations:
When load combinations are not specified to the joist manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed for the factored loads
based on the factors and load combinations as follows:
c) Where compression tests are used for acceptance and
control purposes, the specimen shall withstand a gross
shortening of 2 percent of its original length without
cracking. The length of the specimen shall be not
greater than 20 times the least radius of gyration.
1.4D
ASD:
1.2D + 1.6 ( L, or Lr, or S, or R )
d) If any test specimen fails to pass the requirements of the
subparagraphs (a), (b), or (c) above, as applicable, two
retests shall be made of specimens from the same lot.
Failure of one of the retest specimens to meet such
requirements shall be the cause for rejection of the lot
represented by the specimens.
When load combinations are not specified to the joist manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed based on the load
combinations as follows:
D
3.3 PAINT
D + ( L, or Lr, or S, or R )
Where:
The standard shop paint is intended to protect the steel for
only a short period of exposure in ordinary atmospheric conditions and shall be considered an impermanent and provisional coating.
D = dead load due to the weight of the structural elements
and the permanent features of the structure
L = live load due to occupancy and movable equipment
Lr = roof live load
When specified, the standard shop paint shall conform to
one of the following:
S = snow load
a) Steel Structures Painting Council Specification, SSPC
No. 15.
R = load due to initial rainwater or ice exclusive of the
ponding contribution
b) Or, shall be a shop paint which meets the minimum performance requirements of the above listed specification.
When special loads are specified and the specifying professional
does not provide the load combinations, the provisions of ASCE
7, “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures”
shall be used for LRFD and ASD load combinations.
11
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
4.2 DESIGN AND ALLOWABLE STRESSES
and the appropriate length for web members, and r is the
corresponding least radius of gyration of the member or
any component thereof. E is equal to 29,000 ksi (200,000
MPa).
Design Using Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Joists shall have their components so proportioned that the
required stresses, fu , shall not exceed φFn where,
fu
=
required stress
ksi (MPa)
Fn
=
nominal stress
ksi (MPa)
=
resistance factor
φ
φFn
Use 1.2 l/rx for a crimped, first primary compression web
member when a moment-resistant weld group is not used
for this member; where rx = member radius of gyration in
the plane of the joist.
For cold-formed sections the method of calculating the nominal column strength is given in the AISI, North American
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural
Members.
Design Using Allowable Strength Design (ASD)
=
design stress
(c) Bending: φb = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω b = 1.67 (ASD)
Joists shall have their components so proportioned that the
required stresses, f, shall not exceed Fn / Ω where,
f
=
required stress
ksi (MPa)
Fn
=
nominal stress
ksi (MPa)
=
safety factor
Ω
Stresses:
Fn/Ω =
Bending calculations are to be based on using the elastic
section modulus.
For chords and web members other than solid rounds:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
allowable stress
(a) Tension: φt = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω = 1.67 (ASD)
For Webs: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
(4.2-1)
(b) Compression: φc = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω c = 1.67 (ASD)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fy (ASD)
For members with l
r
≤ 4.71
Fcr = Q 0.658
l
For members with
r
> 4.71
(4.2-2)
E
(4.2-9)
Design Stress = 1.45Fy (LRFD)
(4.2-10)
Allowable Stress = 0.95Fy (ASD)
(4.2-11)
Design Stress = 1.35Fy (LRFD)
(4.2-12)
4.3 MAXIMUM SLENDERNESS RATIOS
(4.2-13)
Allowable Stress = 0.90Fy (ASD)
QFy
Fy
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fy (ASD)
For bearing plates:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
QFy
Fe
(4.2-8)
For web members of solid round cross section:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
For Chords: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
Design Stress = 0.9Fy (LRFD)
Design Stress = 0.9Fy (LRFD)
The slenderness ratio, l/r, where l is as used in Section 4.2
(b) and r is the corresponding least radius of gyration, shall
not exceed the following:
(4.2-3)
Top chord interior panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
E
Top chord end panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
QFy
Compression members other than top chord. . . . . . . . . 200
Fcr = 0.877Fe
(4.2-4)
4.4 MEMBERS
Tension members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
(a) Chords
Where Fe = Elastic buckling stress determined in
accordance with Equation 4.2-5.
Fe =
π E 2
2
The bottom chord shall be designed as an axially loaded
tension member.
(4.2-5)
l
r
The radius of gyration of the top chord about its vertical axis
shall not be less than l/145 where l is the spacing in
inches (millimeters) between lines of bridging as specified in
Section 5.4(c).
For hot-rolled sections, “Q” is the full reduction factor for
slender compression elements.
Design Stress = 0.9Fcr (LRFD)
(4.2-6)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fcr (ASD)
(4.2-7)
The top chord shall be considered as stayed laterally by
the floor slab or roof deck when attachments are in accordance with the requirements of Section 5.8(e) of these
specifications.
In the above equations, l is taken as the distance in inches
(millimeters) between panel points for the chord members
12
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
For ASD:
The top chord shall be designed for only axial compressive stress when the panel length, l, does not exceed
24 inches (609 mm). When the panel length exceeds
24 inches (609 mm), the top chord shall be designed as
a continuous member subject to combined axial and
bending stresses and shall be so proportioned that:
at the panel point:
For LRFD:
at the panel point:
fau + fbu ≤ 0.9Fy
at the mid panel:
for
(4.4-1)
Qφ bFy
≤ 1.0 (4.4-2)
(4.4-4)
≥ 0.2,
Cmfb
1.67fa
1–
Fe
fa
Fa
fa
+
2Fa
1–
QFb
≤ 1.0 (4.4-5)
< 0.2,
Cmfb
1.67fa
Fe
QFb
≤ 1.0
(4.4-6)
fa = P/A = Required compressive stress, ksi (MPa)
Cmfbu
fau
1–
φ cFe
fa
Fa
fa 8
+
Fa 9
fau
< 0.2,
φcFcr
fau
+
2φcFcr
for
for
Cmfbu
fau
1– φ cFe
for
at the mid panel:
fau
≥ 0.2,
φ cFcr
fau
8
+
φ cFcr 9
fa + fb ≤ 0.6Fy
Qφ bFy
≤ 1.0
P = Required axial strength using ASD load combinations,
kips (N)
(4.4-3)
fb = M/S = Required bending stress at the location under
consideration, ksi (MPa)
M = Required flexural strength using ASD load
combinations, kip-in. (N-mm)
fau = Pu /A = Required compressive stress, ksi (MPa)
Pu = Required axial strength using LRFD load
combinations, kips (N)
S = Elastic Section Modulus, in.3 (mm3)
fbu = Mu/S = Required bending stress at the location under
consideration, ksi (MPa)
Fa = Allowable axial compressive stress based on l/r as
defined in Section 4.2(b), ksi (MPa)
Mu = Required flexural strength using LRFD load
combinations, kip-in. (N-mm)
Fb = Allowable bending stress; 0.6Fy, ksi (MPa)
Cm = 1 - 0.50 fa/Fe for end panels
S = Elastic Section Modulus, in.3 (mm3)
(b) Web
Cm = 1 - 0.67 fa/Fe for interior panels
Fcr = Nominal axial compressive stress in ksi (MPa)
based on l/ r as defined in Section 4.2(b),
The vertical shears to be used in the design of the web
members shall be determined from full uniform loading, but
such vertical shears shall be not less than 25 percent of the
end reaction. Due consideration shall be given to the effect
of eccentricity. The effect of combined axial compression
and bending may be investigated using the provisions of
Section 4.4(a), letting Cm = 0.4 when bending due to
eccentricity produces reversed curvature.
Cm = 1 - 0.3 fau/φFe for end panels
Cm = 1 - 0.4 fau/φFe for interior panels
Fy = Specified minimum yield strength, ksi (MPa)
Fe =
π E 2
2
, ksi (MPa)
l
rx
Interior vertical web members used in modified Warren
type web systems shall be designed to resist the gravity
loads supported by the member plus an additional axial
load of 1/2 of 1.0 percent of the top chord axial force.
Where l is the panel length, in inches (millimeters), as
defined in Section 4.2(b) and rx is the radius of gyration
about the axis of bending.
(c) Extended Ends
Q = Form factor defined in Section 4.2(b)
A = Area of the top chord, in.2 (mm2)
The magnitude and location of the loads to be supported,
deflection requirements, and proper bracing of extended
13
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
(c) Eccentricity
top chords or full depth cantilever ends shall be clearly indicated on the structural drawings.
4.5 CONNECTIONS
Members connected at a joint shall have their centroidal
axes meet at a point if practical. Otherwise, due consideration shall be given to the effect of eccentricity. In no case
shall eccentricity of any web member at a joint exceed 3/4
of the over-all dimension, measured in the plane of the
web, of the largest member connected. The eccentricity of
any web member shall be the perpendicular distance from
the centroidal axis of that web member to the point on the
centroidal axis of the chord which is vertically above or
below the intersection of the centroidal axes of the web
members forming the joint. Ends of joists shall be proportioned to resist bending produced by eccentricity at the
support.
(a) Methods
Joist connections and splices shall be made by attaching
the members to one another by arc or resistance welding
or other accredited methods.
(1) Welded Connections
a) Selected welds shall be inspected visually by the
manufacturer. Prior to this inspection, weld slag
shall be removed.
4.6 CAMBER
b) Cracks are not acceptable and shall be repaired.
c) Thorough fusion shall exist between weld and base
metal for the required design length of the weld;
such fusion shall be verified by visual inspection.
Joists shall have approximate camber in accordance with the
following:
TABLE 4.6-1
d) Unfilled weld craters shall not be included in the
design length of the weld.
Top Chord Length
e) Undercut shall not exceed 1/16 inch (2 millimeters)
for welds oriented parallel to the principal stress.
Approximate Camber
20'-0"
(6096 mm)
1/4"
(6 mm)
f) The sum of surface (piping) porosity diameters shall
not exceed 1/16 inch (2 millimeters) in any 1 inch
(25 millimeters) of design weld length.
30'-0"
(9144 mm)
3/8"
(10 mm)
40'-0"
(12192 mm)
5/8"
(16 mm)
50'-0"
(15240 mm)
1"
(25 mm)
g) Weld spatter that does not interfere with paint coverage is acceptable.
60'-0"
(18288 mm)
1 1/2"
(38 mm)
The specifying professional shall give consideration to coordinating joist camber with adjacent framing.
(2) Welding Program
4.7 VERIFICATION OF DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
Manufacturers shall have a program for establishing
weld procedures and operator qualification, and for
weld sampling and testing. (See Technical Digest #8 Welding of Open Web Steel Joists.)
(a) Design Calculations
Companies manufacturing K-Series Joists shall submit
design data to the Steel Joist Institute (or an independent
agency approved by the Steel Joist Institute) for verification
of compliance with the SJI Specifications. Design data
shall be submitted in detail and in the format specified by
the Institute.
(3) Weld Inspection by Outside Agencies (See Section
5.12 of these specifications)
The agency shall arrange for visual inspection to determine that welds meet the acceptance standards of
Section 4.5(a)(1) above. Ultrasonic, X-Ray, and magnetic particle testing are inappropriate for joists due to
the configurations of the components and welds.
(b) Tests of Chord and Web Members
(b) Strength
Each manufacturer shall, at the time of design review by
the Steel Joist Institute or other independent agency,
verify by tests that the design, in accordance with
Sections 4.1 through 4.5 of this specification, will provide
the theoretical strength of critical members. Such tests
shall be evaluated considering the actual yield strength
of the members of the test joists.
(1) Joint Connections - Joint connections shall be capable
of withstanding forces due to an ultimate load equal to
at least 1.35 times the LRFD, or 2.0 times the ASD load
shown in the applicable Standard Load Table.
(2) Shop Splices – Splices may occur at any point in chord
or web members. Members containing a butt weld
splice shall develop an ultimate tensile force of at least
57 ksi (393 MPa) times the full design area of the chord
or web. The term “member” shall be defined as all
component parts comprising the chord or web, at the
point of the splice.
Material tests for determining mechanical properties of
component members shall be conducted.
(c) Tests of Joints and Connections
Each manufacturer shall verify by shear tests on representative joints of typical joists that connections will meet the
provision of Section 4.5(b). Chord and web members may
be reinforced for such tests.
14
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
(d) In-Plant Inspections
steel bearing plate and the masonry or concrete by the
specifying professional. The joists must bear a minimum
of 2 1/2 inches (64 millimeters) on the steel bearing plate.
Each manufacturer shall verify their ability to manufacture
K-Series Joists through periodic In-Plant Inspections.
Inspections shall be performed by an independent
agency approved by the Steel Joist Institute. The frequency, manner of inspection, and manner of reporting
shall be determined by the Steel Joist Institute. The
plant inspections are not a guarantee of the quality of
any specific joists; this responsibility lies fully and solely
with the individual manufacturer.
(b) Steel
Due consideration of the end reactions and all other vertical and lateral forces shall be taken by the specifying
professional in the design of the steel support. The ends
of K-Series Joists shall extend a distance of not less than
2 1/2 inches (64 millimeters) over the steel supports.
5.4 BRIDGING
SECTION 5.
Top and bottom chord bridging is required and shall consist of
one or both of the following types.
(a) Horizontal
APPLICATION
5.1 USAGE
Horizontal bridging shall consist of continuous horizontal
steel members. Attachments to the joist chords shall be
made by welding or mechanical means and shall be capable of resisting a nominal (unfactored) horizontal force of
not less than 700 pounds (3114 Newtons).
These specifications shall apply to any type of structure where
floors and roofs are to be supported directly by steel joists
installed as hereinafter specified. Where joists are used other
than on simple spans under uniformly distributed loading as
prescribed in Section 4.1, they shall be investigated and modified if necessary to limit the required stresses to those listed in
Section 4.2.
The ratio of unbraced length to least radius of gyration, l/r,
of the bridging member shall not exceed 300, where l is
the distance in inches (millimeters) between attachments
and r is the least radius of gyration of the bridging member.
CAUTION: If a rigid connection of the bottom chord is to be
made to the column or other support, it shall be made only
after the application of the dead loads. The joist is then no
longer simply supported, and the system must be investigated
for continuous frame action by the specifying professional.
(b) Diagonal
Diagonal bridging shall consist of cross-bracing with a
l/r ratio of not more than 200, where l is the distance in
inches (millimeters) between connections and r is the least
radius of gyration of the bracing member. Where crossbracing members are connected at their point of intersection,
the l distance shall be taken as the distance in inches (millimeters) between connections at the point of intersection
of the bracing members and the connections to the chord of
the joists. Connections to the chords of steel joists shall be
made by positive mechanical means or by welding.
The designed detail of a rigid type connection and moment
plates shall be shown on the structural drawings by the specifying professional. The moment plates shall be furnished by
other than the joist manufacturer.
5.2 SPAN
5.3 END SUPPORTS
(c) Quantity and Spacing
The span of a joist shall not exceed 24 times its depth.
(a) Masonry and Concrete
The number of rows of top chord bridging shall not be less
than as shown in Bridging Tables 5.4-1 and the spacing
shall meet the requirements of Section 4.4(a). The number
of rows of bottom chord bridging, including bridging required per Section 5.11, shall not be less than the number
of top chord rows. Rows of bottom chord bridging are permitted to be spaced independently of rows of top chord
bridging. The spacing of rows of bottom chord bridging
shall meet the slenderness requirement of Section 4.3 and
any specified strength requirements.
K-Series Joists supported by masonry or concrete are to
bear on steel bearing plates and shall be designed as steel
bearing. Due consideration of the end reactions and all
other vertical or lateral forces shall be taken by the specifying professional in the design of the steel bearing plate
and the masonry or concrete. The ends of K-Series Joists
shall extend a distance of not less than 4 inches (102 millimeters) over the masonry or concrete support and be
anchored to the steel bearing plate. The plate shall be
located not more than 1/2 inch (13 millimeters) from the
face of the wall and shall be not less than 6 inches (152 millimeters) wide perpendicular to the length of the joist. The
plate is to be designed by the specifying professional and
shall be furnished by other than the joist manufacturer.
(d) Bottom Chord Bearing Joists
Where bottom chord bearing joists are utilized, a row of
diagonal bridging shall be provided near the support(s).
This bridging shall be installed and anchored before the
hoisting cable(s) is released.
Where it is deemed necessary to bear less than 4 inches
(102 millimeters) over the masonry or concrete support,
special consideration is to be given to the design of the
15
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
TABLE 5.4-1
NUMBER OF ROWS OF TOP CHORD BRIDGING**
Refer to the K-Series Load Table and Specification Section 6 for required bolted diagonal bridging.
Distances are Joist Span lengths in feet - See “Definition of Span” preceding Load Table.
*Section
Number
One
Row
Two
Rows
Three
Rows
Four
Rows
#1
Up thru 16
Over 16 thru 24
Over 24 thru 28
#2
Up thru 17
Over 17 thru 25
Over 25 thru 32
#3
Up thru 18
Over 18 thru 28
Over 28 thru 38
Over 38 thru 40
#4
Up thru 19
Over 19 thru 28
Over 28 thru 38
Over 38 thru 48
#5
Up thru 19
Over 19 thru 29
Over 29 thru 39
Over 39 thru 50
Over 50 thru 52
#6
Up thru 19
Over 19 thru 29
Over 29 thru 39
Over 39 thru 51
Over 51 thru 56
#7
Up thru 20
Over 20 thru 33
Over 33 thru 45
Over 45 thru 58
Over 58 thru 60
#8
Up thru 20
Over 20 thru 33
Over 33 thru 45
Over 45 thru 58
Over 58 thru 60
Over 59 thru 60
#9
Up thru 20
Over 20 thru 33
Over 33 thru 46
Over 46 thru 59
#10
Up thru 20
Over 20 thru 37
Over 37 thru 51
Over 51 thru 60
#11
Up thru 20
Over 20 thru 38
Over 38 thru 53
Over 53 thru 60
#12
Up thru 20
Over 20 thru 39
Over 39 thru 53
Over 53 thru 60
* Last digit(s) of joist designation shown in Load Table
** See Section 5.11 for additional bridging required for uplift design.
16
Five
Rows
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
5.5 INSTALLATION OF BRIDGING
(d) Bearing
Slabs or decks shall bear uniformly along the top chords
of the joists.
Bridging shall support the top and bottom chords against lateral
movement during the construction period and shall hold the
steel joists in the approximate position as shown on the joist
placement plans.
(e) Attachments
The spacing for slab or deck attachments along the joist
top chord shall not exceed 36 inches (914 millimeters),
and shall be capable of resisting a nominal (unfactored)
lateral force of not less than 300 pounds (1335 Newtons),
i.e., 100 plf (1.46 kN/m).
The ends of all bridging lines terminating at walls or beams
shall be anchored thereto.
5.6 END ANCHORAGE
(a) Masonry and Concrete
(f) Wood Nailers
Ends of K-Series Joists resting on steel bearing plates
on masonry or structural concrete shall be attached
thereto with a minimum of two 1/8 inch (3 millimeters)
fillet welds 1 inch (25 millimeters) long, or with two 1/2
inch (13 millimeters) ASTM A307 bolts, or the equivalent.
Where wood nailers are used, such nailers in conjunction
with deck or slab shall be attached to the top chords of the
joists in conformance with Section 5.8(e).
(g) Joist With Standing Seam Roofing
(b) Steel
Ends of K-Series Joists resting on steel supports shall
be attached thereto with a minimum of two 1/8 inch
(3 millimeters) fillet welds 1 inch (25 millimeters) long, or
with two 1/2 inch (13 millimeters) ASTM A307 bolts, or
the equivalent. When K-Series Joists are used to provide lateral stability to the supporting member, the final
connection shall be made by welding or as designated
by the specifying professional.
The stiffness and strength of standing-seam roof clips
varies from one manufacturer to another. Therefore,
some roof systems cannot be counted on to provide lateral stability to the joists which support the roof.
Sufficient stability must be provided to brace the joists
laterally under the full design load. The compression
chord must resist the chord axial design force in the
plane of the joist (i.e., x-x axis buckling) and out of the
plane of the joist (i.e., y-y axis buckling). Out-of-plane
strength may be achieved by adjusting the bridging spacing and/or increasing the compression chord area, the
joist depth, and the y-axis radius of gyration. The effective
slenderness ratio in the y-direction equals 0.94 L/ry; where
L is the bridging spacing in inches (millimeters). The
maximum bridging spacing may not exceed that specified in Section 5.4(c).
(c) Uplift
Where uplift forces are a design consideration, roof joists
shall be anchored to resist such forces (Refer to Section
5.11 Uplift).
5.7 JOIST SPACING
Joists shall be spaced so that the loading on each joist does not
exceed the design load (LRFD or ASD) for the particular joist
designation and span as shown in the applicable load tables.
Horizontal bridging members attached to the compression
chords and their anchorage’s must be designed for a
compressive axial force of 0.0025nP, where n is the number of joists between end anchors and P is the chord design force in kips (Newtons). The attachment force
between the horizontal bridging member and the compression chord is 0.005P. Horizontal bridging attached to
the tension chords shall be proportioned so that the slenderness ratio between attachments does not exceed 300.
Diagonal bridging shall be proportioned so that the slenderness ratio between attachments does not exceed 200.
5.8 FLOOR AND ROOF DECKS
(a) Material
Floor and roof decks may consist of cast-in-place or precast concrete or gypsum, formed steel, wood, or other
suitable material capable of supporting the required load
at the specified joist spacing.
(b) Thickness
Cast-in-place slabs shall be not less than 2 inches (51
millimeters) thick.
(c) Centering
Centering for cast-in-place slabs may be ribbed metal lath,
corrugated steel sheets, paper-backed welded wire fabric,
removable centering or any other suitable material capable
of supporting the slab at the designated joist spacing.
Centering shall not cause lateral displacement or damage
to the top chord of joists during installation or removal of
the centering or placing of the concrete.
17
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
5.9 DEFLECTION
SECTION 6.*
The deflection due to the design nominal live load shall not
exceed the following:
ERECTION STABILITY
AND HANDLING
Floors: 1/360 of span.
Roofs: 1/360 of span where a plaster ceiling is attached
or suspended.
1/240 of span for all other cases.
When it is necessary for the erector to climb on the joists,
extreme caution must be exercised since unbridged joists may
exhibit some degree of instability under the erector’s weight.
(a) Stability Requirements
The specifying professional shall give consideration to the
effects of deflection and vibration* in the selection of joists.
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute Technical
Digest #5, “Vibration of Steel Joist-Concrete Slab Floors”
and the Institute’s Computer Vibration Program.
1) Before an employee is allowed on the steel joist: BOTH
ends of joists at columns (or joists designated as column
joists) shall be attached to its supports. For all other
joists a minimum of one end shall be attached before the
employee is allowed on the joist. The attachment shall be
in accordance with Section 5.6 – End Anchorage.
5.10 PONDING*
The ponding investigation shall be performed by the specifying
professional.
When a bolted seat connection is used for erection purposes, as a minimum, the bolts must be snug tightened.
The snug tight condition is defined as the tightness that
exists when all plies of a joint are in firm contact. This
may be attained by a few impacts of an impact wrench
or the full effort of an employee using an ordinary spud
wrench.
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute Technical
Digest #3, “Structural Design of Steel Joist Roofs to Resist
Ponding Loads” and AISC Specifications.
5.11 UPLIFT
Where uplift forces due to wind are a design requirement,
these forces must be indicated on the contract drawings in
terms of NET uplift in pounds per square foot (Pascals). The
contract documents shall indicate if the net uplift is based
upon LRFD or ASD. When these forces are specified, they
must be considered in the design of joists and/or bridging. A
single line of bottom chord bridging must be provided near
the first bottom chord panel points whenever uplift due to
wind forces is a design consideration.*
2) On steel joists that do not require erection bridging as
shown by the unshaded area of the Load Tables, only
one employee shall be allowed on the steel joist unless
all bridging is installed and anchored.
* For a thorough coverage of this topic, refer to SJI
Technical Digest #9, “Handling and Erection of Steel
Joists and Joist Girders”.
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute Technical
Digest #6, “Structural Design of Steel Joist Roofs to Resist
Uplift Loads”.
3) Where the span of the steel joist is within the Red shaded
area of the Load Table, the following shall apply:
5.12 INSPECTION
a) The row of bridging nearest the mid span of the steel
joists shall be bolted diagonal erection bridging; and
Joists shall be inspected by the manufacturer before shipment
to verify compliance of materials and workmanship with the
requirements of these specifications. If the purchaser wishes
an inspection of the steel joists by someone other than the
manufacturer’s own inspectors, they may reserve the right to
do so in their “Invitation to Bid” or the accompanying “Job
Specifications”.
b) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this bolted
diagonal erection bridging is installed and anchored,
unless an alternate method of stabilizing the joist has
been provided; and
c) No more than one employee shall be allowed on
these spans until all other bridging is installed and
anchored.
Arrangements shall be made with the manufacturer for such
inspection of the joists at the manufacturing shop by the purchaser’s inspectors at purchaser’s expense.
4) When permanent bridging terminus points cannot be
used during erection, additional temporary bridging terminus points are required to provide stability.
5.13 PARALLEL CHORD SLOPED JOISTS
5) In the case of bottom chord bearing joists, the ends of
the joist must be restrained laterally per Section 5.4(d).
The span of a parallel chord sloped joist shall be defined by
the length along the slope. Minimum depth, load-carrying
capacity, and bridging requirements shall be determined by
the sloped definition of span. The Standard Load Table
capacity shall be the component normal to the joist.
6) After the joist is straightened and plumbed, and all bridging is completely installed and anchored, the ends of the
joists shall be fully connected to the supports in accordance with Section 5.6 End Anchorage.
18
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
(c) Field Welding
(b) Landing and Placing Loads
1) All field welding shall be performed in accordance with
the contract documents. Field welding shall not damage the joists.
1) Except as stated in paragraphs 6(b)(3) and 6(b)(4) of
this section, no “construction loads”(1) are allowed on
the steel joists until all bridging is installed and anchored, and all joist bearing ends are attached.
2) On cold-formed members whose yield strength has
been attained by cold working, and whose as-formed
strength is used in the design, the total length of weld at
any one point shall not exceed 50 percent of the overall
developed width of the cold-formed section.
2) During the construction period, loads placed on the
steel joists shall be distributed so as not to exceed the
capacity of the steel joists.
(d) Handling
3) The weight of a bundle of joist bridging shall not exceed a total of 1000 pounds (454 kilograms). The
bundle of joist bridging shall be placed on a minimum
of 3 steel joists that are secured at one end. The edge
of the bridging bundle shall be positioned within 1 foot
(0.30 m) of the secured end.
(1)
Care shall be exercised at all times to avoid damage to the
joists and accessories.
(e) Fall Arrest Systems
Steel joists shall not be used as anchorage points for a fall
arrest system unless written direction to do so is obtained
from a “qualified person” (2).
See page 150 for definition of “construction load”.
A copy of the OSHA Steel Erection Standard
§1926.757, Open Web Steel Joists, is included in
Appendix E for reference purposes.
(2)
4) No bundle of deck may be placed on steel joists until all
bridging has been installed and anchored and all joist
bearing ends attached, unless the following conditions
are met:
a) The contractor has first determined from a “qualified
person” (2) and documented in a site-specific erection plan that the structure or portion of the structure
is capable of supporting the load;
b) The bundle of decking is placed on a minimum of 3
steel joists;
c) The joists supporting the bundle of decking are
attached at both ends;
d) At least one row of bridging is installed and
anchored;
e) The total weight of the decking does not exceed
4000 pounds (1816 kilograms); and
f) The edge of the decking shall be placed within 1 foot
(0.30 meters) of the bearing surface of the joist end.
g) The edge of the construction load shall be placed
within 1 foot (0.30 meters) of the bearing surface of
the joist end.
19
See page 150 for OSHA definition of “qualified
person”.
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
DEFINITION OF SPAN
(U. S. Customary Units)
NOTES: 1) DESIGN LENGTH = SPAN - 0.33 FT.
2) BEARING LENGTH FOR STEEL SUPPORTS SHALL NOT
BE LESS THAN 2 1/2 INCHES; FOR MASONRY AND
CONCRETE NOT LESS THAN 4 INCHES.
3) PARALLEL CHORD JOISTS INSTALLED TO A SLOPE
GREATER THAN 1/2 INCH PER FOOT SHALL USE SPAN
DEFINED BY THE LENGTH ALONG THE SLOPE.
20
STANDARD LRFD LOAD TABLE
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute May 1, 2000
Revised to November 10, 2003 – Effective March 01, 2005
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in these
tables do not include accessories.
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL safe
factored uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities, in
pounds per linear foot, of LRFD K-Series Steel Joists. The
weight of factored DEAD loads, including the joists, must be
deducted to determine the factored LIVE load-carrying capacities of the joists. Sloped parallel-chord joists shall use span as
defined by the length along the slope.
Ij = 26.767(WLL)(L3)(10-6), where WLL= RED figure in the
Load Table and L = (Span - 0.33) in feet.
The approximate moment of inertia of the joist, in inches4 is;
The figures shown in RED in this load table are the unfactored
nominal LIVE loads per linear foot of joist which will produce
an approximate deflection of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads
which will produce a deflection of 1/240 of the span may be
obtained by multiplying the figures in RED by 1.5. In no case
shall the TOTAL load capacity of the joists be exceeded.
For the proper handling of concentrated and/or varying loads,
see Section 6.1 in the Code of Standard Practice for Steel
Joists and Joist Girders.
Where the joist span exceeds the unshaded area of the
Load Table, the row of bridging nearest the mid span shall be
diagonal bridging with bolted connections at the chords and
intersections.
LRFD
Joist
Designation
Depth (in.)
Approx. Wt
(lbs./ft.)
Span (ft.)
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
8K1
10K1
12K1
12K3
12K5
14K1
14K3
14K4
14K6
16K3
16K4
16K5
16K6
16K7
8
10
12
12
12
14
14
14
14
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.7
7.1
5.2
6.0
6.7
7.7
5.5
6.3
7.0
7.5
8.1
8.6
10.0
825
550
825
510
750
425
651
344
570
282
504
234
448
197
402
167
361
142
327
123
298
106
271
93
249
81
825
550
825
510
825
463
814
428
714
351
630
291
561
245
502
207
453
177
409
153
373
132
340
116
312
101
825
550
825
510
825
463
825
434
825
396
825
366
760
317
681
269
613
230
555
198
505
172
462
150
423
132
825
550
766
475
672
390
592
324
528
272
472
230
426
197
385
170
351
147
321
128
294
113
270
100
249
88
231
79
214
70
825
550
825
507
825
467
742
404
661
339
592
287
534
246
483
212
439
184
402
160
367
141
339
124
313
110
289
98
270
88
825
550
825
507
825
467
825
443
795
397
712
336
642
287
582
248
529
215
483
188
442
165
408
145
376
129
349
115
324
103
825
550
825
507
825
467
825
443
825
408
825
383
787
347
712
299
648
259
592
226
543
199
501
175
462
156
427
139
397
124
825
550
768
488
684
409
612
347
552
297
499
255
454
222
415
194
381
170
351
150
324
133
300
119
279
106
259
95
241
86
226
78
213
71
825
550
825
526
762
456
682
386
615
330
556
285
505
247
462
216
424
189
390
167
360
148
334
132
310
118
289
106
270
96
252
87
237
79
825
550
825
526
825
490
820
452
739
386
670
333
609
289
556
252
510
221
469
195
433
173
402
155
373
138
348
124
324
112
304
101
285
92
825
550
825
526
825
490
825
455
825
426
754
373
687
323
627
282
576
248
529
219
489
194
453
173
421
155
391
139
366
126
342
114
321
103
825
550
825
526
825
490
825
455
825
426
822
405
747
351
682
307
627
269
576
238
532
211
493
188
459
168
427
151
399
137
373
124
349
112
825
550
825
526
825
490
825
455
825
426
825
406
825
385
760
339
697
298
642
263
592
233
549
208
510
186
475
167
444
151
415
137
388
124
825
550
825
526
825
490
825
455
825
426
825
406
825
385
825
363
825
346
771
311
711
276
658
246
612
220
570
198
532
178
498
161
466
147
825
550
825
550
825
480
798
377
666
288
565
225
486
179
421
145
369
119
825
550
825
542
825
455
718
363
618
289
537
234
469
192
415
159
369
134
331
113
298
97
29
30
31
32
21
16K2
16K9
LRFD
Joist
Designation
Depth (In.)
Approx. Wt.
(lbs./ft.)
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
18K3
18K4
18K5
18K6
18K7
20K3
20K4
20K5
20K6
22K4
22K5
22K6
22K7
18
18
18
18
18
18K9 18K10
18
18
20
20
20
20
20K7 20K9 20K10
20
20
20
22
22
22
22
22K9 22K10 22K11
22
22
22
6.6
7.2
7.7
8.5
9
10.2
11.7
6.7
7.6
8.2
8.9
9.3
10.8
12.2
8
8.8
9.2
9.7
11.3
12.6
13.8
825
550
771
494
694
423
630
364
573
316
523
276
480
242
441
214
408
190
378
169
351
151
327
136
304
123
285
111
267
101
252
92
237
84
223
77
211
70
825
550
825
523
825
490
759
426
690
370
630
323
577
284
532
250
492
222
454
198
423
177
394
159
367
144
343
130
322
118
303
108
285
98
268
90
253
82
825
550
825
523
825
490
825
460
777
414
709
362
651
318
600
281
553
249
513
222
477
199
444
179
414
161
387
146
363
132
342
121
321
110
303
101
286
92
825
550
825
523
825
490
825
460
825
438
774
393
709
345
652
305
603
271
558
241
519
216
483
194
451
175
421
158
396
144
372
131
349
120
330
110
312
101
825
550
825
523
825
490
825
460
825
438
825
418
789
382
727
337
672
299
622
267
577
239
538
215
502
194
469
175
441
159
414
145
390
132
367
121
348
111
825
550
825
523
825
490
825
460
825
438
825
418
825
396
825
377
807
354
747
315
694
282
646
254
603
229
564
207
529
188
498
171
468
156
441
143
417
132
825
550
825
523
825
490
825
460
825
438
825
418
825
396
825
377
825
361
825
347
822
331
766
298
715
269
669
243
627
221
589
201
555
184
523
168
495
154
775
517
702
453
639
393
583
344
535
302
493
266
456
236
421
211
391
189
364
170
340
153
318
138
298
126
280
114
264
105
249
96
235
88
222
81
211
74
199
69
190
64
825
550
825
520
771
461
703
402
645
353
594
312
549
277
508
247
472
221
439
199
411
179
384
162
360
147
339
134
318
122
300
112
283
103
268
95
255
87
241
81
229
75
825
550
825
520
825
490
793
451
727
396
669
350
618
310
573
277
532
248
495
223
462
201
433
182
406
165
381
150
358
137
339
126
319
115
303
106
286
98
271
90
258
84
825
550
825
520
825
490
825
468
792
430
729
380
673
337
624
301
579
269
540
242
504
218
471
198
442
179
415
163
391
149
369
137
348
125
330
115
312
106
297
98
282
91
825
550
825
520
825
490
825
468
825
448
811
421
750
373
694
333
645
298
601
268
561
242
525
219
492
199
463
181
435
165
411
151
388
139
367
128
348
118
330
109
313
101
825
550
825
520
825
490
825
468
825
448
825
426
825
405
825
389
775
353
723
317
675
286
631
259
592
235
556
214
523
195
493
179
466
164
441
151
418
139
397
129
376
119
825
550
825
520
825
490
825
468
825
448
825
426
825
405
825
389
825
375
825
359
799
336
748
304
702
276
660
251
621
229
585
210
553
193
523
178
496
164
471
151
447
140
825
548
777
491
712
431
657
381
606
338
561
301
522
270
486
242
453
219
424
198
397
180
373
164
352
149
331
137
313
126
297
116
280
107
267
98
253
91
241
85
229
79
219
73
208
68
825
548
825
518
804
483
739
427
682
379
633
337
588
302
547
272
511
245
478
222
448
201
421
183
397
167
373
153
354
141
334
130
316
119
300
110
285
102
271
95
259
88
247
82
235
76
825
548
825
518
825
495
805
464
744
411
688
367
640
328
597
295
556
266
520
241
489
219
459
199
432
182
408
167
385
153
364
141
345
130
327
120
310
111
295
103
282
96
268
89
256
83
825
548
825
518
825
495
825
474
825
454
768
406
712
364
664
327
619
295
580
267
544
242
511
221
481
202
454
185
429
169
406
156
384
144
364
133
346
123
330
114
313
106
300
99
286
92
825
548
825
518
825
495
825
474
825
454
825
432
825
413
798
387
745
349
697
316
654
287
615
261
579
239
546
219
516
201
487
185
462
170
438
157
417
146
396
135
378
126
360
117
343
109
825
548
825
518
825
495
825
474
825
454
825
432
825
413
825
399
825
385
825
369
775
337
729
307
687
280
648
257
612
236
579
217
549
200
520
185
495
171
471
159
448
148
427
138
408
128
825
548
825
518
825
495
825
474
825
454
825
432
825
413
825
399
825
385
825
369
823
355
798
334
774
314
741
292
700
269
663
247
628
228
595
211
565
195
538
181
513
168
489
157
466
146
Span (ft.)
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
22
LRFD
Joist
Designation
Depth (In.)
Approx. Wt.
(lbs./ft.)
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
24K4
24K5
24K6
24K7
24K8
24K9
24K10
24K12
26K5
26K6
26K7
26K8
26K9
26K10
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
26
26
26
26
26
26
26K12
26
8.4
9.3
9.7
10.1
11.5
12.0
13.1
16.0
9.8
10.6
10.9
12.1
12.2
13.8
16.6
780
516
718
456
663
405
615
361
571
323
531
290
496
262
465
237
435
215
409
196
385
179
363
164
343
150
324
138
307
128
292
118
277
109
264
101
252
94
240
88
229
82
219
76
208
71
199
67
192
63
825
544
810
511
748
453
693
404
643
362
600
325
559
293
523
266
490
241
462
220
435
201
409
184
387
169
366
155
346
143
328
132
312
122
297
114
283
106
270
98
258
92
246
86
235
80
225
75
216
70
825
544
825
520
814
493
754
439
700
393
652
354
609
319
570
289
535
262
502
239
472
218
445
200
421
183
399
169
378
156
358
144
340
133
324
124
309
115
294
107
280
100
268
93
256
87
246
82
235
77
825
544
825
520
825
499
825
479
781
436
727
392
679
353
636
320
595
290
559
265
526
242
496
221
469
203
444
187
421
172
399
159
379
148
361
137
343
127
328
118
313
110
298
103
286
97
274
90
262
85
825
544
825
520
825
499
825
479
825
456
804
429
750
387
702
350
658
318
619
289
582
264
549
242
519
222
490
205
465
189
441
174
420
161
399
150
379
139
363
130
346
121
330
113
316
106
303
99
291
93
825
544
825
520
825
499
825
479
825
456
825
436
816
419
765
379
717
344
673
313
634
286
598
262
565
241
534
222
507
204
480
189
456
175
435
162
414
151
394
140
376
131
360
122
345
114
330
107
316
101
825
544
825
520
825
499
825
479
825
456
825
436
825
422
825
410
823
393
798
368
753
337
709
308
670
283
634
260
601
240
570
222
541
206
516
191
490
177
468
165
447
154
427
144
408
135
391
126
375
118
825
544
825
520
825
499
825
479
825
456
825
436
825
422
825
410
823
393
798
368
774
344
751
324
730
306
711
290
691
275
673
261
657
247
640
235
625
224
609
213
580
199
555
185
531
174
508
163
487
153
813
535
753
477
699
427
651
384
607
346
568
314
534
285
501
259
472
237
445
217
420
199
397
183
376
169
357
156
340
145
322
134
307
125
294
116
280
108
268
101
256
95
246
89
235
83
225
78
216
73
208
69
199
65
825
541
820
519
762
464
709
417
661
377
619
341
580
309
546
282
514
257
484
236
457
216
433
199
411
184
390
170
370
157
352
146
336
136
319
126
306
118
291
110
279
103
267
96
256
90
246
85
235
80
226
75
217
71
825
541
825
522
825
501
790
463
738
417
690
378
648
343
609
312
573
285
540
261
510
240
483
221
457
204
433
188
412
174
393
162
373
150
357
140
340
131
325
122
310
114
298
107
285
100
274
94
262
89
252
83
243
79
825
541
825
522
825
501
825
479
816
457
763
413
715
375
672
342
633
312
597
286
564
263
534
242
505
223
480
206
456
191
433
177
412
164
394
153
376
143
360
133
343
125
328
117
315
110
303
103
291
97
279
91
268
86
825
541
825
522
825
501
825
479
825
459
825
444
778
407
732
370
688
338
649
310
613
284
580
262
550
241
522
223
496
207
472
192
450
178
429
166
409
155
391
145
375
135
358
127
343
119
330
112
316
105
304
99
292
93
825
541
825
522
825
501
825
479
825
459
825
444
823
431
798
404
774
378
751
356
729
334
690
308
654
284
619
262
589
243
561
225
534
210
508
195
486
182
465
170
444
159
426
149
408
140
391
131
375
124
361
116
346
110
825
541
825
522
825
501
825
479
825
459
825
444
823
431
798
404
774
378
751
356
730
334
711
315
691
299
673
283
657
269
640
256
625
244
610
232
597
222
583
212
570
203
553
192
529
180
508
169
487
159
469
150
451
142
Span (ft.)
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
23
LRFD
Joist
Designation
Depth (In.)
Approx. Wt.
(lbs./ft.)
Span (ft.)
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
28K6
28K7
28K8
28K9
28K10
28K12
30K7
30K8
30K9
30K10
30K11
28
28
28
28
28
28
30
30
30
30
30
30
11.4
11.8
12.7
13.0
14.3
17.1
12.3
13.2
13.4
15.0
16.4
17.6
822
541
766
486
715
439
669
397
627
361
589
329
555
300
523
275
495
252
468
232
444
214
420
198
399
183
379
170
361
158
345
147
330
137
315
128
301
120
288
112
276
105
265
99
255
93
244
88
235
83
226
78
217
74
210
70
202
66
825
543
825
522
796
486
745
440
699
400
657
364
618
333
583
305
550
280
522
257
493
237
469
219
445
203
424
189
403
175
385
163
367
152
351
142
336
133
321
125
309
117
295
110
283
103
273
97
262
92
252
87
243
82
234
77
226
73
825
543
825
522
825
500
825
480
772
438
726
399
684
364
645
333
609
306
576
282
546
260
519
240
492
222
468
206
445
192
426
179
406
167
388
156
372
146
355
136
340
128
327
120
313
113
301
106
289
100
279
95
268
89
259
85
249
80
825
543
825
522
825
500
825
480
823
463
790
432
744
395
702
361
663
332
627
305
594
282
564
260
535
241
510
224
486
208
463
194
442
181
423
169
405
158
387
148
370
139
355
130
342
123
328
115
315
109
304
103
292
97
282
92
271
87
825
543
825
522
825
500
825
480
823
463
798
435
774
410
751
389
730
366
711
344
691
325
670
306
636
284
606
263
576
245
550
228
525
212
501
198
480
186
459
174
441
163
423
153
405
144
390
136
375
128
360
121
348
114
334
108
322
102
825
543
825
522
825
500
825
480
823
463
798
435
774
410
751
389
730
366
711
344
691
325
673
308
657
291
640
277
625
264
610
252
597
240
583
229
570
219
558
210
547
201
535
193
525
185
507
175
487
165
469
156
451
147
435
139
420
132
825
543
801
508
751
461
706
420
664
384
627
351
592
323
559
297
531
274
504
253
478
234
454
217
433
202
414
188
394
176
376
164
361
153
345
144
331
135
318
127
304
119
292
112
282
106
271
100
261
94
252
89
243
84
234
80
226
76
219
72
211
69
825
543
825
520
823
500
780
460
735
420
693
384
654
353
619
325
586
300
556
277
529
256
502
238
480
221
457
206
436
192
417
179
399
168
382
157
366
148
351
139
337
130
324
123
312
116
300
109
288
103
277
98
268
92
259
88
250
83
241
79
234
75
825
543
825
520
823
500
798
468
774
441
751
415
712
383
673
352
639
325
606
300
576
278
547
258
522
240
498
223
475
208
454
195
435
182
415
171
399
160
382
150
367
141
352
133
339
126
327
119
313
112
303
106
292
100
282
95
271
90
262
86
253
81
825
543
825
520
823
500
798
468
774
441
751
415
730
392
711
374
691
353
673
333
657
315
640
300
619
282
591
263
564
245
538
229
516
214
493
201
472
188
454
177
436
166
418
157
402
148
387
140
373
132
360
125
346
118
334
112
322
106
312
101
301
96
825
543
825
520
823
500
798
468
774
441
751
415
730
392
711
374
691
353
673
333
657
315
640
300
625
284
610
270
597
258
583
246
570
236
558
226
543
215
520
202
499
190
480
179
462
169
444
159
427
150
412
142
397
135
384
128
370
121
358
115
346
109
825
543
825
520
823
500
798
468
774
441
751
415
730
392
711
374
691
353
673
333
657
315
640
300
625
284
610
270
597
258
583
246
570
236
558
226
547
216
535
207
525
199
514
192
504
184
495
177
486
170
468
161
451
153
435
145
420
137
406
130
393
124
57
58
59
60
24
30K12
STANDARD ASD LOAD TABLE
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute November 4, 1985
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in these
tables do not include accessories.
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL safe
uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities, in pounds per
linear foot, of ASD K-Series Steel Joists. The weight of
DEAD loads, including the joists, must be deducted to
determine the LIVE load-carrying capacities of the joists.
Sloped parallel-chord joists shall use span as defined by the
length along the slope.
Ij = 26.767(WLL)(L3)(10 -6 ), where WLL= RED figure in the
Load Table and L = (Span - 0.33) in feet.
The approximate moment of inertia of the joist, in inches4 is;
The figures shown in RED in this load table are the nominal
LIVE loads per linear foot of joist which will produce an
approximate deflection of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads
which will produce a deflection of 1/240 of the span may be
obtained by multiplying the figures in RED by 1.5. In no
case shall the TOTAL load capacity of the joists be exceeded.
For the proper handling of concentrated and/or varying loads,
see Section 6.1 in the Code of Standard Practice for Steel Joists
and Joist Girders.
Where the joist span exceeds the unshaded area of the
Load Table, the row of bridging nearest the mid span shall
be diagonal bridging with bolted connections at the chords
and intersections.
ASD
Joist
Designation
Depth (in.)
Approx. Wt
(lbs./ft.)
Span (ft.)
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
8K1
10K1
12K1
12K3
12K5
14K1
14K3
14K4
14K6
16K3
16K4
16K5
16K6
16K7
8
10
12
12
12
14
14
14
14
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.7
7.1
5.2
6.0
6.7
7.7
5.5
6.3
7.0
7.5
8.1
8.6
10.0
550
550
550
510
500
425
434
344
380
282
336
234
299
197
268
167
241
142
218
123
199
106
181
93
166
81
550
550
550
510
550
463
543
428
476
351
420
291
374
245
335
207
302
177
273
153
249
132
227
116
208
101
550
550
550
510
550
463
550
434
550
396
550
366
507
317
454
269
409
230
370
198
337
172
308
150
282
132
550
550
511
475
448
390
395
324
352
272
315
230
284
197
257
170
234
147
214
128
196
113
180
100
166
88
154
79
143
70
550
550
550
507
550
467
495
404
441
339
395
287
356
246
322
212
293
184
268
160
245
141
226
124
209
110
193
98
180
88
550
550
550
507
550
467
550
443
530
397
475
336
428
287
388
248
353
215
322
188
295
165
272
145
251
129
233
115
216
103
550
550
550
507
550
467
550
443
550
408
550
383
525
347
475
299
432
259
395
226
362
199
334
175
308
156
285
139
265
124
550
550
512
488
456
409
408
347
368
297
333
255
303
222
277
194
254
170
234
150
216
133
200
119
186
106
173
95
161
86
151
78
142
71
550
550
550
526
508
456
455
386
410
330
371
285
337
247
308
216
283
189
260
167
240
148
223
132
207
118
193
106
180
96
168
87
158
79
550
550
550
526
550
490
547
452
493
386
447
333
406
289
371
252
340
221
313
195
289
173
268
155
249
138
232
124
216
112
203
101
190
92
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
503
373
458
323
418
282
384
248
353
219
326
194
302
173
281
155
261
139
244
126
228
114
214
103
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
548
405
498
351
455
307
418
269
384
238
355
211
329
188
306
168
285
151
266
137
249
124
233
112
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
550
406
550
385
507
339
465
298
428
263
395
233
366
208
340
186
317
167
296
151
277
137
259
124
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
550
406
550
385
550
363
550
346
514
311
474
276
439
246
408
220
380
198
355
178
332
161
311
147
550
550
550
550
550
480
532
377
444
288
377
225
324
179
281
145
246
119
550
550
550
542
550
455
479
363
412
289
358
234
313
192
277
159
246
134
221
113
199
97
29
30
31
32
25
16K2
16K9
ASD
Joist
Designation
Depth (In.)
Approx. Wt.
(lbs./ft.)
Span (ft.)
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
18K3
18K4
18K5
18K6
18K7
18K9 18K10
20K3
20K4
20K5
20K6
20K7
20K9
20K10
22K4
22K5
22K6
22K7
22K9 22K10 22K11
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
6.6
7.2
7.7
8.5
9
10.2
11.7
6.7
7.6
8.2
8.9
9.3
10.8
12.2
8
8.8
9.2
9.7
11.3
12.6
13.8
550
550
514
494
463
423
420
364
382
316
349
276
320
242
294
214
272
190
252
169
234
151
218
136
203
123
190
111
178
101
168
92
158
84
149
77
141
70
550
550
550
523
550
490
506
426
460
370
420
323
385
284
355
250
328
222
303
198
282
177
263
159
245
144
229
130
215
118
202
108
190
98
179
90
169
82
550
550
550
523
550
490
550
460
518
414
473
362
434
318
400
281
369
249
342
222
318
199
296
179
276
161
258
146
242
132
228
121
214
110
202
101
191
92
550
550
550
523
550
490
550
460
550
438
516
393
473
345
435
305
402
271
372
241
346
216
322
194
301
175
281
158
264
144
248
131
233
120
220
110
208
101
550
550
550
523
550
490
550
460
550
438
550
418
526
382
485
337
448
299
415
267
385
239
359
215
335
194
313
175
294
159
276
145
260
132
245
121
232
111
550
550
550
523
550
490
550
460
550
438
550
418
550
396
550
377
538
354
498
315
463
282
431
254
402
229
376
207
353
188
332
171
312
156
294
143
278
132
550
550
550
523
550
490
550
460
550
438
550
418
550
396
550
377
550
361
550
347
548
331
511
298
477
269
446
243
418
221
393
201
370
184
349
168
330
154
517
517
468
453
426
393
389
344
357
302
329
266
304
236
281
211
261
189
243
170
227
153
212
138
199
126
187
114
176
105
166
96
157
88
148
81
141
74
133
69
127
64
550
550
550
520
514
461
469
402
430
353
396
312
366
277
339
247
315
221
293
199
274
179
256
162
240
147
226
134
212
122
200
112
189
103
179
95
170
87
161
81
153
75
550
550
550
520
550
490
529
451
485
396
446
350
412
310
382
277
355
248
330
223
308
201
289
182
271
165
254
150
239
137
226
126
213
115
202
106
191
98
181
90
172
84
550
550
550
520
550
490
550
468
528
430
486
380
449
337
416
301
386
269
360
242
336
218
314
198
295
179
277
163
261
149
246
137
232
125
220
115
208
106
198
98
188
91
550
550
550
520
550
490
550
468
550
448
541
421
500
373
463
333
430
298
401
268
374
242
350
219
328
199
309
181
290
165
274
151
259
139
245
128
232
118
220
109
209
101
550
550
550
520
550
490
550
468
550
448
550
426
550
405
550
389
517
353
482
317
450
286
421
259
395
235
371
214
349
195
329
179
311
164
294
151
279
139
265
129
251
119
550
550
550
520
550
490
550
468
550
448
550
426
550
405
550
389
550
375
550
359
533
336
499
304
468
276
440
251
414
229
390
210
369
193
349
178
331
164
314
151
298
140
550
548
518
491
475
431
438
381
404
338
374
301
348
270
324
242
302
219
283
198
265
180
249
164
235
149
221
137
209
126
198
116
187
107
178
98
169
91
161
85
153
79
146
73
139
68
550
548
550
518
536
483
493
427
455
379
422
337
392
302
365
272
341
245
319
222
299
201
281
183
265
167
249
153
236
141
223
130
211
119
200
110
190
102
181
95
173
88
165
82
157
76
550
548
550
518
550
495
537
464
496
411
459
367
427
328
398
295
371
266
347
241
326
219
306
199
288
182
272
167
257
153
243
141
230
130
218
120
207
111
197
103
188
96
179
89
171
83
550
548
550
518
550
495
550
474
550
454
512
406
475
364
443
327
413
295
387
267
363
242
341
221
321
202
303
185
286
169
271
156
256
144
243
133
231
123
220
114
209
106
200
99
191
92
550
548
550
518
550
495
550
474
550
454
550
432
550
413
532
387
497
349
465
316
436
287
410
261
386
239
364
219
344
201
325
185
308
170
292
157
278
146
264
135
252
126
240
117
229
109
550
548
550
518
550
495
550
474
550
454
550
432
550
413
550
399
550
385
550
369
517
337
486
307
458
280
432
257
408
236
386
217
366
200
347
185
330
171
314
159
299
148
285
138
272
128
550
548
550
518
550
495
550
474
550
454
550
432
550
413
550
399
550
385
550
369
549
355
532
334
516
314
494
292
467
269
442
247
419
228
397
211
377
195
359
181
342
168
326
157
311
146
41
42
43
44
26
ASD
Joist
Designation
Depth (In.)
Approx. Wt.
(lbs./ft.)
Span (ft.)
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
24K4
24K5
24K6
24K7
24K8
24K9
24K10
24K12
26K5
26K6
26K7
26K8
26K9
26K10
26K12
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
8.4
9.3
9.7
10.1
11.5
12.0
13.1
16.0
9.8
10.6
10.9
12.1
12.2
13.8
16.6
520
516
479
456
442
405
410
361
381
323
354
290
331
262
310
237
290
215
273
196
257
179
242
164
229
150
216
138
205
128
195
118
185
109
176
101
168
94
160
88
153
82
146
76
139
71
133
67
128
63
550
544
540
511
499
453
462
404
429
362
400
325
373
293
349
266
327
241
308
220
290
201
273
184
258
169
244
155
231
143
219
132
208
122
198
114
189
106
180
98
172
92
164
86
157
80
150
75
144
70
550
544
550
520
543
493
503
439
467
393
435
354
406
319
380
289
357
262
335
239
315
218
297
200
281
183
266
169
252
156
239
144
227
133
216
124
206
115
196
107
187
100
179
93
171
87
164
82
157
77
550
544
550
520
550
499
550
479
521
436
485
392
453
353
424
320
397
290
373
265
351
242
331
221
313
203
296
187
281
172
266
159
253
148
241
137
229
127
219
118
209
110
199
103
191
97
183
90
175
85
550
544
550
520
550
499
550
479
550
456
536
429
500
387
468
350
439
318
413
289
388
264
366
242
346
222
327
205
310
189
294
174
280
161
266
150
253
139
242
130
231
121
220
113
211
106
202
99
194
93
550
544
550
520
550
499
550
479
550
456
550
436
544
419
510
379
478
344
449
313
423
286
399
262
377
241
356
222
338
204
320
189
304
175
290
162
276
151
263
140
251
131
240
122
230
114
220
107
211
101
550
544
550
520
550
499
550
479
550
456
550
436
550
422
550
410
549
393
532
368
502
337
473
308
447
283
423
260
401
240
380
222
361
206
344
191
327
177
312
165
298
154
285
144
272
135
261
126
250
118
550
544
550
520
550
499
550
479
550
456
550
436
550
422
550
410
549
393
532
368
516
344
501
324
487
306
474
290
461
275
449
261
438
247
427
235
417
224
406
213
387
199
370
185
354
174
339
163
325
153
542
535
502
477
466
427
434
384
405
346
379
314
356
285
334
259
315
237
297
217
280
199
265
183
251
169
238
156
227
145
215
134
205
125
196
116
187
108
179
101
171
95
164
89
157
83
150
78
144
73
139
69
133
65
550
541
547
519
508
464
473
417
441
377
413
341
387
309
364
282
343
257
323
236
305
216
289
199
274
184
260
170
247
157
235
146
224
136
213
126
204
118
194
110
186
103
178
96
171
90
164
85
157
80
151
75
145
71
550
541
550
522
550
501
527
463
492
417
460
378
432
343
406
312
382
285
360
261
340
240
322
221
305
204
289
188
275
174
262
162
249
150
238
140
227
131
217
122
207
114
199
107
190
100
183
94
175
89
168
83
162
79
550
541
550
522
550
501
550
479
544
457
509
413
477
375
448
342
422
312
398
286
376
263
356
242
337
223
320
206
304
191
289
177
275
164
263
153
251
143
240
133
229
125
219
117
210
110
202
103
194
97
186
91
179
86
550
541
550
522
550
501
550
479
550
459
550
444
519
407
488
370
459
338
433
310
409
284
387
262
367
241
348
223
331
207
315
192
300
178
286
166
273
155
261
145
250
135
239
127
229
119
220
112
211
105
203
99
195
93
550
541
550
522
550
501
550
479
550
459
550
444
549
431
532
404
516
378
501
356
486
334
460
308
436
284
413
262
393
243
374
225
356
210
339
195
324
182
310
170
296
159
284
149
272
140
261
131
250
124
241
116
231
110
550
541
550
522
550
501
550
479
550
459
550
444
549
431
532
404
516
378
501
356
487
334
474
315
461
299
449
283
438
269
427
256
417
244
407
232
398
222
389
212
380
203
369
192
353
180
339
169
325
159
313
150
301
142
49
50
51
52
27
ASD
Joist
Designation
Depth (In.)
Approx. Wt.
(lbs./ft.)
Span (ft.)
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
28K6
28K7
28K8
28K9
28K10
28K12
30K7
30K8
30K9
30K10
30K11
28
28
28
28
28
28
30
30
30
30
30
30
11.4
11.8
12.7
13.0
14.3
17.1
12.3
13.2
13.4
15.0
16.4
17.6
548
541
511
486
477
439
446
397
418
361
393
329
370
300
349
275
330
252
312
232
296
214
280
198
266
183
253
170
241
158
230
147
220
137
210
128
201
120
192
112
184
105
177
99
170
93
163
88
157
83
151
78
145
74
140
70
135
66
550
543
550
522
531
486
497
440
466
400
438
364
412
333
389
305
367
280
348
257
329
237
313
219
297
203
283
189
269
175
257
163
245
152
234
142
224
133
214
125
206
117
197
110
189
103
182
97
175
92
168
87
162
82
156
77
151
73
550
543
550
522
550
500
550
480
515
438
484
399
456
364
430
333
406
306
384
282
364
260
346
240
328
222
312
206
297
192
284
179
271
167
259
156
248
146
237
136
227
128
218
120
209
113
201
106
193
100
186
95
179
89
173
85
166
80
550
543
550
522
550
500
550
480
549
463
527
432
496
395
468
361
442
332
418
305
396
282
376
260
357
241
340
224
324
208
309
194
295
181
282
169
270
158
258
148
247
139
237
130
228
123
219
115
210
109
203
103
195
97
188
92
181
87
550
543
550
522
550
500
550
480
549
463
532
435
516
410
501
389
487
366
474
344
461
325
447
306
424
284
404
263
384
245
367
228
350
212
334
198
320
186
306
174
294
163
282
153
270
144
260
136
250
128
240
121
232
114
223
108
215
102
550
543
550
522
550
500
550
480
549
463
532
435
516
410
501
389
487
366
474
344
461
325
449
308
438
291
427
277
417
264
407
252
398
240
389
229
380
219
372
210
365
201
357
193
350
185
338
175
325
165
313
156
301
147
290
139
280
132
550
543
534
508
501
461
471
420
443
384
418
351
395
323
373
297
354
274
336
253
319
234
303
217
289
202
276
188
263
176
251
164
241
153
230
144
221
135
212
127
203
119
195
112
188
106
181
100
174
94
168
89
162
84
156
80
151
76
146
72
141
69
550
543
550
520
549
500
520
460
490
420
462
384
436
353
413
325
391
300
371
277
353
256
335
238
320
221
305
206
291
192
278
179
266
168
255
157
244
148
234
139
225
130
216
123
208
116
200
109
192
103
185
98
179
92
173
88
167
83
161
79
156
75
550
543
550
520
549
500
532
468
516
441
501
415
475
383
449
352
426
325
404
300
384
278
365
258
348
240
332
223
317
208
303
195
290
182
277
171
266
160
255
150
245
141
235
133
226
126
218
119
209
112
202
106
195
100
188
95
181
90
175
86
169
81
550
543
550
520
549
500
532
468
516
441
501
415
487
392
474
374
461
353
449
333
438
315
427
300
413
282
394
263
376
245
359
229
344
214
329
201
315
188
303
177
291
166
279
157
268
148
258
140
249
132
240
125
231
118
223
112
215
106
208
101
201
96
550
543
550
520
549
500
532
468
516
441
501
415
487
392
474
374
461
353
449
333
438
315
427
300
417
284
407
270
398
258
389
246
380
236
372
226
362
215
347
202
333
190
320
179
308
169
296
159
285
150
275
142
265
135
256
128
247
121
239
115
231
109
550
543
550
520
549
500
532
468
516
441
501
415
487
392
474
374
461
353
449
333
438
315
427
300
417
284
407
270
398
258
389
246
380
236
372
226
365
216
357
207
350
199
343
192
336
184
330
177
324
170
312
161
301
153
290
145
280
137
271
130
262
124
57
58
59
60
28
30K12
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
Please reference SJI Technical Digest #9 “Handling and
Erection of Steel Joists and Joist Girders” for further information.
KCS JOISTS
NOTE: In the following examples joist selection is based on
minimum depth and minimum weight (plf, kg/m). Other selections may be more suitable for specific job conditions.
1. Provide a versatile K-Series Joist that can be easily
specified to support uniform loads plus concentrated
and non-uniform loads.
The KCS Joists:
2. Eliminate many repetitive load diagrams required on
contract documents and allow some flexibility of load
locations.
KCS joists are designed in accordance with the Standard Specification for K-Series Joists.
Standard K-Series Joists are designed for simple span uniform
loading which results in a parabolic moment diagram for chord
forces and a linearly sloped shear diagram for web forces.
When non-uniform and/or concentrated loads are encountered
the shear and moment diagrams required may be shaped
quite differently and may not be covered by the shear and
moment design envelopes of a standard K-Series Joist.
KCS Joist chords are designed for a flat positive moment
envelope. The moment capacity is constant at all interior
panels. The top chord end panel is designed for axial load
based on the force in the first tension web, which is based
on the specified shear. A uniform load of 825 plf (12030
N/m) LRFD or 550 plf (8020 N/m) ASD is used to check end
panel bending.
LRFD EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE 1
The web forces are determined based on a flat shear envelope. All webs are designed for a vertical shear equal to the
specified shear capacity. Furthermore, all webs (except the
first tension web which remains in tension under all simple
span gravity loads) will be designed for 100% stress reversal.
LRFD FACTORED LOADS
Both LRFD and ASD KCS Joist load tables list the shear and
moment capacity of each joist. The selection of a KCS Joist
requires the specifying professional to calculate the maximum moment and shear imposed and select the appropriate
KCS Joist. If a KCS Joist cannot be selected from the load
table or if any uniform load exceeds 825 plf (12030 N/m)
LRFD or 550 plf (8020 N/m) ASD or if the maximum concentrated load exceeds the shear capacity of the joist, use double KCS Joists or select an LH-Series Joist. For the
LH-Series Joist, supply a load diagram. When net uplift
loads, end moments or other external horizontal loads are a
design consideration; these loads shall be provided to the
joist manufacturer by the specifying professional.
M = 938 in.-kip (105.9 kN-m)
RL = 8400 lbs (37.37 kN), RR = 7500 lbs (33.36 kN)
As is the case with standard K-, LH- and DLH-Series Joists,
chord bending due to concentrated loads must be addressed.
In the case of concentrated loads, the specifying professional
shall handle them in one of two ways: 1) specify on the structural drawings that an extra web must be field applied at all
concentrated loads not occurring at joist panel points, or 2)
provide exact locations of all concentrated loads for which the
joist manufacturer shall provide necessary reinforcement.
Select a 22KCS3, M = 987 in.-kip (111.5 kN-m)
R = 9900 lbs (44.0 kN)
Bridging section no. 9 for L = 40 ft. (12192 mm)
Use 22K9 to determine bridging and stability requirements.
Since a standard KCS Joist can be selected from the load
table a load diagram is not required.
29
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
EXAMPLE 2
Bridging section no. 12 for L = 55 ft. (16764 mm) Use 28K12
to determine bridging and stability requirements.
OPTION B: Select an LH-Series Joist. Calculate an equivalent uniform load based on the maximum moment or shear:
LRFD FACTORED LOADS
WM =
8M
= 962 plf (14.04 kN/m)
L2
WV =
2R
= 764 plf (11.14 kN/m)
L
From the LH-Series LRFD Load Table select a 32LH13,
W = 1035 plf (15.10 kN/m) for a 55 ft. (16764 mm) clear span.
Specify a 32LH13SP and present a load diagram on the
structural drawings with the following note:
Use 962 plf (14.04 kN/m)
JOIST MANUFACTURER SHALL DESIGN FOR THE LOADING SHOWN IN THE LOAD DIAGRAM.
M = 664 in.-kip (75.03 kN-m)
RL = 7500 lbs (33.36 kN), RR = 8010 lbs (35.63 kN)
Select a 22KCS2, M = 732 in.-kip (82.64 kN-m)
R = 8850 lbs (39.3 kN)
ASD EXAMPLES
Bridging section no. 6 for L = 30 ft. (9144 mm)
EXAMPLE 1
Use 22K6 to determine bridging and stability requirements.
Since the maximum factored uniform load of 645 plf (9413
N/m) (405 plf (5911 N/m) + 240 plf (3503 N/m) does not
exceed the maximum KCS Joist uniform load of 825 plf (12030
N/m) and a standard KCS Joist can be selected from the load
table, a load diagram is not required.
EXAMPLE 3
LRFD FACTORED LOADS
M = 625 in.-kip (70.6 kN-m)
RL=5600 lbs (24.9 kN), RR=5000 lbs (22.2 kN)
M = 4365 in.-kip (493.2 kN-m)
Select a 22KCS3, M = 658 in.-kip (74.3 kN-m)
R = 6600 lbs (29.3 kN)
RL = RR = 21000 lbs (93.41 kN)
Bridging section no. 9 for L = 40 ft. (12192 mm)
EXCEEDS CAPACITY OF 30KCS5 (MAXIMUM KCS JOIST
AND EXCEEDS MAXIMUM FACTORED UNIFORM LOAD
OF 825 plf (12040 N/m).
Use 22K9 to determine bridging and stability requirements.
Since a standard KCS Joist can be selected from the load
table a load diagram is not required.
OPTION A: Use double joists each having a minimum moment
capacity M = 2183 in.-kip (246.65 kN-m) and shear capacity R =
10500 lbs (46.71 kN) and a uniform load of 600 plf (8756 N/m).
Select two 28KCS5, M = 2556 in.-kip (288.7 kN-m),
R = 13800 lbs (61.3 kN).
30
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS, K-SERIES
EXAMPLE 2
EXAMPLE 3
M = 2910 in.-kip (328.8 kN-m)
RL = RR = 14000 lbs (62.28 kN)
EXCEEDS CAPACITY OF 30KCS5 (MAXIMUM KCS JOIST)
AND EXCEEDS MAXIMUM UNIFORM LOAD OF 550 plf
(8027 N/m).
OPTION A: Use double joists each having a minimum moment
capacity M = 1455 in.-kip (164.4 kN-m) and shear capacity R =
7000 lbs (31.14 kN) and a uniform load of 400 plf (5838 N/m).
M = 443 in.-kip (50.1 kN-m)
RL= 5000 lbs (22.24 kN), RR = 5340 lbs (23.75 kN)
Select a 22KCS2, M = 488 in.-kip (55.1 kN-m)
R = 5900 lbs (26.2 kN)
Select two 28KCS5, M = 1704 in.-kip (192.5 kN-m), R = 9200
lbs (40.9 kN)
Bridging section no. 6 for L = 30 ft. (9144 mm)
Bridging section no. 12 for L = 55 ft. (16764 mm) Use 28K12
to determine bridging and stability requirements.
Use 22K6 to determine bridging and stability requirements.
Since the maximum uniform load of 430 plf [6275 N/m) (270
plf (3940 N/m) + 160 plf (2335 N/m)] does not exceed the
maximum KCS Joist uniform load of 550 plf (8020 N/m) and
a standard KCS Joist can be selected from the load table, a
load diagram is not required.
OPTION B: Select an LH-Series Joist. Calculate an equivalent
uniform load based on the maximum moment or shear:
WM =
8M
= 641 plf (9.35 kN/m)
L2
WV =
2R
= 509 plf (7.43 kN/m)
L
From the LH-Series ASD Load Table select a 32LH13, W =
690 plf (10.06 kN/m) for a 55 ft. (16764 mm) clear span. Specify
a 32LH13SP and present a load diagram on the structural drawings with the following note:
Use 641 plf (9.35 kN/m)
JOIST MANUFACTURER SHALL DESIGN FOR THE LOADING SHOWN IN THE LOAD DIAGRAM.
31
LRFD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR KCS OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
JOIST
DESIGNATION
DEPTH
(inches)
MOMENT
CAPACITY
(inch-kips)
SHEAR
CAPACITY*
(lbs)
APPROX.
WEIGHT**
(lbs/ft)
GROSS
MOMENT OF
INERTIA (in. 4 )
10KCS1
10KCS2
10KCS3
12KCS1
12KCS2
12KCS3
14KCS1
14KCS2
14KCS3
16KCS2
16KCS3
16KCS4
16KCS5
18KCS2
18KCS3
18KCS4
18KCS5
20KCS2
20KCS3
20KCS4
20KCS5
22KCS2
22KCS3
22KCS4
22KCS5
24KCS2
24KCS3
24KCS4
24KCS5
26KCS2
26KCS3
26KCS4
26KCS5
28KCS2
28KCS3
28KCS4
28KCS5
30KCS3
30KCS4
30KCS5
10
10
10
12
12
12
14
14
14
16
16
16
16
18
18
18
18
20
20
20
20
22
22
22
22
24
24
24
24
26
26
26
26
28
28
28
28
30
30
30
258
337
444
313
411
543
370
486
642
523
705
1080
1401
592
798
1225
1593
663
892
1371
1786
732
987
1518
1978
801
1080
1662
2172
870
1174
1809
2364
939
1269
1954
2556
1362
2100
2749
3000
3750
4500
3600
4500
5250
4350
5100
5850
6000
7200
7950
8700
7050
7800
8550
9300
7800
9000
11850
12600
8850
9900
11850
12900
9450
10800
12600
13350
9900
11700
12750
13800
10350
12000
12750
13800
12000
12750
13800
6.0
7.5
10.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
6.5
8.0
10.0
8.5
10.5
14.5
18.0
9.0
11.0
15.0
18.5
9.5
11.5
16.5
20.0
10.0
12.5
16.5
20.5
10.0
12.5
16.5
20.5
10.0
12.5
16.5
20.5
10.5
12.5
16.5
20.5
13.0
16.5
21.0
29
37
47
43
55
71
59
77
99
99
128
192
245
127
164
247
316
159
205
308
396
194
251
377
485
232
301
453
584
274
355
536
691
320
414
626
808
478
722
934
BRIDGING
TABLE
SECTION
NUMBER
1
1
1
3
5
5
4
6
6
6
9
9
9
6
9
10
10
6
9
10
10
6
9
11
11
6
9
12
12
6
9
12
12
6
9
12
12
9
12
12
*MAXIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD CAPACITY IS 825 PLF AND SINGLE CONCENTRATED LOAD CANNOT
EXCEED SHEAR CAPACITY
**DOES NOT INCLUDE ACCESSORIES
32
ASD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR KCS OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
JOIST
DESIGNATION
DEPTH
(inches)
MOMENT
CAPACITY*
(inch-kips)
SHEAR
CAPACITY*
(lbs)
APPROX.
WEIGHT**
(lbs/ft)
GROSS
MOMENT OF
INERTIA (in. 4 )
10KCS1
10KCS2
10KCS3
12KCS1
12KCS2
12KCS3
14KCS1
14KCS2
14KCS3
16KCS2
16KCS3
16KCS4
16KCS5
18KCS2
18KCS3
18KCS4
18KCS5
20KCS2
20KCS3
20KCS4
20KCS5
22KCS2
22KCS3
22KCS4
22KCS5
24KCS2
24KCS3
24KCS4
24KCS5
26KCS2
26KCS3
26KCS4
26KCS5
28KCS2
28KCS3
28KCS4
28KCS5
30KCS3
30KCS4
30KCS5
10
10
10
12
12
12
14
14
14
16
16
16
16
18
18
18
18
20
20
20
20
22
22
22
22
24
24
24
24
26
26
26
26
28
28
28
28
30
30
30
172
225
296
209
274
362
247
324
428
349
470
720
934
395
532
817
1062
442
595
914
1191
488
658
1012
1319
534
720
1108
1448
580
783
1206
1576
626
846
1303
1704
908
1400
1833
2000
2500
3000
2400
3000
3500
2900
3400
3900
4000
4800
5300
5800
4700
5200
5700
6200
5200
6000
7900
8400
5900
6600
7900
8600
6300
7200
8400
8900
6600
7800
8500
9200
6900
8000
8500
9200
8000
8500
9200
6.0
7.5
10.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
6.5
8.0
10.0
8.5
10.5
14.5
18.0
9.0
11.0
15.0
18.5
9.5
11.5
16.5
20.0
10.0
12.5
16.5
20.5
10.0
12.5
16.5
20.5
10.0
12.5
16.5
20.5
10.5
12.5
16.5
20.5
13.0
16.5
21.0
29
37
47
43
55
71
59
77
99
99
128
192
245
127
164
247
316
159
205
308
396
194
251
377
485
232
301
453
584
274
355
536
691
320
414
626
808
478
722
934
BRIDGING
TABLE
SECTION
NUMBER
1
1
1
3
5
5
4
6
6
6
9
9
9
6
9
10
10
6
9
10
10
6
9
11
11
6
9
12
12
6
9
12
12
6
9
12
12
9
12
12
*MAXIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD CAPACITY IS 550 PLF AND SINGLE CONCENTRATED LOAD CANNOT
EXCEED SHEAR CAPACITY
**DOES NOT INCLUDE ACCESSORIES
33
NOTES
34
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
JOIST SUBSTITUTES K SERIES
tutes exhibit some degree of instability. After erection and before loads of any description are placed on the joist substitutes, the ends must be attached to the supports per SJI KSeries specifications and the deck installed and attached to
the top flange.
Joist substitutes are 2.5 inch (64 mm) deep sections intended for use in very short spans (less than 8 feet (2.4 m)
where Open Web Steel Joists are impractical. They are
commonly specified to span over hallways and short spans
in skewed bays.
Tables below list uniform loads based on LRFD and ASD
methods of design and listed in U.S. Customary units:
Joist substitutes are fabricated from material conforming to
Steel Joist Institute Specifications. Full lateral support to the
compressive flange is provided by attachments to the deck.
Caution must be exercised during erection since joist substi-
LRFD
ASD
4'-0"
825
825
825
4'-0"
550
550
550
5'-0"
825
338
561
189
405
116
306
76
—
—
—
—
825
465
779
260
563
160
426
105
333
73
267
52
825
5'-0"
6'-0"
550
465
519
260
375
160
284
105
222
73
178
52
550
825
354
810
218
612
143
480
99
386
71
550
338
374
189
270
116
204
76
—
—
—
—
6'-0"
7'-0"
8'-0"
9'-0"
10'-0"
7'-0"
8'-0"
9'-0"
10'-0"
550
354
540
218
408
143
320
99
257
71
The figures shown in red are the uniform live loads which produce an approximate deflection of 1/360 of
the span. Live loads which will produce a deflection of 1/240 of the span may be obtained by multiplying
the figures in red by 1.5. In no case shall the total load capacity of the joist substitute be exceeded.
35
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
FABRICATION
•
•
•
•
Depth
2.5 in
Maximum Length
10 ft
Minimum Length
3 ft
Contact your local Vulcraft plant for sloped
or pitched seat information.
2.5K SERIES SIMPLE SPAN INFORMATION
2.5K TYPE
S in3
2.5K1
0.62
2.5K2
0.84
2.5K3
1.2
I in4
0.78
1.1
1.5
WT lbs/ft
3.0
4.2
6.4
NOTE: 2.5K SERIES NOT U.L. APPROVED.
NOTE: 2.5K SERIES NOT U.L. APPROVED.
LRFD
2.5K1
2.5K2
2.5K3
2'-0"
825
825
825
2'-6"
749
825
825
3'-0"
519
698
825
3'-6"
381
512
740
4'-0"
293
392
566
4'-6"
231
311
447
5'-0"
188
251
362
ASD
5'-6" 6'-0" 6'-6"
155 —
—
207 174 —
299 252 215
2.5K1
2.5K2
2.5K3
2'-0"
550
550
550
2'-6"
499
550
550
3'-0"
346
465
550
*Serviceability requirements must be checked by the specifying professional.
36
3'-6"
254
341
493
4'-0"
195
261
377
4'-6"
154
207
298
5'-0"
125
167
241
5'-6" 6'-0" 6'-6"
103 —
—
138 116 —
199 168 143
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
TOP CHORD EXTENSIONSAND EXTENDED ENDS, K-SERIES
applicable for uniform loads only. If there are concentrated
loads and/or non-uniform loads, a loading diagram must be
provided by the specifying professional on the structural
drawings. In cases where it is not possible to meet specific
job requirements with a 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) deep “R” type
extension (refer to “S” and “I” values in the Extended End
Load Table), the depth of the extension must be increased
to provide greater load-carrying capacity. If the loading diagram for any condition is not shown, the joist manufacturer
will design the extension to support the uniform load indicated
in the K-Series Joist Load Table for the span of the joist.
Joist extensions are commonly furnished to support a variety of overhang conditions. The two types are pictured
below. The first is the TOP CHORD EXTENSION or “S”
TYPE, which has only the top chord angles extended. The
second is the EXTENDED END or “R” TYPE in which the
standard 2 1/2 in., (64 mm) end bearing depth is maintained
over the entire length of the extension. The “S” TYPE extension is so designated because of its Simple nature whereas
the “R” TYPE involves Reinforcing the top chord angles.
The specifying professional should be aware that an “S”
TYPE is more economical and should be specified whenever
possible.
The following load tables for K-Series TOP CHORD EXTENSIONS and EXTENDED ENDS for LRFD and ASD methods
of design and listed in U.S. Customary and Metric units,
have been developed as an aid to the specifying professional. The black number in the tables is the maximum
allowable uniform load in pounds per linear foot (kiloNewton/Meter). The red number is the uniform load
which will produce an approximate deflection of L1/240,
where L1 is the length of the extension. The load tables are
When TOP CHORD EXTENSIONS or EXTENDED ENDS
are specified, the allowable deflection and the bracing requirements must be considered by the specifying professional.
It should be noted that an “R” TYPE extension must be specified when building details dictate a 2 1/2 in., (64 mm) depth at
the end of the extension. In the absence of specific instructions,
the joist manufacturer may provide either type.
37
LRFD
TYPE
S1
"S"
(in.3 )
0.099
"I"
(in.4 )
0.088
S2
0.127
0.138
S3
0.144
0.156
S4
0.160
0.172
S5
0.176
0.188
S6
0.192
0.204
S7
0.241
0.306
S8
0.266
0.332
S9
0.288
0.358
S10
0.380
0.544
S11
0.438
0.622
S12
0.494
0.696
TOP CHORD EXTENSION LOAD TABLE (S TYPE)
Based on a Maximum Yield Strength of 50 ksi
Pounds per Linear Foot
0'-6"
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
1'-0"
544
363
700
422
793
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
1'-6"
267
127
343
200
388
226
432
249
474
272
517
295
649
443
717
481
777
519
825
550
825
550
825
550
2'-0"
157
58
202
91
229
104
255
113
280
124
306
134
384
201
424
219
459
236
606
359
699
410
789
459
LENGTH (L1)
2'-6"
3'-0"
3'-6"
4'-0"
4'-6"
168
60
184
66
202
72
253
108
280
117
303
126
400
192
460
220
520
246
180
64
198
70
214
75
283
115
327
131
369
147
160
48
211
74
243
84
274
94
163
50
189
57
213
64
150
41
169
45
LRFD
TYPE
R1
"S"
(in.3)
0.895
"I"
(in.4)
1.119
R2
0.923
1.157
R3
1.039
1.299
R4
1.147
1.433
R5
1.249
1.561
R6
1.352
1.690
R7
1.422
1.802
R8
1.558
1.948
R9
1.673
2.091
R10
1.931
2.414
R11
2.183
2.729
R12
2.413
3.016
0'-6"
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
1'-0"
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
TOP CHORD EXTENSION LOAD TABLE (R TYPE)
Based on a Maximum Yield Strength of 50 ksi
Pounds per Linear Foot
1'-6"
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
2'-0"
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
2'-6"
825
396
825
409
825
459
825
507
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
825
550
38
LENGTH (L1)
3'-0"
3'-6"
669
498
236
152
690
514
244
157
777
579
274
176
825
639
302
195
825
696
329
212
825
753
357
230
825
792
380
245
825
825
411
265
825
825
442
284
825
825
510
328
825
825
550
371
825
825
550
410
4'-0"
385
103
399
107
448
120
495
132
538
144
583
156
613
167
672
180
721
194
825
224
825
253
825
279
4'-6"
307
73
318
76
358
85
394
94
429
103
465
111
489
119
535
128
576
138
664
159
751
180
825
199
5'-0"
250
54
259
56
292
63
321
69
349
75
379
82
399
87
436
94
469
101
541
117
612
132
676
146
5'-6"
208
41
216
42
243
47
267
52
291
57
315
62
331
66
363
71
390
77
450
89
508
100
562
111
6'-0"
175
32
181
33
205
37
225
41
246
44
265
48
279
51
306
55
328
59
379
69
430
78
475
86
ASD
TYPE
S1
"S"
(in.3 )
0.099
"I"
(in.4 )
0.088
S2
0.127
0.138
S3
0.144
0.156
S4
0.160
0.172
S5
0.176
0.188
S6
0.192
0.204
S7
0.241
0.306
S8
0.266
0.332
S9
0.288
0.358
S10
0.380
0.544
S11
0.438
0.622
S12
0.494
0.696
TOP CHORD EXTENSION LOAD TABLE (S TYPE)
Based on a Maximum Yield Strength of 50 ksi
Pounds per Linear Foot
0'-6"
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
1'-0"
363
363
467
422
529
510
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
1'-6"
178
127
229
200
259
226
288
249
316
272
345
295
433
433
478
481
518
518
550
550
550
550
550
550
2'-0"
105
58
135
91
153
104
170
113
187
124
204
134
256
201
283
219
306
236
404
359
466
410
526
459
LENGTH (L1)
2'-6"
3'-0"
3'-6"
4'-0"
4'-6"
112
60
123
66
135
72
169
108
187
117
202
126
267
192
307
220
347
246
120
64
132
70
143
75
189
115
218
131
246
147
107
48
141
74
162
84
183
94
109
50
126
57
142
64
100
41
113
45
ASD
TYPE
R1
"S"
(in.3)
0.895
"I"
(in.4)
1.119
R2
0.923
1.157
R3
1.039
1.299
R4
1.147
1.433
R5
1.249
1.561
R6
1.352
1.690
R7
1.422
1.802
R8
1.558
1.948
R9
1.673
2.091
R10
1.931
2.414
R11
2.183
2.729
R12
2.413
3.016
0'-6"
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
TOP CHORD EXTENSION LOAD TABLE (R TYPE)
Based on a Maximum Yield Strength of 50 ksi
Pounds per Linear Foot
1'-0"
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
1'-6"
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
2'-0"
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
2'-6"
550
396
550
409
550
459
550
507
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
39
LENGTH (L1)
3'-0"
3'-6"
446
332
236
152
460
343
244
157
518
386
274
176
550
426
302
195
550
464
329
212
550
502
357
230
550
528
380
245
550
550
411
265
550
550
442
284
550
550
510
328
550
550
550
371
550
550
550
410
4'-0"
257
103
266
107
299
120
330
132
359
144
389
156
409
167
448
180
481
194
550
224
550
253
550
279
4'-6"
205
73
212
76
239
85
263
94
286
103
310
111
326
119
357
128
384
138
443
159
501
180
550
199
5'-0"
167
54
173
56
195
63
214
69
233
75
253
82
266
87
291
94
313
101
361
117
408
132
451
146
5'-6"
139
41
144
42
162
47
178
52
194
57
210
62
221
66
242
71
260
77
300
89
339
100
375
111
6'-0"
117
32
121
33
137
37
150
41
164
44
177
48
186
51
204
55
219
59
253
69
287
78
317
86
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
K SERIES OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
ANCHORAGE TO STEEL
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.3 (b) AND
5.6
ANCHORAGE TO MASONARY
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.3 (a) AND
5.6
CEILING EXTENSION
BOTTOM CHORD STRUT
MAXIMUM DUCT OPENING SIZES (K SERIES)*
JOIST
DEPTH
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
ROUND
5
6
7
8
9
11
11
12
13
151/2
16
17
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
SQUARE
RECTANGLE
4x4 inches
5x5 inches
6x6 inches
6x6 inches
7 1/2x 71/2 inches
8x8 inches
9x9 inches
9 1/2 x9 1/2 inches
10x10 inches
12x12 inches
13x13 inches
14x14 inches
*FOR LH SERIES CONSULT WITH VULCRAFT
3x8
3x8
4x9
5x9
6X10
7x11
7x12
8x12
8x13
9x18
9x18
10x18
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
SPECIFYING PROFESSIONAL MUST INDICATE ON STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS SIZE AND LOCATION OF
ANY DUCT THAT IS TO PASS THRU JOIST.
40
BOLTED CONNECTION*
TYPICALLY REQUIRED AT COLUMNS
HEADERS
Note: If header does not bear at a Joist Panel Point
add extra web in field as shown.
EW or Panel Point by Vulcraft
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION - SECTION 6.
FOR HANDLING AND ERECTION OF KSERIES OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS AND
SJI TECHNICAL DIGEST NO. 9.
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
K SERIES OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.5 AND 6.
BRIDGING ANCHORS
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.5 AND 6.
NOTE: DO NOT WELD BRIDGING TO JOIST WEB MEMBERS.
DO NOT HANG ANY MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, ETC. FROM BRIDGING.
EXP. BOLTS
BY OTHERS
BRIDGING ANCHOR
TYPE "SA"
BOLT (b)
(a)
WELDED CROSS BRIDGING
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.5 AND 6.
HORIZONTAL BRIDGING SHALL BE USED IN
SPACE ADJACENT TO THE WALL TO ALLOW FOR
PROPER DEFLECTION OF THE JOIST NEAREST
THE WALL.
BOLTED CROSS BRIDGING
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.5 AND 6.
(a) Horizontal Bridging units shall be used in the space adjacent to the wall to allow for proper deflection of the joist
nearest the wall.
(b) For required bolt size refer to bridging table on page 136.
NOTE: Clip configuration may vary from that shown.
FULL DEPTH CANTILEVER END
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.4 (d) AND 5.5 FOR BRIDGING
REQUIREMENTS.
SQUARE END
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.4 (d)
AND 5.5 FOR BRIDGING
REQUIREMENTS.
41
DEEP BEARINGS
CONFIGURATION MAY VARY
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
K SERIES OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
SLOPED SEAT REQUIREMENTS FOR SLOPES 3/8:12 AND GREATER
LOW END
HIGH END
Slope
Rate
3/8:12
1/2:12
1:12
1 1/2:12
2:12
2 1/2:12
3:12
3 1/2:12
4:12
4 1/2:12
5:12
5 1/2:12
6:12
High End
Recommended
Seat
Depth
d
3 1/2"
3 1/2"
4"
4"
4"
4 1/2"
4 1/2"
5"
5"
5"
5 1/2”
5 1/2"
5 1/2"
IF OVER 6:12 SEE BELOW
NOTES:
(1) Depths shown are the minimums required for fabrication of sloped bearing seats. Depths may vary depending on actual
bearing conditions.
(2) d = 5/8 + 2.5 / cos θ + 4 tan θ
(3) Clearance must be checked at outer edge of support as shown in detail B. Increase bearing depth as required to permit
passage of 2 1/2" deep extension.
(4) If extension depth greater than 2 1/2" is required (see details B and D) increase bearing depths accordingly.
(5) If slope is 1/4:12 or less sloped seats are not required.
BARTLE HALL
CONVENTION CENTER
Kansas City, Missouri
Architect-Engineer: HNTB Corp.
General Contractor: Watson General
Contractors, Inc.
Steel Fabricator: Havens Steel, Inc.
Steel Erector: Danny's Construction Co., Inc.
42
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
BRIDGING REQUIREMENTS FOR K-SERIES JOISTS
Number of Rows of Bridging***
Distances are Span Lengths
(see "Definition of Span" on page 20.)
Section
Numbers*
ERECTION STABILITY SPANS
(SJI Spec. Section 6)
Depth
Span Less Than**
8
10
12
14
17’
21’
23’
27’
16
29’
12
14
16
18
20
25’
29’
30’
31’
32’
14
16
18
20
22
24
29’
32’
32’
34’
34’
36’
12
16
18
20
22
24
26
25’
32’
33’
34’
35’
38’
38’
6
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
29’
33’
35’
36’
36’
39’
39’
40’
7
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
33’
37’
39’
40’
43’
43’
43’
44’
24
26
28
30
43’
44’
44’
45’
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
33’
37’
39’
40’
44’
44’
45’
45’
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
37’
41’
45’
49’
49’
49’
50’
22
30
45’
52’
24
26
28
30
49’
53’
53’
54’
1
2
3
4
5
8
9
10
11
12
1 Row
Up thru 16’
2 Rows
3 Rows
Over 16’
thru 24’
Over 24’
thru 28’
Up thru 17’ Over 17’ thru 25’
4 Rows
5 Rows
Over25’thru32’
Up thru 18’
Over 18’
thru 28’
Over 28’
thru 38’
Over 38’
thru 40’
Up thru 19’
Over 19’
thru 28’
Over 28’
thru 38’
Over 38’
thru 48’
Up thru 19’
Over 19’
thru 29’
Over 29’
thru 39’
Over 39’
thru 50’
Over 50’
thru 52’
Up thru 19’
Over 19’
thru 29’
Over 29’
thru 39’
Over 39’
thru 51’
Over 51’
thru 56’
Up thru 20’
Over 20’
thru 33’
Over 33’
thru 45’
Over 45’
thru 58’
Over 58’
thru 60’
Up thru 20’
Over 20’
thru 33’
Over 33’
thru 45’
Over 45’
thru 58’
Over 58’
thru 60’
Up thru 20’
Over 20’
thru 33’
Over 33’
thru 46’
Over 46’
thru 59’
Over 59’
thru 60’
Up thru 20’
Over 20’
thru 37’
Over 37’
thru 51’
Over 51’
thru 60’
Up thru 20’
Over 20’
thru 38’
Over 38’
thru 53’
Over 53’
thru 60’
Up thru 20’
Over 20’
thru 39’
Over 39’
thru 53’
Over 53’
thru 60’
* Last digit(s) of joist designation.
** For spans EQUAL TO OR EXCEEDING that shown above, one of the required rows, nearest mid-span, must be bolted diagonal type. Bolted diagonal
bridging shall be installed and connected BEFORE releasing the hoisting lines. Refer to Specification Section 6 for handling and erection requirements.
*** See SJI Specifications 5.11 for uplift requirement, page 18.
43
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
K-Series Joist
Maximum Joist Spacing for Horizontal Bridging
*Bridging Material Size
Equal Leg Angles
Section
1x7/64 1-1/4x7/64 1-1/2x7/64 1-3/4x7/64
Numbers** r =.20" r =.25"
r =.30"
r =.35"
1 thru 9
5'-0"
6'-3"
7'-6"
8'-7"
10
4'-8"
6'-3"
7'-6"
8'-7"
4'-0"
5'-8"
7'-6"
8'-7"
11 & 12
Bridging Requirements for
LH-Series and DLH-Series Joists***
Depth
2x1/8 2-1/2x5/32
r =.40" r =.50"
10'-0"
12'-6"
10'-0"
12'-6"
10'-0"
12'-6"
Erection Stability Spans
(SJI Spec. Section 105)
Section
Number
18
02
03 thru
02
03
04 thru
03
04
05
06
07 thru
05
06
07 thru
09 thru
06 thru
08
09 thru
07 thru
09
10 thru
08 thru
10 thru
09
10 thru
10 thru
20
24
* Connection to Joist must resist 700 pounds.
** Refer to last digit(s) of Joist Designation.
K, LH & DLH Series Joist
Maximum Joist Spacing for Diagonal Bridging
Joist
Depth
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
68
72
1x7/64
r =.20"
6'-6"
6'-6"
6'-6"
6'-6"
6'-5"
6'-4"
6'-4"
6'-3"
6'-2"
6'-2"
6'-1"
Bridging Angle Size
1-1/4x7/64 1-1/2x7/64 1-3/4x7/64
r =.25"
r =.30"
r =.35"
8'-3"
9'-11"
11'-7"
8'-3"
9'-11"
11'-7"
8'-2"
9'-10"
11'-6"
8'-2"
9'-10"
11'-6"
8'-2"
9'-10"
11'-6"
8'-1"
9'-10"
11'-6"
8'-1"
9'-9"
11'-5"
8'-0"
9'-9"
11'-5"
8'-0"
9'-8"
11'-5"
7'-11"
9'-8"
11'-4"
7'-10"
9'-7"
11'-4"
9'-6"
11'-3"
7'-9"
9'-5"
11'-2"
7'-7"
9'-3"
11'-0"
7'-5"
9'-2"
10'-11"
7'-3"
10'-9"
9'-0"
10'-8"
8'-10"
10'-6"
8'-7"
10'-4"
8'-5"
10'-2"
8'-2"
8'-0"
10'-0"
2x1/8
r =.40"
Bridging Angle Size
1x7/64 1-1/4x7/64 1-1/2x7/64 1-3/4x7/64
r =.20" r =.25"
r =.30"
r =.35"
4'-7"
6'-3"
7'-6"
8'-9"
4'-1"
5'-9"
7'-6"
8'-9"
3'-9"
5'-1"
6'-8"
8'-6"
4'-6"
6'-0"
7'-8"
4'-1"
5'-5"
6'-10"
3'-9"
4'-11"
6'-3"
4'-3"
5'-5"
4'-0"
5'-1"
32
36
40
44
48
13'-0"
12'-11"
12'-10"
12'-9"
12'-8"
12'-7"
12'-5"
12'-4"
12'-2"
12'-0"
11'-10"
LH-Series Joist*
Maximum Joist Spacing for Horizontal Bridging
Section
Numbers**
02,03,04
05,06
07,08
09,10
11,12
13,14
15,16
17
28
2x1/8 2-1/2x5/32
r =.40" r =.50"
10'-0"
12'-4"
10'-0"
12'-4"
10'-0"
12'-4"
10'-0"
12'-4"
8'-11"
12'-4"
8'-2"
12'-4"
7'-1"
11'-0"
6'-8"
10'-5"
* Connection to Joist must resist 700 pounds.
** Refer to last digit(s) of Joist Designation.
44
Spans less than **
33'
37'
33'
38'
41'
35'
39'
40'
45'
49'
42'
46'
54'
57'
47'
55'
60'
47'
57'
60'
47'
60'
52'
60'
60'
09
10
11
08
13
07
15
08
15
09
17
17
17
* Last two digits of joist designation.
** NOTE: Erection Stability Span = Clear span + 8". (See
SJI Specifications Section 104.2) For spans EQUAL TO OR
EXCEEDING that shown, one of the rows nearest mid-span
must be bolted diagonal type. For spans through 60 feet,
the bolted diagonal bridging must be installed BEFORE
releasing the hoisting lines. FOR SPANS OVER 60 FEET,
ALL BRIDGING ROWS MUST BE BOLTED DIAGONAL
TYPE. Spans over 60 feet through 100 feet require two rows
of bolted diagonal bridging to be installed, at one-third
points, BEFORE releasing the hoisting lines. Spans over
100 feet require ALL rows of bolted diagonal bridging to be
installed BEFORE releasing the hoisting lines.
*** All DLH-Series JOISTS REQUIRE ALL BRIDGING
ROWS TO BE BOLTED DIAGONAL TYPE.
Bridging Spacing
LH-DLH
Minimum Bolt
Max.Spacing of
Sect. Number* Diameter**
02,03,04
3/8"
05,06
3/8"
07,08
3/8"
09,10
3/8"
11,12
3/8"
13,14
1/2"
15,16,17
1/2"
18,19
5/8"
Bridging Lines
11'-0"
12'-0"
13'-0"
14'-0"
16'-0"
16'-0"
21'-0"
26'-0"
* Last two digits of joist designation.
** Size required due to requirements as indicated
for bolted diagonal bridging connections per SJI
Specifications Section 104.5(e). Minimum A307
Bolt required for connection.
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
LH & DLH SERIES LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS
NON-STANDARD TYPES
Longspan steel joists can be furnished with either unThe following joists can also be supplied by Vulcraft,
derslung or square ends, with parallel chords or with
however, THE DISTRICT SALES OFFICE OR MANsingle or double pitched top chords to provide sufficient
UFACTURING FACILITY NEAREST YOU SHOULD
slope for roof drainage.
BE CONTACTED FOR ANY LIMITATIONS IN
STANDARD TYPES
DEPTH OR LENGTH.
The Longspan joist designation is determined by
its nominal depth at the center of the span, except
for offset double pitched joists, where the depth
should be given at the ridge. A part of the designation
should be either the section number or the total design
load over the design live load (TL/LL given in plf).
All pitched joists will be cambered in addition to the
pitch unless specified otherwise.
CAMBER FOR STANDARD TYPES
**Contact Vulcraft for minimum depth at ends.
LH &DLH series joists shall have camber in accordance with
the following table:***
CAMBER
Non-Standard Types:
The design professional shall
provide on the structural drawings the amount of camber
desired in inches. If camber is not specified, Vulcraft will
use the camber values for LH and DLH joists based on
top chord length.
Standard Types: The camber listed in the table will be
fabricated into the joists unless the design professional
specifically states otherwise on the structural drawings.
Top Chord
Approx.
Length
Camber
20'-0"
(6096 mm)
1/4"
(6 mm)
30'-0"
(9144 mm)
3/8"
(10 mm)
40'-0" (12192 mm)
5/8"
(16 mm)
50'-0" (15240 mm)
1"
(25 mm)
60'-0" (18288 mm)
1 1/2"
(38 mm)
70'-0" (21336 mm)
2"
(51 mm)
80'-0" (24384 mm)
2 3/4"
(70 mm)
90'-0" (27432 mm)
3 1/2"
(89 mm)
100'-0" (30480 mm)
4 1/4" (108 mm)
110'-0" (33528 mm)
5" (127 mm)
120'-0" (36576 mm)
6" (152 mm)
130'-0" (39621 mm)
7" (178 mm)
140'-0" (42672 mm)
8" (203 mm)
144'-0" (43890 mm)
8 1/2" (216 mm)
*** NOTE: If full camber is not desired near walls or other
structural members please note on the structural drawings.
45
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
LH & DLH SERIES LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS
ANCHORAGE TO STEEL
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION
104.4 (b) AND 104.7 (b)
CEILING EXTENSION
ANCHORAGE TO MASONRY
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION
104.4 (a) AND 104.7 (a)
BOTTOM CHORD EXTENSION
*If bottom chord extension is to be bolted or
BOLTED CONNECTION
See Note (c)
Typically required at columns
TOP CHORD EXTENSION
See Note (a)
welded the specifiying professional must
provide axial loads on structural drawings.
NOTE: Configurations may vary from
that shown.
(a) Extended top chords or full depth cantilever
ends require the special attention of the specifying
professional.
The magnitude and location of the design loads to
be supported, the deflection requirements, and the
proper bracing shall be clearly indicated on the
structural drawings.
(b) See SJI Specification - Section 105 for Handling
and Erection of LH and DLH joists.
(c) The Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Standards (OSHA), Paragraph 1910.12 refers to
Paragraph 1518.751 of “Construction Standards”
which states:
“In steel framing, where bar joists are utilized, and
columns are not framed in at least two directions
with structural steel members, a bar joist shall be
field-bolted at columns to provide lateral stability
during construction.”
SQUARE END
See SJI Specification 104.5 (f).
Cross bridging required at end of
bottom bearing joist.
46
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
LH & DLH SERIES LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS
HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
CROSS BRIDGING
(a) Horizontal Bridging units shall be used in the space
adjacent to the wall to allow for proper deflection of the
joist nearest the wall.
For the proper use of horizontal bridging refer to sections 104.5(a) and 105.
NOTE: Do not weld bridging to web members. Do not
hang any mechanical, electrical, etc. from bridging.
(b) For required bolt size refer to bridging table on page
136. NOTE: Clip configuration may vary from that
shown.
LH & DLH SERIES OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS SLOPED SEAT REQUIREMENTS
LOW END
HIGH END
SLOPE
RATE
1/4:12
3/8:12
1/2:12
1:12
1 1/2:12
2:12
2 1/2:12
3:12
3 1/2:12
4:12
4 1/2:12
5:12
HIGH END
MINIMUM
**SEAT
DEPTH
d
6
6
6
6
1/2”
1/2”
1/2”
1/2”
7”
7”
7 1/2”
7 1/2”
8”
8 1/2”
8 1/2”
9 1/2”
6:12 & OVER SEE BELOW
* 7 1/2" at 18 and 19 chord section numbers. Consult Vulcraft for information when TCX’s are present.
** Add 2 1/2" to seat depths at 18 and 19 chord section numbers.
NOTES:
(1) Depths shown are the minimums required for fabrication of sloped bearing seats.
(2) d = 5/8 + 5 / cos θ + 6 tan θ
(3) Clearance must be checked at outer edge of support as shown in detail B. Increase bearing depth as required
to permit passage of 5" deep extension.
(4) If extension depth greater than 5" is required (see detail B and D) increase bearing depths accordingly.
47
NOTES
48
VULCRAFT LH & DLH SERIES / GENERAL INFORMATION
HIGH STRENGTH
ROOF SPANS TO 144'-0
DESIGN – Vulcraft LH & DLH Series long span steel
joists are designed in accordance with the specifications
of the Steel Joist Institute.
PAINT – Vulcraft joists receive a shop-coat of rust
inhibitive primer whose performance characteristics
conform to those of the Steel Joist Institute specification
102.4.
SPECIFICATIONS see page 50.
ECONOMICAL
FLOOR SPANS TO 120'-0
ACCESSORIES see page 45.
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR DIAGONAL BRIDGING
LH & DLH TABLE
MINIMUM BEARING LENGTHS
BRIDGING ANGLE SIZE-EQUAL LEG ANGLES
JOIST
DEPTH
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
68
72
1x7/64
1-1/4x7/64
(25mm x 3mm) (32mm x 3mm)
r =.20"
r =.25"
6'-1"(1854mm) 7'-10"(2387mm)
7'-9"(2362mm)
7'-7"(2311mm)
7'-5"(2260mm)
7'-3"(2209mm)
1-1/2x7/64
(38mm x 3mm)
r =.30"
9'-7"(2921mm)
9'-6"(2895 mm)
9'-5"(2870 mm)
9'-3"(2819 mm)
9'-2"(2794 mm)
9'-0"(2743 mm)
8'-10"(2692 mm)
8'-7"(2616 mm)
8'-5"(2565 mm)
8'-2"(2489 mm)
8'-0"(2438 mm)
1-3/4x7/64
(45mm x 3mm)
r =.35"
11'-4"(3454mm)
11'-3"(3429mm)
11'-2"(3403mm)
11'-0"(3352mm)
10'-11"(3327mm)
10'-9"(3276mm)
10'-8"(3251mm)
10'-6"(3200mm)
10'-4"(3149mm)
10'-2"(3098mm)
10'-0"(3048mm)
2x1/8
(51mm x 3mm)
r =.40"
13'-0"(3962mm)
12'-11"(3973mm)
12'-10"(3911mm)
12'-9"(3886mm)
12'-8"(3860mm)
12'-7"(3835mm)
12'-5"(3784mm)
12'-4"(3759mm)
12'-2"(3708mm)
12'-0"(3657mm)
11'-10"(3606mm)
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
SPANS OVER 60' REQUIRE BOLTED DIAGONAL BRIDGING
BRIDGING ANGLE SIZE-EQUAL LEG ANGLES
SECTION
1x7/64
NUMBER* (25mm x 3mm)
r = .20"
02, 03, 04 4'-7"(1397mm)
05 - 06 4'-1"(1245mm)
07 - 08 3'-9"(1143mm)
09 - 10
11 - 12
13 - 14
15 - 16
17
1-1/4x7/64
(32mm x 3mm)
r = .25"
6'-3"(1905mm)
5'-9"(1753mm)
5'-1"(1549mm)
4'-6"(1372mm)
4'-1"(1245mm)
3'-9"(1143mm)
1-1/2x7/64
(38mm x 3mm)
r = .30"
7'-6"(2286mm)
7'-6"(2286mm)
6'-8"(2032mm)
6'-0"(1829mm)
5'-5"(1651mm)
4'-11"(1499mm)
4'-3"(1295mm)
4'-0"(1219mm)
1-3/4x7/64
(45mm x 3mm)
r = .35"
8'-9"(2667mm)
8'-9"(2667mm)
8'-6"(2590mm)
7'-8"(2337mm)
6'-10"(2083mm)
6'-3"(1905mm)
5'-5"(1651mm)
5'-1"(1549mm)
2x1/8
(51mm x 3mm)
r = .40"
10'-0"(3048mm)
10'-0"(3048mm)
10'-0"(3048mm)
10'-0"(3048mm)
8'-11"(2718mm)
8'-2"(2489mm)
7'-1"(2159mm)
6'-8"(2032mm)
2-1/2x5/32
(64mm x 4mm)
r = .50"
12'-4"(3759mm)
12'-4"(3759mm)
12'-4"(3759mm)
12'-4"(3759mm)
12'-4"(3759mm)
12'-4"(3759mm)
11'-0"(3353mm)
10'-5"(3175mm)
*REFER TO THE LAST DIGITS OF JOIST DESIGNATION CONNECTION TO JOIST MUST RESIST FORCES LISTED IN TABLE 104.5.1.
Joist Type
On
On
Masonry Concrete
LH 02 thru 17
DLH 10 thru 19
6”
6”
On
Steel
4”
MINIMUM BEARING PLATE WIDTHS
LH 02 thru LH 12
DLH 10 thru DLH 12
9”
9”
LH 13 thru LH 17
DLH 13 thru DLH 19
12”
12”
SECTION
NUMBER*
MAX. SPACING
OF LINES OF
BRIDGING
02, 03, 04
05 - 06
07 - 08
09 - 10
11 - 12
13 - 14
15 - 16
17
18 - 19
11'-0" (3352mm)
12'-0" (3657mm)
13'-0" (3962mm)
14'-0" (4267mm)
16'-0" (4876mm)
16'-0" (4876mm)
21'-0" (6400mm)
21'-0' (6400mm)
26'-0" (7924mm)
HORIZONTAL
BRACING
FORCE**
lbs.
(N)
400 (1779)
500 (2224)
650 (2891)
800 (3558)
1000 (4448)
1200 (5337)
1600 (7117)
1800 (8006)
2000 (8896)
NUMBER OF LINES OF BRIDGING BASED ON CLEAR SPAN.
*LAST TWO DIGITS OF JOIST DESIGNATION.
**NOMINAL BRACING FORCE IS UNFACTORED.
MIN. A307 BOLT REQ'D FOR CONNECTION
SECTION
A307 BOLT
SERIES
NUMBER*
DIAMETER
LH/DLH
2 - 12
3/8" (9mm)
LH/DLH
13 - 17
1/2" (12mm)
DLH
18 & 19
5/8" (15mm)
*LAST TWO DIGITS OF JOIST DESIGNATION.
NOTES:1. Special designed LH and DLH can be supplied in longer lengths. See SLH Series Page 73.
2. Additional bridging may be required when joists support standing seam roof decks. The specifying
professional should require that the joist manufacturer check the system and provide bridging as required
to adequately brace the joists against lateral movement. For bridging requirements due to uplift pressures
refer to sect. 104.12.
49
American National Standard – SJI-LH/DLH-1.1
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
FOR LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES AND
DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, DLH-SERIES
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute February 15, 1978
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
SECTION 100.
SECTION 102.
SCOPE
MATERIALS
102.1 STEEL
This specification covers the design, manufacture and use
of Longspan Steel Joists LH-Series, and Deep Longspan
Steel Joists, DLH-Series. Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD) and Allowable Strength Design (ASD) are
included in this specification.
The steel used in the manufacture of chord and web sections shall conform to one of the following ASTM
Specifications:
• Carbon Structural Steel, ASTM A36/A36M.
SECTION 101.
• High-Strength, Low-Alloy Structural Steel, ASTM
A242/A242M.
DEFINITION
The term “Longspan Steel Joists LH-Series and Deep
Longspan Steel Joists DLH-Series”, as used herein, refers
to open web, load-carrying members utilizing hot-rolled or
cold-formed steel, including cold-formed steel whose yield
strength* has been attained by cold working. LH-Series are
suitable for the direct support of floors and roof decks in
buildings, and DLH-Series are suitable for direct support of
roof decks in buildings.
• High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of Structural
Quality ASTM A529/A529M, Grade 50.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural
Steel, ASTM A572/A572M Grade 42 or 50.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi
(345 MPa) Minimum Yield Point to 4 inches (100 mm)
Thick, ASTM A588/A588M.
The design of LH- and DLH-Series joist chord and web sections shall be based on a yield strength of at least 36 ksi
(250 MPa), but not greater than 50 ksi (345 MPa). Steel
used for LH- and DLH-Series joist chord or web sections
shall have a minimum yield strength determined in accordance with one of the procedures specified in Section 102.2,
which is equal to the yield strength assumed in the design.
LH- and DLH-Series Joists shall be designed in accordance
with these specifications to support the loads given in the
Standard Load Tables for Longspan and Deep Longspan
Steel Joists, LH- and DLH-Series, attached hereto.
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, High-Strength, Low-Alloy, HotRolled and Cold-Rolled, with Improved Corrosion
Resistance, ASTM A606.
• Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, HighStrength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with
Improved Formability, ASTM A1008/A1008M
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural,
High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy
with Improved Formability, ASTM A1011/A1011M
or shall be of suitable quality ordered or produced to other
than the listed specifications, provided that such material in
the state used for final assembly and manufacture is weldable
and is proved by tests performed by the producer or manufacturer to have the properties specified in Section 102.2.
* The term “Yield Strength” as used herein shall designate the yield level of a material as determined by the
applicable method outlined in paragraph 13.1, “Yield
Point” and in paragraph 13.2, “Yield Strength”, of
ASTM Standard A370, “Standard Test Methods and
Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products”,
or as specified in Section 102.2 of this Specification.
102.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
The yield strength used as a basis for the design stresses
prescribed in Section 103 shall be at least 36 ksi (250 MPa),
but shall not be greater than 50 ksi (345 MPa). Evidence
that the steel furnished meets or exceeds the design yield
strength shall, if requested, be provided in the form of an
affidavit or by witnessed or certified test reports.
Standard Specifications and Load Tables, Longspan
Steel Joists LH-Series And Deep Longspan Steel Joist
DLH-Series
For material used without consideration of increase in yield
strength resulting from cold forming, the specimens shall be
taken from as-rolled material. In the case of material, the
mechanical properties of which conform to the requirements
of one of the listed specifications, the test specimens and
Steel Joist Institute - Copyright, 2005
50
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
b) For connected members both having a specified minimum yield strength of 36 ksi (250 MPa) or one having a
specified minimum yield strength of 36 ksi (250 MPa),
and the other having a specified minimum yield strength
greater than 36 ksi (250 MPa).
procedures shall conform to those of such specifications and
to ASTM A370.
In the case of material, the mechanical properties of which
do not conform to the requirements of one of the listed specifications, the test specimens and procedures shall conform
to the applicable requirements of ASTM A370, and the specimens shall exhibit a yield strength equal to or exceeding the
design yield strength and an elongation of not less than (a)
20 percent in 2 inches (51 millimeters) for sheet and strip, or
(b) 18 percent in 8 inches (203 millimeters) for plates,
shapes and bars with adjustments for thickness for plates,
shapes and bars as prescribed in ASTM A36/A36M,
A242/A242M, A529/A529M, A572/A572M, A588/A588M,
whichever specification is applicable on the basis of design
yield strength.
AWS A5.1: E60XX
AWS A5.17: F6XX-EXXX, F6XX-ECXXX flux electrode
combination
AWS A5.20: E6XT-X, E6XT-XM
AWS A5.29: E6XTX-X, E6XT-XM
or any of those listed in Section 102.3(a).
Other welding methods, providing equivalent strength as
demonstrated by tests, may be used.
102.4 PAINT
The number of tests shall be as prescribed in ASTM A6/A6M
for plates, shapes, and bars; and ASTM A606, A1008/A1008M
and A1011/A1011M for sheet and strip.
The standard shop paint is intended to protect the steel for only
a short period of exposure in ordinary atmospheric conditions
and shall be considered an impermanent and provisional coating.
If as-formed strength is utilized, the test reports shall show the
results of tests performed on full section specimens in accordance with the provisions of the AISI North American
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural
Members. They shall also indicate compliance with these provisions and with the following additional requirements:
When specified, the standard shop paint shall conform to one
of the following:
a) Steel Structures Painting Council Specification, SSPC
No. 15
b) Or, shall be a shop paint which meets the minimum performance requirements of the above listed specification.
a) The yield strength calculated from the test data shall equal
or exceed the design yield strength.
SECTION 103.
b) Where tension tests are made for acceptance and control
purposes, the tensile strength shall be at least 6 percent
greater than the yield strength of the section.
DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURE
103.1 METHOD
c) Where compression tests are used for acceptance and
control purposes, the specimen shall withstand a gross
shortening of 2 percent of its original length without cracking. The length of the specimen shall be not greater than
20 times its least radius of gyration.
Joists shall be designed in accordance with these specifications
as simply supported, uniformly loaded trusses supporting a floor
or roof deck so constructed as to brace the top chord of the
joists against lateral buckling. Where any applicable design feature is not specifically covered herein, the design
shall be in accordance with the following specifications:
d) If any test specimen fails to pass the requirements of subparagraphs (a), (b), or (c) above, as applicable, two retests
shall be made of specimens from the same lot. Failure of
one of the retest specimens to meet such requirements
shall be the cause for rejection of the lot represented by the
specimens.
a) Where the steel used consists of hot-rolled shapes, bars
or plates, use the American Institute of Steel
Construction, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.
102.3 WELDING ELECTRODES
b) For members that are cold-formed from sheet or strip
steel, use the American Iron and Steel Institute, North
American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members.
The following electrodes shall be used for arc welding:
a) For connected members both having a specified yield
strength greater than 36 ksi (250 MPa).
Design Basis:
AWS A5.1: E70XX
AWS A5.5: E70XX-X
AWS A5.17: F7XX-EXXX, F7XX-ECXXX flux electrode
combination
AWS A5.18: ER70S-X, E70C-XC, E70C-XM
AWS A5.20: E7XT-X, E7XT-XM
AWS A5.23: F7XX-EXXX-XX, F7XX-ECXXX-XX
AWS A5.28: ER70S-XXX, E70C-XXX
AWS A5.29: E7XTX-X, E7XTX-XM
Designs shall be made according to the provisions in this
Specification for either Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD) or for Allowable Strength Design (ASD).
Load Combinations:
LRFD:
When load combinations are not specified to the joist manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed for the
51
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
(b) Compression: φc = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω c = 1.67 (ASD)
factored loads based on the factors and load combinations
as follows:
1.4D
For members with K l
ASD:
1.2D + 1.6 (L, or Lr, or S, or R)
≤ 4.71
r
When load combinations are not specified to the joist manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed based on
the load combinations as follows:
Fcr = Q 0.658
D
For members with K l
D + (L, or Lr, or S, or R)
r
E
QFy
QFy
Fe
Fy
> 4.71
(103.2-3)
E
QFy
Where:
D = dead load due to the weight of the structural elements
and the permanent features of the structure
Fcr = 0.877Fe
(103.2-4)
L = live load due to occupancy and movable equipment
Lr = roof live load
Where, Fe = elastic buckling stress determined in accordance with Equation 103.2-5.
S = snow load
R = load due to initial rainwater or ice exclusive of the
ponding contribution
When special loads are specified and the specifying professional does not provide the load combinations, the provisions of ASCE 7, “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures” shall be used for LRFD and ASD load
combinations.
Design Using Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Joists shall have their components so proportioned that the
required stresses, fu, shall not exceed φ Fn where,
=
required stress
ksi (MPa)
Fn
=
nominal stress
ksi (MPa)
=
resistance factor
φ
φFn
Joists shall have their components so proportioned that the
required stresses, f, shall not exceed Fn / Ω where,
=
required stress
ksi (MPa)
Fn
=
nominal stress
ksi (MPa)
=
safety factor
Ω
Stresses:
Fn /Ω =
(a) Tension: φt = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω t = 1.67 (ASD)
For Chords: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
For Webs: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
(103.2-1)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fy (ASD)
(103.2-2)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fcr (ASD)
(103.2-7)
For cold-formed sections the method of calculating the
nominal column strength is given in the AISI, North
American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members.
allowable stress
Design Stress = 0.9Fy (LRFD)
(103.2-6)
Use 1.2 l/rx for a crimped, first primary compression web
member when a moment-resistant weld group is not
used for this member; where = rx member radius of gyration in the plane of the joist.
design stress
f
Design Stress = 0.9Fcr (LRFD)
In the above equations, l is taken as the distance in inches
(millimeters) between panel points for the chord members and the appropriate length for web members, and r
is the corresponding least radius of gyration of the member or any component thereof. E is equal to 29,000 ksi
(200,000 MPa).
Design Using Allowable Strength Design (ASD)
=
(103.2-5)
Kl
r
For hot-rolled sections, “Q” is the full reduction factor for
slender compression elements.
103.2 DESIGN AND ALLOWABLE STRESSES
fu
π E2
2
Fe =
52
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
103.3 MAXIMUM SLENDERNESS RATIOS
(c) Bending: φb = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω b = 1.67 (ASD)
Bending calculations are to be based on using the elastic
section modulus.
The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/ r and 1.0 ls /r of members as a
whole or any component part shall not exceed the values
given in Table 103.3-1, Parts A.
For chords and web members other than solid rounds:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
Design Stress = 0.9Fy (LRFD)
(103.2-8)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fy (ASD)
(103.2-9)
The effective slenderness ratio, K l/r *, to be used in calculating the nominal stresses Fcr and F'e, is the largest value as
determined from Table 103.3-1, Parts B and C.
Design Stress = 1.45Fy (LRFD)
(103.2-10)
In compression members when fillers or ties are used, they
shall be spaced so that the ls / r z ratio of each component
does not exceed the governing l/ r ratio of the member as a
whole.
Allowable Stress = 0.95Fy (ASD)
(103.2-11)
The terms used in Table 103.3-1 are defined as follows:
For web members of solid round cross section:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
l = Length center-to-center of panel points, except l = 36 in.
(914 mm) for calculating l/ r y of top chord member.
ls = maximum length center-to-center between panel point
For bearing plates:
Fy = 50 ksi (345MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250MPa)
Design Stress = 1.35Fy (LRFD)
(d) Weld Strength:
Allowable Stress = 0.9Fy (ASD)
(103.2-12)
and filler (tie), or between adjacent fillers (ties).
rx = member radius of gyration in the plane of the joist.
ry = member radius of gyration out of the plane of the joist.
rz = least radius of gyration of a member component.
(103.2-13)
Shear at throat of fillet welds:
LRFD: φw = 0.75
Nominal Shear Stress = Fnw = 0.6Fexx
(103.2-14)
Design Shear Strength =
φRn = φwFnw A = 0.45Fexx A
(103.2-15)
Allowable Shear Strength =
Rn/Ω w = FnwA/Ω w = 0.3Fexx A
(103.2-16)
ASD: Ω w = 2.0
* See P.N. Chod and T. V. Galambos, Compression
Chords Without Fillers in Longspan Steel Joists,
Research Repor t No. 36, June 1975 Structural
Division, Civil Engineering Department, Washington
University, St. Louis, MO.
A = effective throat area
Made with E70 series electrodes or F7XX-EXXX fluxelectrode combinations...........Fexx = 70 ksi (483 MPa)
Made with E60 series electrodes or F6XX-EXXX fluxelectrode combinations...........Fexx = 60 ksi (414 MPa)
Tension or compression on groove or butt welds shall be
the same as those specified for the connected material.
53
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
TABLE 103.3-1
I
MAXIMUM AND EFFECTIVE SLENDERNESS RATIOS
TOP CHORD INTERIOR PANEL
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/ r and 1.0 ls / r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 90.
B. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “Fcr”
1. With fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
1.0 ls /rz
0.75 l/rz
2. Without fillers or ties
3. Single component members
0.75 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
C. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “F'e”
1. With fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
2. Without fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
3. Single component members
0.75 l/rx
II TOP CHORD END PANEL
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/r and 1.0 ls /r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 120.
B. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “Fcr”
1. With fillers or ties
1.0 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
1.0 ls /rz
2. Without fillers or ties
1.0 l/rz
3. Single component members
1.0 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
C. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “F'e”
1. With fillers or ties
1.0 l/rx
2. Without fillers or ties
1.0 l/rx
3. Single component members
1.0 l/rx
III TENSION MEMBERS - CHORDS AND WEBS
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/r and 1.0 ls /r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 240.
IV COMPRESSION WEB MEMBERS
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/r and 1.0 ls /r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 200.
B. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “Fcr”
1. With fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
1.0 ls /rz
2. Without fillers or ties
1.0 l/rz
3. Single component members
0.75 l/rx*
1.0 l/ry
* Use 1.2 l/rx for a crimped, first primary compression web member when a moment-resistant weld group is
not used for this member.
54
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
103.4 MEMBERS
Where l is the panel length,in inches (millimeters),
as defined in Section 103.2(b) and rx is the radius
of gyration about the axis of bending.
(a) Chords
The bottom chord shall be designed as an axially loaded
tension member.
Q = Form factor defined in Section 103.2(b)
For ASD:
A = Area of the top chord, in.2, (mm2)
The radius of gyration of the top chord about its vertical
axis shall not be less than l/170 where l is the spacing in
inches (millimeters) between lines of bridging as specified
in Section 104.5(d)
at the panel point:
The top chord shall be considered as stayed laterally by
the floor slab or roof deck provided the requirements of
Section 104.9(e) of this specification are met.
at the mid panel:
The top chord shall be designed as a continuous member
subject to combined axial and bending stresses and shall
be so proportioned that
fa 8
+
Fa 9
For LRFD:
at the panel point:
at the mid panel:
8
fau
+
φ cFcr 9
fau + fbu ≤ 0.9Fy
for
fau
1– φ F'
c e
Qφ bFy
for
for
≤ 1.0
fa
2Fa
(103.4-2)
+
(103.4-4)
fa
Fa ≥ 0.2,
Cmfb
1.67fa
1–
F'e
(103.4-1)
fau
≥ 0.2,
φ cFcr
Cmfbu
fa + fb ≤ 0.6Fy
QFb
≤ 1.0
(103.4-5)
≤ 1.0
(103.4-6)
fa
< 0.2,
Fa
Cmfb
1.67fa
1–
F'e
QFb
fa = P/A = Required compressive stress, ksi (MPa)
for
fau
+
2φc Fcr
P = Required axial strength using ASD load
combinations, kips (N)
fau
< 0.2,
φcFcr
Cmfbu
fau
1–
φ cF'e
Qφ bFy
≤ 1.0
fb = M/S = Required bending stress at the location under
consideration, ksi (MPa)
M = Required flexural strength using ASD load
combinations, kip-in. (N-mm)
(103.4-3)
S = Elastic Section Modulus, in.3 (mm3)
fau = Pu /A = Required compressive stress, ksi (MPa)
Fa = Allowable axial compressive stress, based on l/r
as defined in Section 103.2(b), ksi (MPa)
Pu = Required axial strength using LRFD load combinations,
kips (N)
Fb = Allowable bending stress; 0.6Fy, ksi (MPa)
Cm = 1 - 0.50 fa/F'e for end panels
fbu = Mu/S = Required bending stress at the location
under consideration, ksi (MPa)
(b) Web
Cm = 1 - 0.67 fa/F'e for interior panels
Mu = Required flexural strength using LRFD load
combinations, kip-in. (N-mm)
The vertical shears to be used in the design of the web
members shall be determined from full uniform loading,
but such vertical shears shall be not less than 25 percent
of the end reaction.
S = Elastic Section Modulus, in.3 (mm3)
Fcr = Nominal axial compressive stress in ksi (MPa)
based on l/r as defined in Section 103.2(b)
Interior vertical web members used in modified Warren
type web systems shall be designed to resist the gravity
loads supported by the member plus an additional axial
load of 1/2 of 1.0 percent of the top chord axial force.
Cm = 1 - 0.3 fau/φ F'e for end panels
Cm = 1 - 0.4 fau/φ F'e for interior panels
Fy = Specified minimum yield strength, ksi (MPa)
F'e =
π E
2
, ksi (MPa)
2
Kl
rx
55
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
(c) Depth
(3) Weld Inspection by Outside Agencies (See Section
104.13 of this specification).
Joists may have either parallel chords or a top chord slope
of 1/8 inch per foot (1:96). The depth, for the purpose of
design, in all cases shall be the depth at mid-span.
The agency shall arrange for visual inspection to determine that welds meet the acceptance standards of
Section 103.5(a)(1). Ultrasonic, X-Ray, and magnetic
particle testing are inappropriate for joists due to the
configurations of the components and welds.
(d) Eccentricity
Members connected at a joint shall have their center of
gravity lines meet at a point, if practical. Eccentricity on
either side of the neutral axis of chord members may be
neglected when it does not exceed the distance between
the neutral axis and the back of the chord. Otherwise,
provision shall be made for the stresses due to eccentricity. Ends of joists shall be proportioned to resist bending
produced by eccentricity at the support.
(b) Strength
(1) Joint Connections – Joint connections shall develop
the maximum force due to any of the design loads, but
not less than 50 percent of the strength of the member in tension or compression, whichever force is the
controlling factor in the selection of the member.
(2) Shop Splices - Shop splices may occur at any point
in chord or web members. Splices shall be designed
for the member force but not less than 50 percent of
the member strength. Members containing a butt
weld splice shall develop an ultimate tensile force of
at least 57 ksi (393 MPa) times the full design area
of the chord or web. The term “member” shall be
defined as all component parts comprising the chord
or web, at the point of splice.
In those cases where a single angle compression member is attached to the outside of the stem of a tee or double angle chord, due consideration shall be given to
eccentricity.
(e) Extended Ends
Extended top chords or full depth cantilever ends require
the special attention of the specifying professional. The
magnitude and location of the loads to be supported,
deflection requirements, and proper bracing shall be
clearly indicated on the structural drawings.
(c) Field Splices
103.5 CONNECTIONS
Field Splices shall be designed by the manufacturer and
may be either bolted or welded. Splices shall be
designed for the member force, but not less than 50 percent of the member strength.
(a) Methods
103.6 CAMBER
Joist connections and splices shall be made by attaching
the members to one another by arc or resistance welding
or other accredited methods.
Joists shall have approximate cambers in accordance with
the following:
(1) Welded Connections
TABLE 103.6-1
a) Selected welds shall be inspected visually by the
manufacturer. Prior to this inspection, weld slag
shall be removed.
Top Chord Length
Approximate Camber
20'-0"
(6096 mm)
1/4"
(6 mm)
30'-0"
(9144 mm)
3/8"
(10 mm)
40'-0"
(12192 mm)
5/8"
(16 mm)
50'-0"
(15240 mm)
1"
(25 mm)
60'-0"
(18288 mm)
1 1/2"
(38 mm)
70'-0"
(21336 mm)
2"
(51 mm)
e) Undercut shall not exceed 1/16 inch (2 millimeters)
for welds oriented parallel to the principal stress.
80'-0"
(24384 mm)
2 3/4"
(70 mm)
90'-0"
(27432 mm)
3 1/2"
(89 mm)
f) The sum of surface (piping) porosity diameters
shall not exceed 1/16 inch (2 millimeters) in any 1
inch (25 millimeters) of design weld length.
100'-0"
(30480 mm)
4 1/4"
(108 mm)
110'-0"
(33528 mm)
5"
(127 mm)
120'-0"
(36576 mm)
6"
(152 mm)
130'-0"
(39621 mm)
7"
(178 mm)
140'-0"
(42672 mm)
8"
(203 mm)
144'-0"
(43890 mm)
8 1/2"
(216 mm)
b) Cracks are not acceptable and shall be repaired.
c) Thorough fusion shall exist between layers of weld
metal and between weld metal and base metal for
the required design length of the weld; such fusion
shall be verified by visual inspection.
d) Unfilled weld craters shall not be included in the
design length of the weld.
g) Weld spatter that does not interfere with paint
coverage is acceptable.
(2) Welding Program
Manufacturers shall have a program for establishing
weld procedures and operator qualification, and for
weld sampling and testing.
The specifying professional shall give consideration to coordinating joist camber with adjacent framing.
56
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
103.7 VERIFICATION OF DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
(a) Design Calculations
reactions and all other vertical and lateral forces shall be
taken by the specifying professional in the design of the
steel bearing plate and the masonry or concrete. The ends
of LH- and DLH-Series Joists shall extend a distance of
not less than 6 inches (152 millimeters) over the masonry
or concrete support and be anchored to the steel bearing
plate. The plate shall be located not more than 1/2 inch
(13 millimeters) from the face of the wall and shall be not
less than 9 inches (229 millimeters) wide perpendicular to
the length of the joist. The plate is to be designed by the
specifying professional and shall be furnished by other than
the joist manufacturer.
Companies manufacturing any LH- or DLH-Series Joists
shall submit design data to the Steel Joist Institute (or an
independent agency approved by the Steel Joist Institute)
for verification of compliance with the SJI Specifications.
(b) In-Plant Inspections
Each manufacturer shall verify their ability to manufacture
LH- and DLH-Series Joists through periodic In-Plant
Inspections. Inspections shall be performed by an independent agency approved by the Steel Joist Institute.
The frequency, manner of inspection, and manner of
reporting shall be determined by the Steel Joist Institute.
The plant inspections are not a guarantee of the quality
of any specific joists; this responsibility lies fully and
solely with the individual manufacturer.
Where it is deemed necessary to bear less than 6 inches
(152 millimeters) over the masonry or concrete support,
special consideration is to be given to the design of the
steel bearing plate and the masonry or concrete by the
specifying professional. The joists must bear a minimum 4
inches (102 millimeters) on the steel bearing plate.
(b) Steel
SECTION 104.
APPLICATION
Due consideration of the end reactions and all other vertical and lateral forces shall be taken by the specifying
professional in the design of the steel support.
104.1 USAGE
The ends of LH- or DLH-Series Joists shall extend a distance of not less than 4 inches (102 millimeters) over the
steel supports. Where it is deemed necessary to butt
opposite joists over a narrow steel support with bearing
less than that noted above, special ends must be specified, and such ends shall have positive attachment to the
support, either by bolting or welding.
This specification shall apply to any type of structure where
floors and roofs are to be supported directly by steel joists
installed as hereinafter specified. Where joists are used
other than on simple spans under uniformly distributed loading as prescribed in Section 103.1, they shall be investigated
and modified if necessary to limit the required stresses to
those listed in Section 103.2.
104.5 BRIDGING
CAUTION: If a rigid connection of the bottom chord is to be
made to a column or other support, it shall be made only after
the application of the dead loads. The joist is then no longer
simply supported, and the system must be investigated for
continuous frame action by the specifying professional.
Top and bottom chord bridging is required and shall consist
of one or both of the following types.
(a) Horizontal
Horizontal bridging lines shall consist of continuous horizontal steel members. The l/r of the bridging member
shall not exceed 300, where l is the distance in inches
(millimeters) between attachments and r is the least
radius of gyration of the bridging member.
The designed detail of a rigid type connection and moment
plates shall be shown on the structural drawings by the specifying professional. The moment plates shall be furnished by
other than the joist manufacturer.
104.2 SPAN
(b) Diagonal
Diagonal bridging shall consist of cross-bracing with a l/r
ratio of not more than 200, where l is the distance in
inches (millimeters) between connections, and r is the
least radius of gyration of the bridging member. Where
cross-bracing members are connected at their point of
intersection, the l distance shall be taken as the distance
in inches (millimeters) between connections at the point
of intersection of the bridging members and the connections to the chord of the joists.
The clear span of a joist shall not exceed 24 times its depth.
The term “Span” as used herein is defined as the clear span
plus 8 inches (203 millimeters).
104.3 DEPTH
The nominal depth of sloping chord joists shall be the depth at
mid-span. The standard slope of the top chord shall be 1/8
inch per foot (1:96).
104.4 END SUPPORTS
(a) Masonry and Concrete
(c) Bridging Lines
LH- and DLH-Series Joists supported by masonry or
concrete are to bear on steel bearing plates and shall be
designed as steel bearing. Due consideration of the end
For spans up through 60 feet (18288 mm), welded horizontal
bridging may be used except where the row of bridging near-
57
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
est the center is required to be bolted diagonal bridging as
indicated by the Red shaded area in the Load Table. For
spans over 60 feet (18288 mm) bolted diagonal bridging
shall be used as indicated by the Blue and Gray shaded
areas of the Load Table.
The ends of all bridging lines terminating at walls or beams
shall be anchored to resist the nominal force shown in Table
104.5-1.
104.7 END ANCHORAGE
(a) Masonry and Concrete
(d) Quantity and Spacing
Ends of LH- and DLH-Series Joists resting on steel bearing plates on masonry or structural concrete shall be
attached thereto with a minimum of two 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) fillet welds 2 inches (51 millimeters) long, or
with two 3/4 inch (19 millimeters) ASTM A307 bolts (minimum), or the equivalent.
The maximum spacing of lines of top chord bridging shall
not exceed the values in Table 104.5-1. The number of
rows of bottom chord bridging, including bridging required
per Section 104.12, shall not be less than the number of
top chord rows. Rows of bottom chord bridging are permitted to be spaced independently of rows of top chord bridging. The spacing of rows of bottom chord bridging shall
meet the slenderness requirement of Section 103.4(a) and
any specified strength requirements.
Table 104.5-1
LH-DLH
SECTION*
NUMBER
MAX. SPACING
OF LINES OF
TOP CHORD
BRIDGING
02,03,04
11'-0" (3352 mm)
400
(1779)
05,06
12'-0" (3657 mm)
500
(2224)
07,08
13'-0" (3962 mm)
650
(2891)
09,10
14'-0" (4267 mm)
800
(3558)
11,12
16'-0" (4876 mm)
1000
(4448)
13,14
16'-0" (4876 mm)
1200
(5337)
15,16
21'-0" (6400 mm)
1600
(7117)
17
21'-0" (6400 mm)
1800
(8006)
18,19
26'-0" (7924 mm)
2000
(8896)
(b) Steel
Ends of LH- and DLH-Series Joists resting on steel supports shall be attached thereto with a minimum of two 1/4
inch (6 millimeters) fillet welds 2 inches (51 millimeters)
long, or with two 3/4 inch (19 millimeters) ASTM A307
bolts, or the equivalent. When LH/DLH series joists are
used to provide lateral stability to the supporting member,
the final connection shall be made by welding or as designated by the specifying professional.
NOMINAL**
HORIZONTAL
BRACING
FORCE
lbs
(c) Uplift
(N)
Where uplift forces are a design consideration, roof joists
shall be anchored to resist such forces (Refer to Section
104.12).
104.8 JOIST SPACING
Joists shall be spaced so that the loading on each joist does
not exceed the design load (LRFD or ASD) for the particular
joist designation and span as shown in the applicable load
tables.
104.9 FLOOR AND ROOF DECKS
(a) Material
Number of lines of bridging is based on joist clear span dimensions.
* Last two digits of joist designation shown in load table.
** Nominal bracing force is unfactored.
Floor and roof decks may consist of cast-in-place or precast concrete or gypsum, formed steel, wood, or other
suitable material capable of supporting the required load
at the specified joist spacing.
(e) Connections
(b) Thickness
Connections to the chords of the steel joists shall be made
by positive mechanical means or by welding, and capable of
resisting a horizontal force not less than that specified in
Table 104.5-1.
Cast-in-place slabs shall be not less than 2 inches (51
millimeters) thick.
(c) Centering
(f) Bottom Chord Bearing Joists
Centering for structural slabs may be ribbed metal lath,
corrugated steel sheets, paper-backed welded wire fabric,
removable centering or any other suitable material capable
of supporting the slab at the designated joist spacing.
Centering shall not cause lateral displacement or damage to
the top chord of joists during installation or removal of the
centering or placing of the concrete.
Where bottom chord bearing joists are utilized, a row of
diagonal bridging shall be provided near the support(s).
This bridging shall be installed and anchored before the
hoisting cable(s) is released.
104.6 INSTALLATION OF BRIDGING
(d) Bearing
Bridging shall support the top and bottom chords against lateral movement during the construction period and shall hold
the steel joists in the approximate position as shown on the
joist placement plans.
Slabs or decks shall bear uniformly along the top chords
of the joists.
58
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
104.10 DEFLECTION
(e) Attachments
The spacing of attachments along the top chord shall not
exceed 36 inches (914 millimeters). Such attachments
of the slab or deck to the top chords of joists shall be
capable of resisting the following forces:
SECTION*
NUMBER
The deflection due to the design live load shall not exceed
the following:
Floors: 1/360 of span.
Roofs: 1/360 of span where a plaster ceiling is attached
or suspended.
Table 104.9-1
NOMINAL**
FORCE REQUIRED
02 to 04 incl.
120 lbs/ft (1.75 kN/m)
05 to 09 incl.
150 lbs/ft (2.19 kN/m)
10 to 17 incl.
200 lbs/ft (2.92 kN/m)
18 and 19
250 lbs/ft (3.65 kN/m)
1/240 of span for all other cases.
The specifying professional shall give consideration to the
effects of deflection and vibration* in the selection of joists.
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #5, “Vibration of Steel Joist-Concrete
Slab Floors” and the Institute’s Computer Vibration
Program.
104.11 PONDING*
* Last two digits of joist designation shown in the load table.
** Nominal force is unfactored.
The ponding investigation shall be performed by the specifying
professional.
(f) Wood Nailers
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #3, “Structural Design of Steel Joist
Roofs to Resist Ponding Loads” and AISC Specifications.
Where wood nailers are used, such nailers in conjunction with deck or slab shall be firmly attached to the top
chords of the joists in conformance with Section
104.9(e).
104.12 UPLIFT
(g) Joist with Standing Seam Roofing
Where uplift forces due to wind are a design requirement,
these forces must be indicated on the contract drawings in
terms of NET uplift in pounds per square foot (Pascals). The
contract documents shall indicate if the net uplift is based on
ASD or LRFD. When these forces are specified, they must
be considered in the design of joists and/or bridging. A single line of bottom chord bridging must be provided near the
first bottom chord panel points whenever uplift due to wind
forces is a design consideration.*
The stiffness and strength of standing-seam roof clips
varies from one manufacturer to another. Therefore,
some roof systems cannot be counted on to provide lateral stability to the joists which support the roof.
Sufficient stability must be provided to brace the joists
laterally under the full design load. The compression
chord must resist the chord axial design force in the
plane of the joist (i.e., x-x axis buckling) and out of the
plane of the joist (i.e., y-y axis buckling). Out of plane
strength may be achieved by adjusting the bridging
spacing and/or increasing the compression chord area,
the joist depth, and the y-axis radius of gyration. The
effective slenderness ratio in the y-direction equals 0.94
L/ry; where L is the bridging spacing in inches (millimeters). The maximum bridging spacing may not exceed
that specified in Section 104.5(d).
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #6, “Structural Design of Steel Joist
Roofs to Resist Uplift Loads”.
104.13 INSPECTION
Joists shall be inspected by the manufacturer before shipment to verify compliance of materials and workmanship
with the requirements of these specifications. If the purchaser wishes an inspection of the steel joists by someone
other than the manufacturer’s own inspectors, they may reserve the right to do so in their “Invitation to Bid” or the accompanying “Job Specifications”.
Horizontal bridging members attached to the compression
chords and their anchorages must be designed for a compressive axial force of 0.0025nP, where n is the number of
joists between end anchors and P is the chord design
force in kips (Newtons). The attachment force between
the horizontal bridging member and the compression
chord is 0.005P. Horizontal bridging attached to the tension chords shall be proportioned so that the slenderness
ratio between attachments does not exceed 300.
Diagonal bridging shall be proportioned so that the slenderness ratio between attachments does not exceed 200.
Arrangements shall be made with the manufacturer for such
shop inspection of the joists at the manufacturing shop by the
purchaser’s inspectors at purchaser’s expense.
104.14 PARALLEL CHORD SLOPED JOISTS
The span of a parallel chord sloped joist shall be defined by the
length along the slope. Minimum depth, load-carrying capacity,
and bridging requirements shall be determined by the sloped
definition of span. The Load Table capacity shall be the component normal to the joist.
59
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
c) No more than two employees shall be allowed on
these spans until all other bridging is installed and
anchored.
SECTION 105.*
ERECTION STABILITY
AND HANDLING
5) Where the span of the steel joist is in the Gray shaded
area of the Load Table, the following shall apply:
When it is necessary for the erector to climb on the joists,
extreme caution must be exercised since unbridged joists
may exhibit some degree of instability under the erector’s
weight.
a) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
and
(a) Stability Requirements
b) Hoisting cables shall not be released until all bridging
is installed and anchored; and
c) No more than two employees shall be allowed on
these spans until all other bridging is installed and
anchored.
1) Before an employee is allowed on the steel joist:
BOTH ends of joists at columns (or joists designated
as column joists) shall be attached to its supports.
For all other joists a minimum of one end shall be
attached before the employee is allowed on the joist.
The attachment shall be in accordance with Section
104.7 – End Anchorage.
6) When permanent bridging terminus points cannot be
used during erection, additional temporary bridging terminus points are required to provide lateral stability.
7) In the case of bottom chord bearing joists, the ends of
the joist must be restrained laterally per Section
104.5(f) before releasing the hoisting cables.
When a bolted seat connection is used for erection
purposes, as a minimum, the bolts must be snug tightened. The snug tight condition is defined as the tightness that exists when all plies of a joint are in firm
contact. This may be attained by a few impacts of an
impact wrench or the full effort of an employee using
an ordinary spud wrench.
8) After the joist is straightened and plumbed, and all bridging is completely installed and anchored, the ends of the
joists shall be fully connected to the supports in accordance with Section 104.7- End Anchorage.
(b) Landing and Placing Loads
2) On steel joists that do not require erection bridging as
shown by the unshaded area of the Load Table, only
one employee shall be allowed on the joist unless all
bridging is installed and anchored.
1) Except as stated in paragraph 105(b)(3) of this section,
no “construction loads”(1) are allowed on the steel joists
until all bridging is installed and anchored, and all joist
bearing ends are attached.
* For a thorough coverage of this topic, refer to SJI
Technical Digest #9, “Handling and Erection of Steel
Joists and Joist Girders”.
2) During the construction period, loads placed on the
joists shall be distributed so as not to exceed the capacity of the joists.
3) Where the span of the steel joist is within the Red
shaded area of the Load Table, the following shall apply:
3) No bundle of deck may be placed on steel joists until all
bridging has been installed and anchored and all joist
bearing ends attached, unless the following conditions
are met:
a) The row of bridging nearest the mid span of the steel
joist shall be bolted diagonal erection bridging; and
b) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this
bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and
anchored, unless an alternate method of stabilizing
the joist has been provided; and
a) The contractor has first determined from a “qualified
person” (2) and documented in a site specific erection plan that the structure or portion of structure is
capable of supporting the load;
c) No more than one employee shall be allowed on
these spans until all other bridging is installed and
anchored.
b) The bundle of decking is placed on a minimum of 3
steel joists;
c) The joists supporting the bundle of decking are
attached at both ends;
4) Where the span of the steel joist is within the Blue
shaded area of the Load Table, the following shall apply:
d) At least one row of bridging is installed and
anchored;
a) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
and
e) The total weight of the decking does not exceed
4000 pounds (1816 kilograms); and
b) Hoisting cables shall not be released until the two
rows of bolted diagonal erection bridging nearest the
third points of the steel joist are installed and
anchored; and
f) The edge of the bundle of decking shall be placed
within 1 foot (0.30 meters) of the bearing surface of
the joist end.
60
LONGSPAN AND DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH- AND DLH-SERIES
g) The edge of the construction load shall be placed
within 1 foot (0.30 meters) of the bearing surface
of the joist end.
(c) Field Welding
1) All field welding shall be performed in accordance
with contract documents. Field welding shall not
damage the joists.
2) On cold-formed members whose yield strength has
been attained by cold working, and whose as-formed
strength is used in the design, the total length of weld
at any one point shall not exceed 50 percent of the
overall developed width of the cold-formed section.
(1)
See page 150 for definition of “construction load”. A
copy of the OSHA Steel Erection Standard
§1926.757, Open Web Steel Joists, is included in
Appendix E for reference purposes.
(d) Handling
Particular attention should be paid to the erection of
Longspan and Deep Longspan Steel Joists. Care shall
be exercised at all times to avoid damage to the joists
and accessories.
Each joist shall be adequately braced laterally before
any loads are applied. If lateral support is provided by
bridging, the bridging lines as defined in Section 105(a),
paragraphs 2, 3, 4 and 5, must be anchored to prevent
lateral movement.
(e) Fall Arrest Systems
Steel joists shall not be used as anchorage points for a
fall arrest system unless written approval to do so is
obtained from a “qualified person” (2).
(2)
See page 150 for OSHA definition of “qualified person”.
61
STANDARD LRFD LOAD TABLE
LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute May 1, 2000
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
Where the joist span is in the RED SHADED area of the load
table, the row of bridging nearest the midspan shall be diagonal
bridging with bolted connections at chords and intersection.
Hoisting cables shall not be released until this row of bolted
diagonal bridging is completely installed.
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL safe
factored uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities, in
pounds per linear foot, of LRFD LH-Series Steel Joists. The
weight of factored DEAD loads, including the joists, must in all
cases be deducted to determine the factored LIVE load-carrying capacities of the joists. The approximate DEAD load of the
joists may be determined from the weights per linear foot
shown in the tables.
Where the joist span is in the BLUE SHADED area of the
load table, all rows of bridging shall be diagonal bridging with
bolted connections at chords and intersection. Hoisting
cables shall not be released until the two rows of bridging
nearest the third points are completely installed.
The RED figures in this load table are the unfactored, nominal
LIVE loads per linear foot of joist which will produce an approximate deflection of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads which will produce a deflection of 1/240 of the span may be obtained by
multiplying the RED figures by 1.5. In no case shall the TOTAL
load capacity of the joists be exceeded.
The approximate moment of inertia of the joist, in inches4 is;
Ij = 26.767(WLL)(L3)(10-6 ), where WLL= RED figure in the Load
Table, and L = (clear span + 0.67) in feet.
When holes are required in top or bottom chords, the carrying
capacities must be reduced in proportion to the reduction of
chord areas.
This load table applies to joists with either parallel chords or
standard pitched top chords. When top chords are pitched,
the carrying capacities are determined by the nominal depth
of the joists at the center of the span. Standard top chord
pitch is 1/8 inch per foot. If pitch exceeds this standard, the
load table does not apply. Sloped parallel-chord joists shall
use span as defined by the length along the slope.
The top chords are considered as being stayed laterally by
floor slab or roof deck.
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in these
tables do not include accessories.
LRFD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Joist
Designation
18LH02
Approx. Wt Depth
in Lbs. Per
in
Linear Ft
inches
(Joists only)
10
18
SAFE LOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
21-24
18000
18LH03
11
18
19950
18LH04
12
18
23250
18LH05
15
18
26250
18LH06
15
18
31050
18LH07
17
18
32250
18LH08
19
18
33600
18LH09
21
18
36000
20LH02
10
20
22-24
16950
20LH03
11
20
18000
20LH04
12
20
22050
20LH05
14
20
23700
20LH06
15
20
31650
20LH07
17
20
33750
20LH08
19
20
34800
20LH09
21
20
38100
20LH10
23
20
41100
25
702
313
781
348
906
403
1026
454
1213
526
1260
553
1314
577
1404
616
25
663
306
703
337
861
428
924
459
1233
606
1317
647
1362
669
1485
729
1602
786
26
663
284
739
317
856
367
972
414
1123
469
1213
513
1264
534
1351
571
26
655
303
694
333
849
406
913
437
1186
561
1267
599
1309
619
1429
675
1542
724
27
627
259
700
289
802
329
921
378
1044
419
1170
476
1218
496
1302
527
27
646
298
687
317
837
386
903
416
1144
521
1221
556
1263
575
1377
626
1486
673
28
586
234
657
262
750
296
871
345
972
377
1089
428
1176
462
1257
491
28
615
274
678
302
792
352
892
395
1084
477
1179
518
1219
536
1329
581
1434
626
29
550
212
613
236
703
266
814
311
907
340
1017
386
1137
427
1215
458
29
582
250
651
280
744
320
856
366
1018
427
1140
484
1177
500
1284
542
1386
585
62
30
517
193
573
213
660
242
762
282
849
307
952
349
1075
387
1174
418
30
547
228
621
258
700
291
816
337
952
386
1066
438
1140
468
1242
507
1341
545
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
31
486
175
538
194
619
219
714
256
796
280
892
317
1020
351
1138
380
31
516
208
592
238
660
265
769
308
894
351
1000
398
1083
428
1203
475
1297
510
32
33
34
35
36
459 433 409 388 367
160 147 135 124 114
505 475 448 424 400
177 161 148 136 124
582 547 516 487 462
200 182 167 153 141
672 631 595 562 532
233 212 195 179 164
748 705 664 627 594
254 232 212 195 180
838 789 744 703 666
288 264 241 222 204
961 906 856 810 768
320 292 267 246 226
1069 1006 949 897 849
346 316 289 266 245
32
33
34
35
36
37
487 460 436 412 393 373
190 174 160 147 136 126
558 528 499 474 448 424
218 200 184 169 156 143
624 589 558 529 502 477
243 223 205 189 174 161
726 687 651 616 585 556
281 258 238 219 202 187
840 790 745 703 666 631
320 292 267 246 226 209
940 885 834 789 745 706
362 331 303 278 256 236
1030 981 931 882 837 795
395 365 336 309 285 262
1167 1132 1068 1009 954 904
437 399 366 336 309 285
1258 1221 1186 1122 1060 1005
479 448 411 377 346 320
38
355
117
403
133
454
149
529
173
598
192
670
218
754
242
858
264
954
296
39
337
108
382
123
433
139
504
161
568
178
637
202
718
225
816
244
906
274
40
322
101
364
114
412
129
481
150
541
165
606
187
685
209
775
227
862
254
LRFD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Joist
Designation
24LH03
Approx. Wt Depth
in Lbs. Per
in
Linear Ft.
inches
(Joists only)
11
24
SAFELOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
28-32
17250
24LH04
12
24
21150
24LH05
13
24
22650
24LH06
16
24
30450
24LH07
17
24
33450
24LH08
18
24
35700
24LH09
21
24
42000
24LH10
23
24
44400
24LH11
25
24
46800
28LH05
13
28
33-40
21000
28LH06
16
28
27900
28LH07
17
28
31500
28LH08
18
28
33750
28LH09
21
28
41550
28LH10
23
28
45450
28LH11
25
28
48750
28LH12
27
28
53550
28LH13
30
28
32LH06
14
32
38-46 47-48
25050 25050
32LH07
16
32
28200 28200
32LH08
17
32
30600 30600
32LH09
21
32
38400 38400
32LH10
21
32
42450 42450
32LH11
24
32
46500 46500
32LH12
27
32
54600 54600
32LH13
30
32
60900 60900
32LH14
33
32
62700 62700
32LH15
35
32
64800 64800
36LH07
16
36
42-46 47-56
25200 25200
36LH08
18
36
27750 27750
36LH09
21
36
35550 35550
36LH10
21
36
39150 39150
36LH11
23
36
42750 42750
36LH12
25
36
51150 51150
36LH13
30
36
60150 60150
36LH14
36
36
66300 66300
36LH15
36
36
69900 69900
55800
33
513
235
628
288
673
308
906
411
997
452
1060
480
1248
562
1323
596
1390
624
41
505
219
672
289
757
326
810
348
1000
428
1093
466
1170
498
1285
545
1342
569
49
507
211
568
235
616
255
774
319
856
352
937
385
1101
450
1225
500
1264
515
1305
532
57
438
177
481
194
616
247
681
273
742
297
889
354
1045
415
1152
456
1213
480
34
508
226
597
265
669
297
868
382
957
421
1015
447
1212
530
1284
559
1350
588
42
484
205
643
270
726
305
775
325
958
400
1056
439
1143
475
1255
520
1311
543
50
489
199
549
223
595
242
747
302
825
332
903
363
1068
428
1201
480
1239
495
1279
511
58
424
168
466
185
597
235
660
260
720
283
862
338
1012
395
1132
434
1192
464
35
504
218
568
246
660
285
832
356
919
393
973
416
1177
501
1248
528
1312
555
43
465
192
618
253
696
285
744
305
918
375
1018
414
1104
448
1227
496
1281
518
51
472
189
529
211
574
229
720
285
796
315
870
343
1032
406
1177
461
1215
476
1255
492
59
411
160
453
176
579
224
639
248
697
269
835
322
981
376
1093
412
1171
448
36
484
204
540
227
628
264
795
331
882
367
933
388
1146
460
1213
500
1276
525
44
445
180
592
238
667
267
712
285
879
351
976
388
1066
423
1200
476
1252
495
52
456
179
511
200
553
216
694
270
768
297
840
325
996
384
1156
444
1192
458
1231
473
60
399
153
439
168
561
214
619
236
676
257
810
307
951
359
1059
392
1153
434
37
460
188
514
210
598
244
756
306
847
343
895
362
1096
424
1182
474
1243
498
45
429
169
568
223
640
251
684
268
844
329
937
364
1023
397
1173
454
1224
472
53
441
169
493
189
535
205
670
256
742
282
811
308
961
364
1113
420
1170
440
1207
454
61
387
146
426
160
544
204
601
225
657
246
784
292
922
342
1024
373
1116
413
63
38
439
175
490
195
570
226
720
284
811
320
858
338
1044
393
1152
439
1210
472
46
412
159
546
209
615
236
657
252
810
309
900
342
982
373
1149
435
1198
452
54
426
161
477
179
517
194
648
243
717
267
783
292
928
345
1072
397
1149
417
1186
438
62
376
140
414
153
528
195
583
215
637
234
762
279
894
327
991
356
1081
394
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
39
418
162
468
182
544
210
685
263
774
297
817
314
994
363
1105
406
1180
449
47
397
150
525
197
591
222
630
236
778
291
864
322
943
351
1105
408
1173
433
55
412
153
462
170
499
184
627
230
693
254
757
277
897
327
1035
376
1107
395
1164
422
63
366
134
402
146
513
186
567
206
618
224
739
267
868
312
961
339
1047
375
40
400
152
447
169
520
196
655
245
736
276
780
292
948
337
1053
378
1152
418
48
382
142
505
186
568
209
604
222
748
274
831
303
907
331
1063
383
1149
415
56
399
145
447
162
483
175
606
219
667
240
732
263
867
311
999
354
1069
374
1144
407
64
355
128
390
140
499
179
550
197
601
214
717
255
843
298
931
323
1015
358
41
42
43
44
382
366
351
336
141
132
124
116
427
409
393
376
158
148
138
130
496
475
456
436
182
171
160
150
625
598
571
546
228
211
197
184
702
669
639
610
257
239
223
208
745
712
682
652
272
254
238
222
903
861
822
786
313
292
272
254
1002 955
912
873
351
326
304
285
1101 1051 1006 963
388
361
337
315
49
50
51
52
367
355
342
330
133
126
119
113
486
469
451
436
175
166
156
148
547
528
508
490
197
186
176
166
580
556
535
516
209
196
185
175
721
694
669
645
258
243
228
216
799
769
742
715
285
269
255
241
873
841
810
781
312
294
278
263
1023 984
948
913
361
340
321
303
1126 1083 1041 1002
396
373
352
332
57
58
59
60
385
373
363
351
138
131
125
119
432
418
406
393
154
146
140
133
468
453
439
426
167
159
151
144
586
568
550
534
208
198
189
180
645
624
603
583
228
217
206
196
709
687
664
643
251
239
227
216
838
811
786
762
295
281
267
255
964
931
900
871
336
319
304
288
1032 997
964
933
355
337
321
304
1125 1087 1051 1017
393
374
355
338
65
66
67
68
345
336
327
318
122
117
112
107
379
369
358
349
134
128
123
118
484
471
459
445
171
163
157
150
535
520
507
492
188
180
173
165
583
567
552
537
205
196
188
180
696
675
655
636
243
232
222
213
819
796
774
753
285
273
262
251
903
876
850
826
309
295
283
270
984
955
927
900
342
327
312
299
45
322
109
361
122
420
141
522
172
583
195
625
208
751
238
834
266
924
294
53
319
107
421
140
474
158
496
165
622
204
690
228
753
249
880
285
964
314
61
340
114
381
127
412
137
517
172
564
186
624
206
738
243
843
275
903
290
984
322
69
310
103
340
113
433
144
480
159
522
173
618
204
732
240
802
259
874
286
46
310
102
346
114
403
132
501
161
559
182
600
196
720
223
799
249
885
276
54
309
102
406
133
457
150
478
156
601
193
666
215
727
236
849
270
930
297
62
330
108
370
121
400
131
502
164
546
178
604
196
715
232
816
262
874
276
952
306
70
301
99
331
109
423
138
466
152
508
166
600
195
712
231
780
247
850
274
47
298
96
333
107
387
124
480
152
535
171
576
184
690
209
766
234
850
259
55
298
97
393
126
442
142
462
148
580
183
643
204
702
223
819
256
897
281
63
321
104
360
116
388
125
487
157
529
169
585
187
694
221
790
249
846
264
924
292
71
294
95
322
104
412
133
454
146
495
159
583
187
694
222
757
237
826
263
48
286
90
321
101
372
117
460
142
514
161
553
173
661
196
735
220
816
243
56
289
92
379
120
427
135
445
140
561
173
622
193
679
212
790
243
865
266
64
312
99
349
111
378
120
472
149
513
162
567
179
673
211
766
238
820
251
895
279
72
286
91
313
100
400
127
442
140
483
153
567
179
676
213
738
228
804
252
LRFD
Joist
Designation
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Approx. Wt
in Lbs. Per
Linear Ft.
Depth
in
inches
40LH08
(Joists Only)
16
40
SAFELOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
47-59 60-64
24900 24900
40LH09
21
40
32700 32700
40LH10
21
40
36000 36000
40LH11
22
40
39300 39300
40LH12
25
40
47850 47850
40LH13
30
40
56400 56400
40LH14
35
40
64500 64500
40LH15
36
40
72150 72150
40LH16
42
40
79500 79500
44LH09
19
44
52-59 60-72
30000 30000
44LH10
21
44
33150 33150
44LH11
22
44
35850 35850
44LH12
25
44
44400 44400
44LH13
30
44
52650 52650
44LH14
31
44
60600 60600
44LH15
36
44
70500 70500
44LH16
42
44
81300 81300
44LH17
47
44
87300 87300
48LH10
21
48
56-59 60-80
30000 30000
48LH11
22
48
32550 32550
48LH12
25
48
41100
48LH13
29
48
49200 49200
48LH14
32
48
58050 58050
48LH15
36
48
66750 66750
48LH16
42
48
76950 76950
48LH17
47
48
86400 86400
41100
65
381
150
498
196
550
216
598
234
729
285
859
334
984
383
1101
427
1212
469
73
408
158
450
174
487
188
603
232
715
275
823
315
958
366
1105
421
1185
450
81
369
141
399
152
504
191
603
228
712
269
817
308
943
355
1059
397
66
370
144
484
188
535
207
582
224
708
273
835
320
957
367
1068
408
1194
455
74
397
152
439
168
475
181
589
224
699
265
801
302
934
352
1078
405
1170
438
82
361
136
390
147
493
185
589
221
696
260
799
298
922
343
1035
383
67
361
138
472
180
520
198
567
215
688
261
813
307
930
351
1036
390
1176
441
75
388
146
429
162
465
175
574
215
681
254
780
291
912
339
1051
390
1153
426
83
354
132
382
142
483
179
576
213
681
251
781
287
901
331
1012
371
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
351
342
333
325
316
309
301
132
127
122
117
112
108
104
459
447
436
424
414
403
394
173
166
160
153
147
141
136
507
493
481
469
457
445
435
190
183
176
169
162
156
150
552
537
523
510
498
484
472
207
198
190
183
176
169
163
670
652
636
619
603
588
573
251
241
231
222
213
205
197
792
771
750
730
712
694
676
295
283
271
260
250
241
231
904
880
856
834
813
792
772
336
323
309
297
285
273
263
1006 978
949
924
898
874
850
373
357
342
328
315
302
290
1158 1141 1126 1095 1065 1036 1009
428
416
404
387
371
356
342
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
379
370
363
354
346
339
331
141
136
131
127
122
118
114
418
408
399
390
381
373
364
155
150
144
139
134
130
125
453
442
433
423
414
403
396
168
162
157
151
146
140
136
561
547
534
520
508
496
484
207
200
192
185
179
172
166
666
649
634
619
606
592
579
246
236
228
220
212
205
198
759
739
721
703
685
669
654
279
268
259
249
240
231
223
889
868
847
826
805
786
768
326
314
303
292
281
271
261
1026 1002 978
955
933
912
891
375
362
348
336
324
313
302
1138 1125 1098 1072 1048 1024 1000
415
405
390
376
363
351
338
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
346
339
331
325
318
312
306
127
123
119
116
112
108
105
373
366
358
351
343
337
330
137
133
129
125
120
117
113
472
462
451
442
433
424
415
173
167
161
156
151
147
142
564
552
540
529
517
507
498
206
199
193
187
180
175
170
666
651
637
624
610
598
585
243
234
227
220
212
206
199
765
748
732
717
702
687
672
278
269
260
252
244
236
228
882
864
844
826
810
792
777
320
310
299
289
280
271
263
990
969
948
928
909
889
871
358
346
335
324
314
304
294
75
294
100
384
131
424
144
462
157
559
189
660
223
753
252
828
279
982
329
83
324
110
357
121
387
131
472
160
565
191
637
215
750
252
870
291
978
327
91
300
102
324
110
408
138
487
164
574
193
658
221
760
255
853
285
76
288
97
375
126
414
139
450
151
546
182
643
214
735
243
807
268
957
316
84
316
106
349
117
378
127
462
155
553
185
622
207
732
243
852
282
957
316
92
294
99
318
106
399
133
477
159
562
187
645
214
745
247
837
276
77
280
93
366
122
403
134
439
145
532
176
628
207
717
233
786
258
933
304
85
310
103
342
113
370
123
450
149
541
179
609
200
714
234
832
272
936
305
93
288
96
312
103
391
129
468
154
550
181
633
208
730
239
820
268
78
274
90
358
118
393
129
429
140
519
169
613
199
699
225
766
248
909
292
86
303
99
334
110
363
119
439
144
529
173
594
193
699
227
814
263
915
295
94
282
93
306
100
384
126
459
150
540
176
619
201
715
232
804
260
79
267
86
349
113
382
124
418
135
507
163
598
192
682
216
747
239
886
282
87
297
96
327
106
354
115
430
139
519
167
580
187
682
219
796
255
895
285
95
277
90
300
97
376
122
450
145
529
171
607
195
702
225
787
252
80
261
83
342
109
373
119
409
130
495
157
585
185
666
209
729
230
864
271
88
291
93
321
103
348
111
420
134
507
161
568
181
667
211
780
246
876
276
96
271
87
294
94
369
118
441
141
519
165
595
189
688
218
772
245
To solve for live loads for clear spans shown in the Safe Load
Column (or lesser clear spans), multiply the live load of the
shortest clear span shown in the Load Table by the (the
shortest clear span shown in the Load Table + 0.67 feet)2
and divide by (the actual clear span + 0.67 feet) 2. The live
load shall not exceed the safe uniform load.
* The safe factored uniform load for the clear spans shown
in the Safe Load Column is equal to (Safe Load) / (Clear
span + 0.67). (The added 0.67 feet (8 inches) is required
to obtain the proper length on which the Load Tables were
developed).
In no case shall the safe factored uniform load, for clear
spans less than the minimum clear span shown in the Safe
Load Column, exceed the uniform load calculated for the
minimum clear span listed in the Safe Load Column.
64
STANDARD ASD LOAD TABLE
LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute May 25, 1983
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
Where the joist span is in the RED SHADED area of the load
table, the row of bridging nearest the midspan shall be diagonal bridging with bolted connections at chords and intersection. Hoisting cables shall not be released until this row of
bolted diagonal bridging is completely installed.
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL safe
uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities, in pounds per
linear foot, of ASD LH-Series Steel Joists. The weight of
DEAD loads, including the joists, must in all cases be
deducted to determine the LIVE load-carrying capacities of
the joists. The approximate DEAD load of the joists may be
determined from the weights per linear foot shown in the
tables.
Where the joist span is in the BLUE SHADED area of the
load table, all rows of bridging shall be diagonal bridging
with bolted connections at chords and intersection. Hoisting
cables shall not be released until the two rows of bridging
nearest the third points are completely installed.
The RED figures in this load table are the nominal LIVE
loads per linear foot of joist which will produce an approximate deflection of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads which will
produce a deflection of 1/240 of the span may be obtained
by multiplying the RED figures by 1.5. In no case shall the
TOTAL load capacity of the joists be exceeded.
The approximate moment of inertia of the joist, in inches4 is;
Ij = 26.767(WLL)(L3)(10-6 ), where WLL= RED figure in the Load
Table, and L = (clear span + 0.67) in feet.
When holes are required in top or bottom chords, the carrying
capacities must be reduced in proportion to the reduction of
chord areas.
This load table applies to joists with either parallel chords or
standard pitched top chords. When top chords are pitched,
the carrying capacities are determined by the nominal depth
of the joists at the center of the span. Standard top chord
pitch is 1/8 inch per foot. If pitch exceeds this standard, the
load table does not apply. Sloped parallel-chord joists shall
use span as defined by the length along the slope.
The top chords are considered as being stayed laterally by
floor slab or roof deck.
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in these
tables do not include accessories.
ASD
18LH02
Approx. Wt
in Lbs. Per
Linear Ft
(Joists only)
10
18LH03
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
18
SAFE LOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
21-24
12000
11
18
13300
18LH04
12
18
15500
18LH05
15
18
17500
18LH06
15
18
20700
18LH07
17
18
21500
18LH08
19
18
22400
18LH09
21
18
24000
20LH02
10
20
22-24
11300
20LH03
11
20
12000
20LH04
12
20
14700
20LH05
14
20
15800
20LH06
15
20
21100
20LH07
17
20
22500
20LH08
19
20
23200
20LH09
21
20
25400
20LH10
23
20
27400
Joist
Designation
Depth
in
inches
25
26
468 442
313 284
521 493
348 317
604 571
403 367
684 648
454 414
809 749
526 469
840 809
553 513
876 843
577 534
936 901
616 571
25
26
442 437
306 303
469 463
337 333
574 566
428 406
616 609
459 437
822 791
606 561
878 845
647 599
908 873
669 619
990 953
729 675
1068 1028
786 724
27
418
259
467
289
535
329
614
378
696
419
780
476
812
496
868
527
27
431
298
458
317
558
386
602
416
763
521
814
556
842
575
918
626
991
673
28
391
234
438
262
500
296
581
345
648
377
726
428
784
462
838
491
28
410
274
452
302
528
352
595
395
723
477
786
518
813
536
886
581
956
626
65
29
367
212
409
236
469
266
543
311
605
340
678
386
758
427
810
458
29
388
250
434
280
496
320
571
366
679
427
760
484
785
500
856
542
924
585
30
345
193
382
213
440
242
508
282
566
307
635
349
717
387
783
418
30
365
228
414
258
467
291
544
337
635
386
711
438
760
468
828
507
894
545
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
31
324
175
359
194
413
219
476
256
531
280
595
317
680
351
759
380
31
344
208
395
238
440
265
513
308
596
351
667
398
722
428
802
475
865
510
32
306
160
337
177
388
200
448
233
499
254
559
288
641
320
713
346
32
325
190
372
218
416
243
484
281
560
320
627
362
687
395
778
437
839
479
33
289
147
317
161
365
182
421
212
470
232
526
264
604
292
671
316
33
307
174
352
200
393
223
458
258
527
292
590
331
654
365
755
399
814
448
34
273
135
299
148
344
167
397
195
443
212
496
241
571
267
633
289
34
291
160
333
184
372
205
434
238
497
267
556
303
621
336
712
366
791
411
35
259
124
283
136
325
153
375
179
418
195
469
222
540
246
598
266
35
275
147
316
169
353
189
411
219
469
246
526
278
588
309
673
336
748
377
36
245
114
267
124
308
141
355
164
396
180
444
204
512
226
566
245
36
262
136
299
156
335
174
390
202
444
226
497
256
558
285
636
309
707
346
37
249
126
283
143
318
161
371
187
421
209
471
236
530
262
603
285
670
320
38
237
117
269
133
303
149
353
173
399
192
447
218
503
242
572
264
636
296
39
225
108
255
123
289
139
336
161
379
178
425
202
479
225
544
244
604
274
40
215
101
243
114
275
129
321
150
361
165
404
187
457
209
517
227
575
254
ASD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Joist
Designation
Approx. Wt
in Lbs. Per
Linear Ft.
(Joists only)
Depth
in
inches
SAFELOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
24LH03
11
24
28-32
11500
24LH04
12
24
14100
24LH05
13
24
15100
24LH06
16
24
20300
24LH07
17
24
22300
24LH08
18
24
23800
24LH09
21
24
28000
24LH10
23
24
29600
24LH11
25
24
31200
28LH05
13
28
33-40
14000
28LH06
16
28
18600
28LH07
17
28
21000
28LH08
18
28
22500
28LH09
21
28
27700
28LH10
23
28
30300
28LH11
25
28
32500
28LH12
27
28
35700
28LH13
30
28
32LH06
14
32
38-46 47-48
16700 16700
37200
32LH07
16
32
18800 18800
32LH08
17
32
20400 20400
32LH09
21
32
25600 25600
32LH10
21
32
28300 28300
32LH11
24
32
31000 31000
32LH12
27
32
36400 36400
32LH13
30
32
40600 40600
32LH14
33
32
41800 41800
32LH15
35
32
43200 43200
36LH07
16
36
42-46 47-56
16800 16800
36LH08
18
36
18500 18500
36LH09
21
36
23700 23700
36LH10
21
36
26100 26100
36LH11
23
36
28500 28500
36LH12
25
36
34100 34100
36LH13
30
36
40100 40100
36LH14
36
36
44200 44200
36LH15
36
36
46600 46600
33
342
235
419
288
449
308
604
411
665
452
707
480
832
562
882
596
927
624
41
337
219
448
289
505
326
540
348
667
428
729
466
780
498
857
545
895
569
49
338
211
379
235
411
255
516
319
571
352
625
385
734
450
817
500
843
515
870
532
57
292
177
321
194
411
247
454
273
495
297
593
354
697
415
768
456
809
480
34
339
226
398
265
446
297
579
382
638
421
677
447
808
530
856
559
900
588
42
323
205
429
270
484
305
517
325
639
400
704
439
762
475
837
520
874
543
50
326
199
366
223
397
242
498
302
550
332
602
363
712
428
801
480
826
495
853
511
58
283
168
311
185
398
235
440
260
480
283
575
338
675
395
755
434
795
464
35
336
218
379
246
440
285
555
356
613
393
649
416
785
501
832
528
875
555
43
310
192
412
253
464
285
496
305
612
375
679
414
736
448
818
496
854
518
51
315
189
353
211
383
229
480
285
531
315
580
343
688
406
785
461
810
476
837
492
59
274
160
302
176
386
224
426
248
465
269
557
322
654
376
729
412
781
448
36
323
204
360
227
419
264
530
331
588
367
622
388
764
460
809
500
851
525
44
297
180
395
238
445
267
475
285
586
351
651
388
711
423
800
476
835
495
52
304
179
341
200
369
216
463
270
512
297
560
325
664
384
771
444
795
458
821
473
60
266
153
293
168
374
214
413
236
451
257
540
307
634
359
706
392
769
434
37
307
188
343
210
399
244
504
306
565
343
597
362
731
424
788
474
829
498
45
286
169
379
223
427
251
456
268
563
329
625
364
682
397
782
454
816
472
53
294
169
329
189
357
205
447
256
495
282
541
308
641
364
742
420
780
440
805
454
61
258
146
284
160
363
204
401
225
438
246
523
292
615
342
683
373
744
413
66
38
293
175
327
195
380
226
480
284
541
320
572
338
696
393
768
439
807
472
46
275
159
364
209
410
236
438
252
540
309
600
342
655
373
766
435
799
452
54
284
161
318
179
345
194
432
243
478
267
522
292
619
345
715
397
766
417
791
438
62
251
140
276
153
352
195
389
215
425
234
508
279
596
327
661
356
721
394
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
39
279
162
312
182
363
210
457
263
516
297
545
314
663
363
737
406
787
449
47
265
150
350
197
394
222
420
236
519
291
576
322
629
351
737
408
782
433
55
275
153
308
170
333
184
418
230
462
254
505
277
598
327
690
376
738
395
776
422
63
244
134
268
146
342
186
378
206
412
224
493
267
579
312
641
339
698
375
40
267
152
298
169
347
196
437
245
491
276
520
292
632
337
702
378
768
418
48
255
142
337
186
379
209
403
222
499
274
554
303
605
331
709
383
766
415
56
266
145
298
162
322
175
404
219
445
240
488
263
578
311
666
354
713
374
763
407
64
237
128
260
140
333
179
367
197
401
214
478
255
562
298
621
323
677
358
41
255
141
285
158
331
182
417
228
468
257
497
272
602
313
668
351
734
388
49
245
133
324
175
365
197
387
209
481
258
533
285
582
312
682
361
751
396
57
257
138
288
154
312
167
391
208
430
228
473
251
559
295
643
336
688
355
750
393
65
230
122
253
134
323
171
357
188
389
205
464
243
546
285
602
309
656
342
42
244
132
273
148
317
171
399
211
446
239
475
254
574
292
637
326
701
361
50
237
126
313
166
352
186
371
196
463
243
513
269
561
294
656
340
722
373
58
249
131
279
146
302
159
379
198
416
217
458
239
541
281
621
319
665
337
725
374
66
224
117
246
128
314
163
347
180
378
196
450
232
531
273
584
295
637
327
43
234
124
262
138
304
160
381
197
426
223
455
238
548
272
608
304
671
337
51
228
119
301
156
339
176
357
185
446
228
495
255
540
278
632
321
694
352
59
242
125
271
140
293
151
367
189
402
206
443
227
524
267
600
304
643
321
701
355
67
218
112
239
123
306
157
338
173
368
188
437
222
516
262
567
283
618
312
44
224
116
251
130
291
150
364
184
407
208
435
222
524
254
582
285
642
315
52
220
113
291
148
327
166
344
175
430
216
477
241
521
263
609
303
668
332
60
234
119
262
133
284
144
356
180
389
196
429
216
508
255
581
288
622
304
678
338
68
212
107
233
118
297
150
328
165
358
180
424
213
502
251
551
270
600
299
45
215
109
241
122
280
141
348
172
389
195
417
208
501
238
556
266
616
294
53
213
107
281
140
316
158
331
165
415
204
460
228
502
249
587
285
643
314
61
227
114
254
127
275
137
345
172
376
186
416
206
492
243
562
275
602
290
656
322
69
207
103
227
113
289
144
320
159
348
173
412
204
488
240
535
259
583
286
46
207
102
231
114
269
132
334
161
373
182
400
196
480
223
533
249
590
276
54
206
102
271
133
305
150
319
156
401
193
444
215
485
236
566
270
620
297
62
220
108
247
121
267
131
335
164
364
178
403
196
477
232
544
262
583
276
635
306
70
201
99
221
109
282
138
311
152
339
166
400
195
475
231
520
247
567
274
47
199
96
222
107
258
124
320
152
357
171
384
184
460
209
511
234
567
259
55
199
97
262
126
295
142
308
148
387
183
429
204
468
223
546
256
598
281
63
214
104
240
116
259
125
325
157
353
169
390
187
463
221
527
249
564
264
616
292
71
196
95
215
104
275
133
303
146
330
159
389
187
463
222
505
237
551
263
48
191
90
214
101
248
117
307
142
343
161
369
173
441
196
490
220
544
243
56
193
92
253
120
285
135
297
140
374
173
415
193
453
212
527
243
577
266
64
208
99
233
111
252
120
315
149
342
162
378
179
449
211
511
238
547
251
597
279
72
191
91
209
100
267
127
295
140
322
153
378
179
451
213
492
228
536
252
ASD
Joist
Designation
Approx. Wt Depth
in Lbs. Per
in
inches
Linear Ft.
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
SAFELOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
40LH08
(Joists Only)
16
40
47-59
16600
60-64
16600
40LH09
21
40
21800
21800
40LH10
21
40
24000
24000
40LH11
22
40
26200
26200
40LH12
25
40
31900
31900
40LH13
30
40
37600
37600
40LH14
35
40
43000
43000
40LH15
36
40
48100
48100
40LH16
42
40
53000
44LH09
19
44
52-59
20000
53000
44LH10
21
44
22100
22100
44LH11
22
44
23900
23900
44LH12
25
44
29600
29600
44LH13
30
44
35100
35100
44LH14
31
44
40400
40400
44LH15
36
44
47000
47000
44LH16
42
44
54200
54200
44LH17
47
44
58200
48LH10
21
48
56-59
20000
58200
48LH11
22
48
21700
21700
48LH12
25
48
27400
27400
48LH13
29
48
32800
32800
48LH14
32
48
38700
38700
48LH15
36
48
44500
44500
48LH16
42
48
51300
51300
48LH17
47
48
57600
57600
60-72
20000
60-80
20000
65
254
150
332
196
367
216
399
234
486
285
573
334
656
383
734
427
808
469
73
272
158
300
174
325
188
402
232
477
275
549
315
639
366
737
421
790
450
81
246
141
266
152
336
191
402
228
475
269
545
308
629
355
706
397
66
247
144
323
188
357
207
388
224
472
273
557
320
638
367
712
408
796
455
74
265
152
293
168
317
181
393
224
466
265
534
302
623
352
719
405
780
438
82
241
136
260
147
329
185
393
221
464
260
533
298
615
343
690
383
67
241
138
315
180
347
198
378
215
459
261
542
307
620
351
691
390
784
441
75
259
146
286
162
310
175
383
215
454
254
520
291
608
339
701
390
769
426
83
236
132
255
142
322
179
384
213
454
251
521
287
601
331
675
371
68
234
132
306
173
338
190
368
207
447
251
528
295
603
336
671
373
772
428
76
253
141
279
155
302
168
374
207
444
246
506
279
593
326
684
375
759
415
84
231
127
249
137
315
173
376
206
444
243
510
278
588
320
660
358
69
228
127
298
166
329
183
358
198
435
241
514
283
587
323
652
357
761
416
77
247
136
272
150
295
162
365
200
433
236
493
268
579
314
668
362
750
405
85
226
123
244
133
308
167
368
199
434
234
499
269
576
310
646
346
70
222
122
291
160
321
176
349
190
424
231
500
271
571
309
633
342
751
404
78
242
131
266
144
289
157
356
192
423
228
481
259
565
303
652
348
732
390
86
221
119
239
129
301
161
360
193
425
227
488
260
563
299
632
335
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
71
217
117
283
153
313
169
340
183
413
222
487
260
556
297
616
328
730
387
79
236
127
260
139
282
151
347
185
413
220
469
249
551
292
637
336
715
376
87
217
116
234
125
295
156
353
187
416
220
478
252
551
289
619
324
72
211
112
276
147
305
162
332
176
402
213
475
250
542
285
599
315
710
371
80
231
122
254
134
276
146
339
179
404
212
457
240
537
281
622
324
699
363
88
212
112
229
120
289
151
345
180
407
212
468
244
540
280
606
314
73
206
108
269
141
297
156
323
169
392
205
463
241
528
273
583
302
691
356
81
226
118
249
130
269
140
331
172
395
205
446
231
524
271
608
313
683
351
89
208
108
225
117
283
147
338
175
399
206
458
236
528
271
593
304
74
201
104
263
136
290
150
315
163
382
197
451
231
515
263
567
290
673
342
82
221
114
243
125
264
136
323
166
386
198
436
223
512
261
594
302
667
338
90
204
105
220
113
277
142
332
170
390
199
448
228
518
263
581
294
75
196
100
256
131
283
144
308
157
373
189
440
223
502
252
552
279
655
329
83
216
110
238
121
258
131
315
160
377
191
425
215
500
252
580
291
652
327
91
200
102
216
110
272
138
325
164
383
193
439
221
507
255
569
285
76
192
97
250
126
276
139
300
151
364
182
429
214
490
243
538
268
638
316
84
211
106
233
117
252
127
308
155
369
185
415
207
488
243
568
282
638
316
92
196
99
212
106
266
133
318
159
375
187
430
214
497
247
558
276
77
187
93
244
122
269
134
293
145
355
176
419
207
478
233
524
258
622
304
85
207
103
228
113
247
123
300
149
361
179
406
200
476
234
555
272
624
305
93
192
96
208
103
261
129
312
154
367
181
422
208
487
239
547
268
78
183
90
239
118
262
129
286
140
346
169
409
199
466
225
511
248
606
292
86
202
99
223
110
242
119
293
144
353
173
396
193
466
227
543
263
610
295
94
188
93
204
100
256
126
306
150
360
176
413
201
477
232
536
260
79
178
86
233
113
255
124
279
135
338
163
399
192
455
216
498
239
591
282
87
198
96
218
106
236
115
287
139
346
167
387
187
455
219
531
255
597
285
95
185
90
200
97
251
122
300
145
353
171
405
195
468
225
525
252
80
174
83
228
109
249
119
273
130
330
157
390
185
444
209
486
230
576
271
88
194
93
214
103
232
111
280
134
338
161
379
181
445
211
520
246
584
276
96
181
87
196
94
246
118
294
141
346
165
397
189
459
218
515
245
To solve for live loads for clear spans shown in the Safe Load
Column (or lesser clear spans), multiply the live load of the
shortest clear span shown in the Load Table by the (the
shortest clear span shown in the Load Table + 0.67 feet)2
and divide by (the actual clear span + 0.67 feet)2. The live
load shall not exceed the safe uniform load.
* The safe uniform load for the clear spans shown in the Safe
Load Column is equal to (Safe Load) / (Clear span + 0.67).
(The added 0.67 feet (8 inches) is required to obtain the
proper length on which the Load Tables were developed).
In no case shall the safe uniform load, for clear spans less
than the minimum clear span shown in the Safe Load
Column, exceed the uniform load calculated for the minimum
clear span listed in the Safe Load Column.
67
STANDARD LRFD LOAD TABLE
DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, DLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute May 1, 2000
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL safe factored uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities, in pounds
per linear foot, of an LRFD DLH-Series Steel Joists. The weight
of factored DEAD loads, including the joists, must in all cases be
deducted to determine the factored LIVE load-carrying capacities of the joists. The approximate DEAD load of the joists may
be determined from the weights per linear foot shown in the tables. All loads shown are for roof construction only.
All rows of bridging shall be diagonal bridging with bolted connections at the chords and intersections.
Where the joist span is in the BLUE SHADED area of the load
table hoisting cables shall not be released until the two rows of
bridging nearest the third points are completely installed.
Where the joist span is in the GRAY SHADED area of the
load table hoisting cables shall not be released until all rows
of bridging are completely installed.
The RED figures in this load table are the unfactored, nominal
LIVE loads per linear foot of joist which will produce an approximate deflection of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads which will
produce a deflection of 1/240 of the span may be obtained by
multiplying the RED figures by 1.5. In no case shall the TOTAL
load capacity of the joists be exceeded.
The approximate moment of inertia of the joist, in inches4 is;
Ij = 26.767(WLL)(L3 )(10-6 ), where WLL= RED figure in the
Load Table, and L = (clear span + 0.67) in feet.
When holes are required in top or bottom chords, the carrying
capacities must be reduced in proportion to the reduction of
chord areas.
This load table applies to joists with either parallel chords or
standard pitched top chords. When top chords are pitched,
the carrying capacities are determined by the nominal depth
of the joists at the center of the span. Standard top chord
pitch is 1/8 inch per foot. If pitch exceeds this standard, the
load table does not apply. Sloped parallel-chord joists shall
use span as defined by the length along the slope.
The top chords are considered as being stayed laterally by
floor slab or roof deck.
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in these
tables do not include accessories.
LRFD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE FOR DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, DLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Approx. Wt Depth SAFELOAD*
Joist
in Lbs.
in
Designation in Lbs. Per
Linear Ft
inches Between
(Joists only)
89
61-88
40050
52DLH10
25
52
447
171
43950
52DLH11
26
52
490
187
49050
52DLH12
29
52
547
204
59550
52DLH13
34
52
664
247
68100
52DLH14
39
52
760
276
76500
52DLH15
42
52
853
311
82500
52DLH16
45
52
921
346
94950
52DLH17
52
52
1059
395
97
66-96
42150
56DLH11
26
56
432
169
48450
56DLH12
30
56
496
184
58650
56DLH13
34
56
601
223
66300
56DLH14
39
56
679
249
75750
56DLH15
42
56
777
281
81750
56DLH16
46
56
838
313
94200
56DLH17
51
56
964
356
90
436
165
480
181
535
197
649
239
745
266
835
301
901
335
1036
381
98
424
163
486
178
591
216
666
242
762
272
822
304
945
345
91
427
159
469
174
523
191
636
231
729
258
817
291
882
324
1014
369
99
415
158
477
173
579
209
652
234
747
264
805
294
927
335
92
418
154
459
169
513
185
621
224
714
249
799
282
862
314
991
357
100
408
153
468
168
568
204
640
228
732
256
789
285
907
325
93
409
150
448
164
501
179
609
216
699
242
783
272
844
304
970
346
101
400
149
459
163
558
197
628
221
717
248
774
277
891
316
68
CLEAR SPAN IN LINEAR FEET
94
400
145
439
158
490
173
595
209
685
234
766
264
826
294
951
335
102
393
145
450
158
547
191
616
214
703
242
759
269
873
306
95
391
140
430
153
480
168
583
203
670
227
750
256
810
285
930
324
103
385
140
442
153
537
186
604
209
690
234
744
262
856
298
96
384
136
421
149
471
163
571
197
657
220
735
247
792
276
912
315
104
379
136
433
150
526
181
594
202
676
228
730
254
840
289
97
376
132
412
144
460
158
559
191
645
213
720
240
777
267
892
304
105
372
133
426
145
516
175
582
196
664
221
717
247
823
281
98
369
128
405
140
451
153
549
185
631
207
705
233
760
260
874
296
106
366
129
417
141
507
171
571
190
651
215
703
240
808
273
99
361
124
396
135
442
149
537
180
619
201
691
226
745
252
858
286
107
358
125
409
137
496
166
562
186
639
209
690
233
793
266
100
354
120
388
132
433
144
526
174
607
194
676
219
730
245
840
279
108
352
122
402
133
487
161
552
181
628
204
678
227
780
258
101
346
116
381
128
426
140
516
170
595
189
664
213
717
237
823
270
109
346
118
394
130
478
157
541
175
616
198
666
221
765
251
102
340
114
373
124
417
135
507
164
585
184
651
207
702
230
808
263
110
340
115
388
126
471
152
532
171
604
192
654
214
751
245
103
334
110
366
120
409
132
496
159
573
178
639
201
688
224
792
255
111
334
113
381
123
462
149
523
167
594
188
642
209
738
238
104
327
107
360
117
402
128
487
155
562
173
627
195
676
217
777
247
112
328
110
373
119
454
145
514
162
583
182
630
204
724
231
LRFD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LRFD DLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Approx. Wt Depth
Joist
in
Designation in Lbs. Per
Linear Ft inches
(Joists only)
60DLH12
29
60
SAFE LOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
70-99 100-104
46650
46650
60DLH13
35
60
56700
56700
60DLH14
40
60
63000
63000
60DLH15
43
60
73950
73950
60DLH16
46
60
81300
81300
60DLH17
52
60
93450
93450
60DLH18
59
60
107850
107850
64DLH12
31
64
75-99 100-112
45000
45000
64DLH13
34
64
54600
54600
64DLH14
40
64
62550
62550
64DLH15
43
64
71700
71700
64DLH16
46
64
80700
80700
64DLH17
52
64
93000
93000
64DLH18
59
64
107400
107400
68DLH13
37
68
80-99 100-120
52500
52500
68DLH14
40
68
60450
60450
68DLH15
44
68
67800
67800
68DLH16
49
68
80400
80400
68DLH17
55
68
90600
90600
68DLH18
61
68
104850
104850
68DLH19
67
68
120750
120750
72DLH14
41
72
84-99 100-128
58800
58800
72DLH15
44
72
67350
67350
72DLH16
50
72
77850
77850
72DLH17
56
72
87600
87600
72DLH18
59
72
102600
102600
72DLH19
70
72
120300
120300
105
442
168
537
203
597
216
700
255
769
285
885
324
1021
366
113
396
153
481
186
550
199
631
234
711
262
819
298
945
337
121
432
171
498
184
558
206
661
242
745
275
862
311
993
353
129
454
171
520
191
601
225
676
256
792
289
928
328
106
433
163
526
197
586
210
687
248
756
277
868
315
1002
357
114
388
150
472
181
540
193
621
228
699
254
804
290
928
328
122
426
168
490
179
547
201
649
236
733
268
849
304
976
344
130
447
167
513
187
592
219
667
250
780
283
913
321
107
426
158
517
191
574
205
675
242
741
269
853
306
984
346
115
382
146
465
176
531
189
610
223
687
248
790
283
912
320
123
418
164
483
175
540
196
640
230
721
262
835
297
961
336
131
441
163
504
183
585
214
657
245
768
276
900
313
108
418
154
508
187
564
199
663
235
727
262
837
298
966
337
116
376
142
457
171
523
184
600
217
675
242
777
275
897
311
124
412
159
475
171
531
191
630
225
711
256
823
289
946
328
132
435
159
496
178
576
209
648
239
757
270
886
306
109
411
150
499
181
555
193
651
228
714
255
822
290
948
327
117
370
138
450
168
514
179
591
211
664
235
763
268
880
304
125
406
155
468
167
522
187
619
219
700
249
810
283
931
320
133
427
155
489
174
567
205
639
233
745
265
873
300
CLEAR SPAN IN LINEAR FEET
110
405
146
490
176
544
189
640
223
702
247
807
283
931
319
118
364
135
442
163
505
174
580
206
652
229
751
262
867
296
126
400
152
462
163
514
182
610
214
690
244
798
276
916
313
134
421
152
483
171
559
200
630
228
735
258
859
293
111
397
142
483
171
534
183
628
216
690
241
793
275
915
310
119
358
132
436
159
498
171
571
201
642
224
738
255
852
288
127
394
149
454
159
505
178
600
209
679
238
786
269
901
305
135
415
149
475
167
552
196
621
224
724
252
847
286
112
391
138
474
167
525
178
618
210
676
235
778
267
898
303
120
352
129
429
155
489
166
562
196
631
218
726
248
838
282
128
388
145
448
155
498
174
591
204
669
232
774
263
888
298
136
411
146
468
163
544
191
612
218
718
247
835
280
113
384
134
466
163
516
173
607
205
666
228
765
261
883
294
121
346
125
421
152
481
162
553
191
621
213
714
243
823
274
129
382
142
441
152
490
170
582
199
658
228
762
257
874
291
137
405
143
462
160
537
188
603
213
705
242
823
274
114
378
131
459
158
507
170
597
200
654
223
751
254
867
286
122
342
122
415
148
474
158
544
187
610
208
702
237
810
267
130
378
138
435
148
483
166
573
195
649
222
751
251
861
285
138
399
139
454
156
529
183
595
209
694
236
811
268
115
372
128
451
154
498
165
588
194
642
217
739
247
852
279
123
336
119
409
144
466
154
537
182
601
203
691
231
798
261
131
372
135
429
145
475
162
564
190
640
217
739
246
847
278
139
393
136
448
152
522
179
586
205
685
231
799
263
116
366
124
444
151
490
161
577
190
631
211
726
241
838
272
124
331
116
403
141
459
151
528
177
591
198
681
226
784
255
132
366
133
421
141
468
158
556
186
630
212
729
240
835
272
140
388
133
442
150
514
175
579
200
675
227
789
257
117
360
121
436
147
481
156
568
185
621
206
714
235
823
266
125
327
114
396
137
451
147
520
173
582
193
669
220
772
249
133
361
130
415
138
462
155
547
182
621
208
718
234
822
266
141
382
131
436
147
507
171
571
196
666
222
777
251
118
354
118
429
143
474
152
559
180
610
201
702
228
810
259
126
321
111
390
134
444
143
511
170
573
189
658
215
760
243
134
355
127
409
135
454
152
540
178
612
203
708
230
810
260
142
378
128
429
143
501
169
564
191
657
217
766
247
119
348
115
423
139
465
149
550
175
600
196
690
223
796
252
127
316
109
385
131
438
140
504
165
564
184
648
210
748
237
135
351
124
403
133
448
148
531
174
604
198
697
225
798
254
143
372
125
423
140
493
165
556
188
648
212
756
241
120
342
113
415
135
457
145
541
171
589
190
679
217
783
246
128
312
106
379
128
430
136
496
161
555
180
639
205
736
232
136
346
121
399
130
441
145
523
171
595
194
688
219
787
248
144
367
123
418
137
487
161
549
184
639
209
745
236
To solve for live loads for clear spans shown in the Safe Load Column (or lesser clear spans), multiply the live load of the shortest
clear span shown in the Load Table by (the shortest clear span
shown in the Load Table + 0.67 feet)2 and divide by (the actual
clear span + 0.67 feet)2. The live load shall not exceed the safe
uniform load.
* The safe factored uniform load for the clear spans shown in the
Safe Load Column is equal to (Safe Load) / (Clear span + 0.67).
(The added 0.67 feet (8 inches) is required to obtain the proper
length on which the Load Tables were developed).
In no case shall the safe uniform load, for clear spans less than
the minimum clear span shown in the Safe Load Column, exceed
the uniform load calculated for the minimum clear span listed in
the Safe Load Column.
69
STANDARD ASD LOAD TABLE
DEEP LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, DLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute May 25, 1983
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL safe
uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities, in pounds per
linear foot, of an ASD DLH-Series Steel Joists. The weight of
DEAD loads, including the joists, must in all cases be deducted
to determine the LIVE load-carrying capacities of the joists.
The approximate DEAD load of the joists may be determined
from the weights per linear foot shown in the tables. All loads
shown are for roof construction only.
All rows of bridging shall be diagonal bridging with bolted
connections at the chords and intersections.
Where the joist span is in the BLUE SHADED area of the
load table hoisting cables shall not be released until the two
rows of bridging nearest the third points are completely
installed.
Where the joist span is in the GRAY SHADED area of the
load table hoisting cables shall not be released until all rows
of bridging are completely installed.
The RED figures in this load table are the nominal LIVE loads
per linear foot of joist which will produce an approximate
deflection of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads which will produce
a deflection of 1/240 of the span may be obtained by multiplying the RED figures by 1.5. In no case shall the TOTAL load
capacity of the joists be exceeded.
The approximate moment of inertia of the joist, in inches4 is;
Ij = 26.767(WLL)(L3)(10-6 ), where WLL= RED figure in the
Load Table, and L = (clear span + 0.67) in feet.
When holes are required in top or bottom chords, the carrying
capacities must be reduced in proportion to the reduction of
chord areas.
This load table applies to joists with either parallel chords or
standard pitched top chords. When top chords are pitched,
the carrying capacities are determined by the nominal depth
of the joists at the center of the span. Standard top chord
pitch is 1/8 inch per foot. If pitch exceeds this standard, the
load table does not apply. Sloped parallel-chord joists shall
use span as defined by the length along the slope.
The top chords are considered as being stayed laterally by
floor slab or roof deck.
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in these
tables do not include accessories.
ASD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, DLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Approx. Wt Depth SAFELOAD*
Joist
in Lbs.
Designation in Lbs. Per in
Linear Ft inches Between
61-88
(Joists only)
89
52DLH10
25
52
298
26700
171
29300
52DLH11
26
52
327
187
32700
52DLH12
29
52
365
204
39700
52DLH13
34
52
443
247
45400
52DLH14
39
52
507
276
51000
52DLH15
42
52
569
311
55000
52DLH16
45
52
614
346
63300
52DLH17
52
52
706
395
66-96
97
28100
56DLH11
26
56
288
169
32300
56DLH12
30
56
331
184
39100
56DLH13
34
56
401
223
44200
56DLH14
39
56
453
249
50500
56DLH15
42
56
518
281
54500
56DLH16
46
56
559
313
62800
56DLH17
51
56
643
356
90
291
165
320
181
357
197
433
239
497
266
557
301
601
335
691
381
98
283
163
324
178
394
216
444
242
508
272
548
304
630
345
91
285
159
313
174
349
191
424
231
486
258
545
291
588
324
676
369
99
277
158
318
173
386
209
435
234
498
264
537
294
618
335
92
279
154
306
169
342
185
414
224
476
249
533
282
575
314
661
357
100
272
153
312
168
379
204
427
228
488
256
526
285
605
325
93
273
150
299
164
334
179
406
216
466
242
522
272
563
304
647
346
101
267
149
306
163
372
197
419
221
478
248
516
277
594
316
70
94
267
145
293
158
327
173
397
209
457
234
511
264
551
294
634
335
102
262
145
300
158
365
191
411
214
469
242
506
269
582
306
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
95
261
140
287
153
320
168
389
203
447
227
500
256
540
285
620
324
103
257
140
295
153
358
186
403
209
460
234
496
262
571
298
96
256
136
281
149
314
163
381
197
438
220
490
247
528
276
608
315
104
253
136
289
150
351
181
396
202
451
228
487
254
560
289
97
251
132
275
144
307
158
373
191
430
213
480
240
518
267
595
304
105
248
133
284
145
344
175
388
196
443
221
478
247
549
281
98
246
128
270
140
301
153
366
185
421
207
470
233
507
260
583
296
106
244
129
278
141
338
171
381
190
434
215
469
240
539
273
99
241
124
264
135
295
149
358
180
413
201
461
226
497
252
572
286
107
239
125
273
137
331
166
375
186
426
209
460
233
529
266
100
236
120
259
132
289
144
351
174
405
194
451
219
487
245
560
279
108
235
122
268
133
325
161
368
181
419
204
452
227
520
258
101
231
116
254
128
284
140
344
170
397
189
443
213
478
237
549
270
109
231
118
263
130
319
157
361
175
411
198
444
221
510
251
102
227
114
249
124
278
135
338
164
390
184
434
207
468
230
539
263
110
227
115
259
126
314
152
355
171
403
192
436
214
501
245
103
223
110
244
120
273
132
331
159
382
178
426
201
459
224
528
255
111
223
113
254
123
308
149
349
167
396
188
428
209
492
238
104
218
107
240
117
268
128
325
155
375
173
418
195
451
217
518
247
112
219
110
249
119
303
145
343
162
389
182
420
204
483
231
ASD
STANDARD LOAD TABLE LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, DLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength - Loads Shown in Pounds per Linear Foot (plf)
Approx. Wt Depth
Joist
in
Designation in Lbs. Per
Linear Ft inches
(Joists only)
60DLH12
29
60
SAFE LOAD*
in Lbs.
Between
70-99 100-104
31100
31100
60DLH13
35
60
37800
37800
60DLH14
40
60
42000
42000
60DLH15
43
60
49300
49300
60DLH16
46
60
54200
54200
60DLH17
52
60
62300
62300
60DLH18
59
60
71900
71900
64DLH12
31
64
75-99 100-112
30000
30000
64DLH13
34
64
36400
36400
64DLH14
40
64
41700
41700
64DLH15
43
64
47800
47800
64DLH16
46
64
53800
53800
64DLH17
52
64
62000
62000
64DLH18
59
64
71600
71600
68DLH13
37
68
80-99 100-120
35000
35000
68DLH14
40
68
40300
40300
68DLH15
44
68
45200
45200
68DLH16
49
68
53600
53600
68DLH17
55
68
60400
60400
68DLH18
61
68
69900
69900
68DLH19
67
68
80500
80500
72DLH14
41
72
84-99 100-128
39200
39200
72DLH15
44
72
44900
44900
72DLH16
50
72
51900
51900
72DLH17
56
72
58400
58400
72DLH18
59
72
68400
68400
72DLH19
70
72
80200
80200
105
295
168
358
203
398
216
467
255
513
285
590
324
681
366
113
264
153
321
186
367
199
421
234
474
262
546
298
630
337
121
288
171
332
184
372
206
441
242
497
275
575
311
662
353
129
303
171
347
191
401
225
451
256
528
289
619
328
106
289
163
351
197
391
210
458
248
504
277
579
315
668
357
114
259
150
315
181
360
193
414
228
466
254
536
290
619
328
122
284
168
327
179
365
201
433
236
489
268
566
304
651
344
130
298
167
342
187
395
219
445
250
520
283
609
321
107
284
158
345
191
383
205
450
242
494
269
569
306
656
346
115
255
146
310
176
354
189
407
223
458
248
527
283
608
320
123
279
164
322
175
360
196
427
230
481
262
557
297
641
336
131
294
163
336
183
390
214
438
245
512
276
600
313
108
279
154
339
187
376
199
442
235
485
262
558
298
644
337
116
251
142
305
171
349
184
400
217
450
242
518
275
598
311
124
275
159
317
171
354
191
420
225
474
256
549
289
631
328
132
290
159
331
178
384
209
432
239
505
270
591
306
109
274
150
333
181
370
193
434
228
476
255
548
290
632
327
117
247
138
300
168
343
179
394
211
443
235
509
268
587
304
125
271
155
312
167
348
187
413
219
467
249
540
283
621
320
133
285
155
326
174
378
205
426
233
497
265
582
300
110
270
146
327
176
363
189
427
223
468
247
538
283
621
319
118
243
135
295
163
337
174
387
206
435
229
501
262
578
296
126
267
152
308
163
343
182
407
214
460
244
532
276
611
313
134
281
152
322
171
373
200
420
228
490
258
573
293
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET
111
265
142
322
171
356
183
419
216
460
241
529
275
610
310
119
239
132
291
159
332
171
381
201
428
224
492
255
568
288
127
263
149
303
159
337
178
400
209
453
238
524
269
601
305
135
277
149
317
167
368
196
414
224
483
252
565
286
112
261
138
316
167
350
178
412
210
451
235
519
267
599
303
120
235
129
286
155
326
166
375
196
421
218
484
248
559
282
128
259
145
299
155
332
174
394
204
446
232
516
263
592
298
136
274
146
312
163
363
191
408
218
479
247
557
280
113
256
134
311
163
344
173
405
205
444
228
510
261
589
294
121
231
125
281
152
321
162
369
191
414
213
476
243
549
274
129
255
142
294
152
327
170
388
199
439
228
508
257
583
291
137
270
143
308
160
358
188
402
213
470
242
549
274
114
252
131
306
158
338
170
398
200
436
223
501
254
578
286
122
228
122
277
148
316
158
363
187
407
208
468
237
540
267
130
252
138
290
148
322
166
382
195
433
222
501
251
574
285
138
266
139
303
156
353
183
397
209
463
236
541
268
115
248
128
301
154
332
165
392
194
428
217
493
247
568
279
123
224
119
273
144
311
154
358
182
401
203
461
231
532
261
131
248
135
286
145
317
162
376
190
427
217
493
246
565
278
139
262
136
299
152
348
179
391
205
457
231
533
263
116
244
124
296
151
327
161
385
190
421
211
484
241
559
272
124
221
116
269
141
306
151
352
177
394
198
454
226
523
255
132
244
133
281
141
312
158
371
186
420
212
486
240
557
272
140
259
133
295
150
343
175
386
200
450
227
526
257
117
240
121
291
147
321
156
379
185
414
206
476
235
549
266
125
218
114
264
137
301
147
347
173
388
193
446
220
515
249
133
241
130
277
138
308
155
365
182
414
208
479
234
548
266
141
255
131
291
147
338
171
381
196
444
222
518
251
118
236
118
286
143
316
152
373
180
407
201
468
228
540
259
126
214
111
260
134
296
143
341
170
382
189
439
215
507
243
134
237
127
273
135
303
152
360
178
408
203
472
230
540
260
142
252
128
286
143
334
169
376
191
438
217
511
247
119
232
115
282
139
310
149
367
175
400
196
460
223
531
252
127
211
109
257
131
292
140
336
165
376
184
432
210
499
237
135
234
124
269
133
299
148
354
174
403
198
465
225
532
254
143
248
125
282
140
329
165
371
188
432
212
504
241
120
228
113
277
135
305
145
361
171
393
190
453
217
522
246
128
208
106
253
128
287
136
331
161
370
180
426
205
491
232
136
231
121
266
130
294
145
349
171
397
194
459
219
525
248
144
245
123
279
137
325
161
366
184
426
209
497
236
To solve for live loads for clear spans shown in the Safe Load
Column (or lesser clear spans), multiply the live load of the shortest clear span shown in the Load Table by (the shortest clear span
shown in the Load Table + 0.67 feet) 2 and divide by (the actual
clear span + 0.67 feet)2. The live load shall not exceed the safe
uniform load.
* The safe uniform load for the clear spans shown in the Safe Load
Column is equal to (Safe Load) / (Clear Span + 0.67). (The added
0.67 feet (8 inches) is required to obtain the proper length on
which the Load Tables were developed).
In no case shall the safe uniform load, for clear spans less than
the minimum clear span shown in the Safe Load Column, exceed
the uniform load calculated for the minimum clear span listed in
the Safe Load Column.
71
NOTES
72
VULCRAFT SLH / GENERAL INFORMATION
HIGH STRENGTH
ACCESSORIES see page 74.
PAINT - Vulcraft SLH Series joists receive a shop-coat of
rust inhibitive primer that conforms to specification 202.4.
ECONOMICAL
DESIGN - Vulcraft SLH Series long span steel joists are
designed in accordance with the specifications included
in this section.
SPECIFICATIONS - see page 80.
TABLE 1
TABLE 2
SLH- SERIES BRIDGING SPACING
SLH-SERIES BEARING DATA
JOIST
SECTION
NUMBER*
MINIMUM
BOLT
DIAMETER
MAXIMUM
SPACING OF
BRIDGING LINES
JOIST
SECTION
NUMBER*
BEARING
DEPTH
MINIMUM
BEARING
LENGTH
BEARING
SEAT
FILLET
WELD (1)
BEARING
SEAT BOLTS
FOR
ERECTION (1)
SLH 15-18
SLH 19-20
SLH 21-22
SLH 23-25
5/8" dia A325
5/8" dia A325
5/8" dia A325
3/4" dia A325
21'-0”
26'-0”
30'-0”
30'-0”
SLH 15-18
7-1/2"
4"
2-1/4" x 2"
2-3/4" dia A325
SLH 19-25
7-1/2"
6"
2-1/4" x 4"
2-3/4" dia A325
*LAST TWO DIGITS OF JOIST DESIGNATION SHOWN IN LOAD TABLE.
(1) BEARING SEATS MUST BE WELDED IN ADDITION TO BEING BOLTED.
TABLE 3
HORIZONTAL PLUS
JOIST
DEPTH
DIAGONAL ONLY BRIDGING
DIAGONAL BRIDGING*
.66 X DEPTH*
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR
HORIZONTAL
MIN. JOIST
AND DIAGONAL
SPACE FOR
ANGLE SIZE
DIAGONAL
DIAGONAL BRIDGING SIZE
2" x 2" x 1/8"
2 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 3/16"
3" x 3" x 3/16"
3 1/2" x 3 1/2" x 1/4"
ONLY BRIDGING
80"
4'-4"
1 3/4" x 1 3/4" x 1/8"
4'-5"
9'-11"
15'-1"
18'-8"
22'-1"
88"
4'-9"
1 3/4" x 1 3/4" x 1/8"
4'-10"
7'-3"
14'-9"
18'-5"
21'-11"
96"
5'-3"
2" x 2" x 1/8"
5'-4"
14'-5"
18'-2"
21’-8"
104"
5'-8"
2 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 3/16"
5'-9"
14'-0"
17'-10"
21'-5"
112"
6'-1"
2 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 3/16"
6'-2"
11'-11"
17'-6"
21'-1"
120"
6'-7"
2 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 3/16"
6'-8"
17'-0"
20'-10"
*NOTE: WHEN THE JOIST SPACING IS LESS THAN 0.66 x JOIST DEPTH, BOLTED HORIZONTAL
BRIDGING SHALL BE USED IN ADDITION TO THE DIAGONAL BRIDGING.
NOTES: 1. For lengths and depths greater than those shown in the load tables contact Vulcraft.
2. Additional bridging may be required when joists support a standing seam roof. The specifying professional
should require the joist manufacturer to check the system and provide bridging as required to adequately
brace the joists against lateral movement. For bridging requirements due to uplift loading refer to
specification section 204.13.
73
VULCRAFT SLH / GENERAL INFORMATION
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
SLH SERIES LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS.
12
MIN 1/4
THE RECOMMENDED CONFIGURATION FOR SLH-SERIES JOISTS IS
A DOUBLE PITCHED TOP CHORD WITH A MINIMUM PITCH OF 1/4
INCH PER FOOT. THE DEPTH OF THE JOIST SHALL BE THAT AT THE
RIDGE OF THE JOIST. FOR OTHER CONFIGURATIONS CONTACT
VULCRAFT. WEB LAYOUT MAY VARY FROM THAT SHOWN.
SLH-SERIES CAMBER*
TOP
DOUBLE
PARALLEL
CHORD
PITCH
CHORD
LENGTH
JOISTS**
JOISTS
111'-0"
3 1/4"
5 1/4"
120'-0"
3 1/2"
6"
130'-0"
3 7/8"
7"
140'-0"
4 1/8"
8"
150'-0"
4 3/8"
8 3/4"
160'-0"
4 3/4"
9 1/2"
180'-0"
5 1/4"
10 1/2"
200'-0"
5 7/8"
11 3/4"
220'-0"
6 1/2"
13"
240'-0"
7"
14"
**JOISTS WITH TOP CHORD PITCH
OF 1/4" PER FOOT OR GREATER.
*For walls or other structural members near SLH-Series Joists
provisions need to be made to match top chord elevation.
Specifying professional must provide camber requirements
in inches if camber is different from that shown.
12"
SLOPE*
*MINIMUM SLOPE 1/4":12
TOP CHORD EXTENSION (a)
SEE TABLE 204.8.1
PARALLEL CHORD JOISTS
SEE SPECIFICATION 203.4 (c)
(a) Extend top chords require the special attention of the
specifying engineer.
The magnitude and location of the design loads to
be supported, the deflection requirements, and the
proper bracing shall be clearly indicated on the
structural drawings.
NOTE:
FOR ANY CONCENTRATED LOADS SUCH AS
BASKETBALL GOALS, CURTAINS, SCORE
BOARDS, HVAC UNITS, ETC. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT
THE SPECIFYING ENGINEER PROVIDE THE
MAGNITUDE AND LOCATION OF ALL LOADS ON
THE STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS.
BOTTOM CHORD STRUT
(SEE SPECFICATION 204.1)
*** If bottom chord is to be bolted or welded the specifying professional
must provide axial loads on structural drawings.
74
ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS
SLH SERIES LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS
EXP. BOLTS
BY OTHERS
BRIDGING ANCHOR
TYPE "SA"
BOLT (b)
(a)
CROSS BRIDGING
BOLTED, HORIZONTAL PLUS DIAGONAL, BRIDGING
A) HORIZONTAL BRIDGING IS TO BE USED IN THE SPACE ADJACENT TO THE
WALL TO ALLOW FOR PROPER DEFLECTION OF THE JOIST NEAREST THE
WALL. SEE TABLES 1 AND 3 PAGE 73.
B) FOR REQUIRED BOLT SIZE REFER TO BRIDGING TABLE ON PAGE 73. NOTE:
CLIP CONFIGURATION MAY VARY FROM THAT SHOWN.
SEE TABLE 3, PAGE 73 AND SPECIFICATION 204.6.
NOTE: CLIP CONFIGURATION MAY VARY FROM THAT SHOWN.
NOTE: DO NOT HANG ANY MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, ETC. FROM
BRIDGING.
ANCHORAGE TO STEEL
SEE TABLE 2, PAGE 73.
For
Gage
(Contact
Vulcraft)
PLATE WITH
IMBEDDED ANCHORS
(NOT BY VULCRAFT)
BOLTED CONNECTION (b)
SEE TABLE 2, PAGE 73.
TYPICALLY USED AT COLUMNS
The Occupation Safety and Health Administration
Standards (OSHA), Paragraph 1910.12 refers to Paragraph
1518.751 of "Construction Standards" which states:
"In steel framing, where bar joists are utilized, and columns
are not framed in at least two directions with structural steel
members, a bar joist shall be field-bolted at columns to
provide lateral stability during construction."
75
ANCHORAGE TO MASONRY
SEE SPECIFICATION 204.5 (a)
SEE TABLE 2, PAGE 73.
VULCRAFT SLH / GENERAL INFORMATION
VULCRAFT LOAD TABLE
SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, LRFD SLH-SERIES
JANUARY 1, 2007
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL
safe uniformly-distributed load-carrying capacities, in
pounds per linear foot, of LRFD SLH-Series Joists. The
weight of DEAD loads, including the joists, must in all
cases be deducted to determine the LIVE load-carrying
capacities of the joists. The approximate DEAD load of
the joists may be determined from the weights per linear
foot shown in the tables. All loads shown are for roof
construction only.
This load table applies to joists with either parallel chords
or standard pitched top chords. When top chords are
pitched, the design capacities are determined by the
nominal depth of the joists at the center of the span.
Standard top chord pitch is 1/4 inch per foot. If pitch
exceeds this standard, the load table does not apply. This
load table may be used for parallel chord joists installed
to a maximum slope of 1/2 inch per foot.
When holes are required in top or bottom chords, the
carrying capacities must be reduced in proportion to
reduction of chord areas.
The red figures in this table are the LIVE loads per linear
foot of joist which will produce an approximate deflection
of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads which will produce a
deflection of 1/240 of the span may be obtained by
multiplying the red figures by 1.5. In no case shall the
TOTAL load capacity of the joists be exceeded.
The top chords are considered as being stayed laterally
by the roof deck.
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in
these table do not include accessories.
When erecting SLH joists, hoisting cables shall not
be released until all rows of bridging are completely
installed.
To solve for live loads for clear spans shown in the shaded area (or lesser clear
spans), multiply the live load of the shortest clear span shown in the Load tables
by (the shortest clear span shown in the Load table + 0.67 feet)2 and divide by (the
actual clear span +.067 feet)2. The live load shall not exceed the safe uniform load.
*The safe load for the clear spans shown in the shaded section is equal to (Safe
Load) / (Clear Span + 0.67). [The added 0.67 feet (8 inches) is required to obtain
the proper length on which the Load Tables were developed.]
In no case shall the safe uniform load, for clear spans less than the minimum clear
span shown in the shaded area, exceed the uniform load calculated for the
minimum clear span listed in the shaded area.
Approx. Wt.
In Lbs. per Depth Safe Load*
Joist
Linear Ft.
In
In Lbs.
Designation (Joists Only) Inches Between
80SLH15
80SLH16
80SLH17
80SLH18
80SLH19
80SLH20
88SLH16
88SLH17
88SLH18
88SLH19
88SLH20
88SLH21
40
80
80-110
78,000
46
80
93,750
53
80
108,300
60
80
122,400
67
80
142,800
75
80
160,500
46
88
88-119
93,000
51
88
105,150
58
88
120,600
65
88
139,500
76
88
160,500
89
88
198,000
**For spans between those listed use a linear interpolation.
LRFD
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET**
111
699
321
840
375
971
451
1097
516
1280
578
1446
646
120
771
361
871
404
1001
460
1157
521
1334
623
1649
724
114
663
296
802
347
926
416
1044
477
1218
533
1382
596
123
735
336
830
375
953
427
1101
484
1281
579
1568
673
117
632
275
763
321
881
386
993
441
1160
493
1323
552
126
701
313
789
349
908
397
1049
450
1232
539
1494
626
120
602
255
727
297
839
358
947
409
1104
458
1268
512
129
671
291
753
325
866
370
999
420
1184
502
1425
584
123
575
236
691
276
800
332
903
380
1052
425
1211
475
132
642
272
719
304
827
346
954
392
1133
469
1361
545
76
126
549
220
658
257
765
309
863
354
1005
396
1157
443
135
615
254
687
284
791
323
912
367
1085
438
1301
509
129
525
205
628
240
731
288
825
330
960
369
1104
412
138
591
238
659
266
756
303
873
343
1041
410
1244
477
132
503
192
600
224
699
269
789
308
918
344
1056
385
141
567
223
630
249
725
284
836
322
998
385
1191
447
135
482
179
574
209
669
252
756
288
878
322
1011
360
144
545
210
605
234
695
267
801
302
959
361
1143
420
138
461
167
549
196
641
235
723
270
840
301
968
337
147
524
197
579
220
666
250
770
284
921
340
1097
395
141
443
157
525
184
615
221
695
253
806
283
927
316
150
503
186
557
207
639
236
738
267
885
320
1053
372
144
425
147
504
172
590
207
666
237
774
266
891
297
155
471
168
521
187
599
214
692
243
830
290
986
337
147
408
139
483
162
567
195
641
223
743
250
855
279
160
443
153
489
170
561
195
648
221
780
264
924
307
150
392
130
463
162
545
183
615
210
714
235
821
263
165
417
140
459
156
528
177
609
201
734
241
869
280
155
366
118
433
138
510
166
576
190
668
213
770
238
170
393
127
432
143
497
162
573
184
692
220
816
256
342
107
406
126
479
151
542
173
627
193
722
216
175
372
117
407
130
468
149
540
169
626
202
770
235
VULCRAFT LOAD TABLE
SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, SLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
LRFD
Approx. Wt.
In Lbs. per Depth Safe Load*
Joist
Linear Ft.
In
In Lbs.
Designation (Joists Only) Inches Between
96SLH17
96SLH18
96SLH19
96SLH20
96SLH21
96SLH22
104SLH18
104SLH19
104SLH20
104SLH21
104SLH22
104SLH23
112LSH19
112SLH20
112SLH21
112SLH22
112SLH23
112SLH24
120SLH20
120SLH21
120SLH22
120SLH23
120SLH24
120SLH25
52
96
96-128
105,000
58
96
118,200
66
96
141,300
74
96
159,000
90
96
199,500
102
96
223,500
59
104
104-137
115,200
67
104
140,100
75
104
157,500
90
104
198,000
104
104
222,000
109
104
244,500
67
112
112-146
137,850
76
112
156,000
91
112
196,500
104
112
220,500
110
112
243,000
131
112
288,000
77
120
102-164
148,350
92
120
184,500
104
120
211,500
111
120
234,000
132
120
277,500
152
120
318,000
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET**
129
810
389
912
443
1091
502
1236
569
1541
698
1725
811
138
831
426
1011
484
1146
548
1434
673
1607
783
1772
819
147
935
466
1065
528
1337
650
1499
755
1653
790
1956
957
165
896
430
1122
530
1283
616
1415
644
1676
781
1926
915
132
776
363
875
413
1046
469
1184
531
1473
652
1662
757
141
798
400
971
453
1107
513
1376
632
1551
734
1712
768
150
900
439
1032
497
1287
612
1451
711
1601
744
1895
901
170
846
393
1059
485
1223
564
1347
590
1593
715
1827
837
135
744
339
839
386
1001
438
1131
496
1410
610
1601
708
144
768
375
933
426
1071
483
1322
593
1499
689
1644
721
155
846
398
974
450
1208
555
1377
644
1518
674
1799
817
175
798
361
1001
444
1155
516
1272
541
1505
655
1728
768
138
711
318
803
362
957
410
1083
465
1350
571
1542
663
147
734
353
897
401
1032
453
1271
558
1449
648
1578
678
160
795
362
915
410
1136
504
1307
586
1439
613
1709
743
180
758
332
948
409
1094
475
1206
497
1425
603
1638
706
141
684
298
770
340
917
385
1037
436
1296
535
1487
622
150
708
332
861
377
992
427
1220
525
1401
610
1514
638
165
750
330
863
374
1070
460
1236
535
1352
560
1611
678
185
719
306
899
376
1038
438
1145
458
1353
555
1554
650
77
144
657
280
740
319
878
361
993
409
1243
503
1436
584
155
666
301
809
342
932
387
1145
476
1325
553
1418
578
170
708
302
815
342
1010
421
1167
489
1272
512
1521
620
190
684
282
855
347
987
404
1088
423
1287
512
1476
600
147
632
263
713
300
842
340
952
385
1196
473
1382
549
160
627
274
761
311
875
352
1077
433
1245
503
1331
526
175
669
276
771
313
956
386
1104
449
1200
469
1439
569
195
651
261
813
321
939
374
1035
391
1224
474
1404
555
150
608
247
686
282
809
320
915
362
1149
445
1329
517
165
594
250
719
284
822
321
1016
395
1175
459
1251
480
180
636
255
732
288
905
355
1046
412
1134
431
1364
523
200
621
242
774
298
894
347
986
363
1166
440
1337
515
155
570
224
645
256
758
290
857
329
1079
404
1248
469
170
561
229
678
260
774
293
959
361
1107
420
1178
439
185
603
234
695
266
858
327
992
380
1074
397
1293
481
205
593
225
738
277
852
322
939
336
1112
408
1275
478
160
536
204
608
232
711
264
804
299
1013
367
1173
426
175
531
209
641
238
731
269
906
331
1047
385
1112
403
190
573
216
660
245
815
301
942
350
1019
367
1229
444
210
564
209
704
258
813
300
894
313
1059
380
1217
445
165
503
186
572
212
668
241
756
272
953
335
1104
389
180
503
192
606
218
690
247
857
301
990
353
1050
370
195
543
200
626
227
774
279
894
324
966
340
1167
411
215
539
195
672
240
776
279
854
292
1013
354
1163
415
170
474
170
540
194
629
220
713
249
897
306
1041
355
185
477
177
575
201
653
228
812
280
939
326
993
341
200
518
186
597
210
737
259
852
301
918
315
1112
381
220
516
182
642
224
743
261
815
272
968
330
1112
387
175
447
156
510
178
594
202
672
229
846
281
984
326
190
453
164
546
186
620
210
771
259
891
301
942
315
205
494
172
569
195
702
240
812
279
873
292
1059
354
230
494
170
615
209
710
244
779
255
926
309
1064
362
180
422
143
483
163
560
186
635
210
800
258
930
300
195
431
152
519
172
587
195
732
240
846
278
893
291
210
471
160
542
181
669
224
774
260
831
272
1010
329
235
473
159
588
196
680
228
744
238
887
289
1017
339
185
399
132
458
150
530
171
600
193
756
238
881
276
200
410
140
488
160
557
181
696
222
804
258
848
270
215
450
149
518
169
639
208
738
242
792
253
963
307
240
453
149
564
184
651
214
713
224
849
271
975
318
190
378
122
434
139
501
158
567
178
716
220
834
255
205
390
130
468
148
530
167
662
206
767
240
806
250
220
429
140
495
158
611
195
705
226
756
236
920
287
435
140
540
173
624
201
683
210
815
255
935
298
VULCRAFT SLH / GENERAL INFORMATION
VULCRAFT LOAD TABLE
SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, ASD SLH-SERIES
JANUARY 1, 2007
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
The black figures in the following table give the TOTAL
safe uniformly-distributed load-carrying capacities, in
pounds per linear foot, of ASD SLH-Series Joists. The
weight of DEAD loads, including the joists, must in all
cases be deducted to determine the LIVE load-carrying
capacities of the joists. The approximate DEAD load of
the joists may be determined from the weights per linear
foot shown in the tables. All loads shown are for roof
construction only.
This load table applies to joists with either parallel chords
or standard pitched top chords. When top chords are
pitched, the design capacities are determined by the
nominal depth of the joists at the center of the span.
Standard top chord pitch is 1/4 inch per foot. If pitch
exceeds this standard, the load table does not apply. This
load table may be used for parallel chord joists installed
to a maximum slope of 1/2 inch per foot.
When holes are required in top or bottom chords, the
carrying capacities must be reduced in proportion to
reduction of chord areas.
The red figures in this table are the LIVE loads per linear
foot of joist which will produce an approximate deflection
of 1/360 of the span. LIVE loads which will produce a
deflection of 1/240 of the span may be obtained by
multiplying the red figures by 1.5. In no case shall the
TOTAL load capacity of the joists be exceeded.
The top chords are considered as being stayed laterally
by the roof deck.
The approximate joist weights per linear foot shown in
these table do not include accessories.
When erecting SLH joists, hoisting cables shall not
be released until all rows of bridging are completely
installed.
To solve for live loads for clear spans shown in the shaded area (or lesser clear
spans), multiply the live load of the shortest clear span shown in the Load tables
by (the shortest clear span shown in the Load table + 0.67 feet)2 and divide by (the
actual clear span +.067 feet)2. The live load shall not exceed the safe uniform load.
*The safe load for the clear spans shown in the shaded section is equal to (Safe
Load) / (Clear Span + 0.67). [The added 0.67 feet (8 inches) is required to obtain
the proper length on which the Load Tables were developed.]
In no case shall the safe uniform load, for clear spans less than the minimum clear
span shown in the shaded area, exceed the uniform load calculated for the
minimum clear span listed in the shaded area.
**For spans between those listed use a linear interpolation.
ASD
Approx. Wt.
In Lbs. per Depth Safe Load*
Joist
Linear Ft.
In
In Lbs.
Designation (Joists Only) Inches Between
80-110 111
80SLH15
40
80
52,000 466
321
80SLH16
46
80
62,500 560
375
80SLH17
53
80
72,200 647
451
80SLH18
60
80
81,600 731
516
80SLH19
67
80
95,200 853
578
80SLH20
75
80 107,000 964
646
88-119 120
88SLH16
46
88
62,000 514
361
88SLH17
51
88
70,100 581
404
88SLH18
58
88
80,400 667
460
88SLH19
65
88
93,000 771
521
88SLH20
76
88 107,000 889
623
88SLH21
89
88 132,000 1099
724
114
442
296
535
347
617
416
696
477
812
533
921
596
123
490
336
553
375
635
427
734
484
854
579
1045
673
117
421
275
509
321
587
386
662
441
773
493
882
552
126
467
313
526
349
605
397
699
450
821
539
996
626
120
401
255
485
297
559
358
631
409
736
458
845
512
129
447
291
502
325
577
370
666
420
789
502
950
584
123
383
236
461
276
533
332
602
380
701
425
807
475
132
428
272
479
304
551
346
636
392
755
469
907
545
78
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET**
126
366
220
439
257
510
309
575
354
670
396
771
443
135
410
254
458
284
527
323
608
367
723
438
867
509
129
350
205
419
240
487
288
550
330
640
369
736
412
138
394
238
439
266
504
303
582
343
694
410
829
477
132
335
192
400
224
466
269
526
308
612
344
704
385
141
378
223
420
249
483
284
557
322
665
385
794
447
135
321
179
383
209
446
252
504
288
585
322
674
360
144
363
210
403
234
463
267
534
302
639
361
762
420
138
307
167
366
196
427
235
482
270
560
301
645
337
147
349
197
386
220
444
250
513
284
614
340
731
395
141
295
157
350
184
410
221
463
253
537
283
618
316
150
335
186
371
207
426
236
492
267
590
320
702
372
144
283
147
336
172
393
207
444
237
516
266
594
297
155
314
168
347
187
399
214
461
243
553
290
657
337
147
272
139
322
162
378
195
427
223
495
250
570
279
160
295
153
326
170
374
195
432
221
520
264
616
307
150
261
130
309
162
363
183
410
210
476
235
547
263
165
278
140
306
156
352
177
406
201
489
241
579
280
155
244
118
289
138
340
166
384
190
445
213
513
238
170
262
127
288
143
331
162
382
184
461
220
544
256
228
107
271
126
319
151
361
173
418
193
481
216
175
248
117
271
130
312
149
360
169
435
202
513
235
VULCRAFT LOAD TABLE
SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, SLH-SERIES
Based on a 50 ksi Maximum Yield Strength
ASD
Approx. Wt.
In Lbs. per Depth Safe Load*
Joist
Linear Ft.
In
In Lbs.
Designation (Joists Only) Inches Between
96-128 129
96SLH17
52
96
70,000 540
389
96SLH18
58
96
78,800 608
443
96SLH19
66
96
94,200 727
502
96SLH20
74
96 106,000 824
569
96SLH21
90
96 133,000 1027
698
96SLH22
102
96 149,000 1150
811
104-137 138
104SLH18
59
104 76,800 554
426
104SLH19
67
104 93,400 674
484
104SLH20
75
104 105,000 764
548
104SLH21
90
104 132,000 956
673
104SLH22
104
104 148,000 1071
783
104SLH23
109
104 163,000 1181
819
112-146 147
112LSH19
67
112 91,900 623
466
112SLH20
76
112 104,000 710
528
112SLH21
91
112 131,000 891
650
112SLH22
104
112 147,000 999
755
112SLH23
110
112 162,000 1102
790
112SLH24
131
112 192,000 1304
957
102-164 165
120SLH20
77
120 98,900 597
430
120SLH21
92
120 123,000 748
530
120SLH22
104
120 141,000 855
616
120SLH23
111
120 156,000 943
644
120SLH24
132
120 185,000 1117
781
120SLH25
152
120 212,000 1284
915
132
517
363
583
413
697
469
789
531
982
652
1108
757
141
532
400
647
453
738
513
917
632
1034
734
1141
768
150
600
439
688
497
858
612
967
711
1067
744
1263
901
170
564
393
706
485
815
564
898
590
1062
715
1218
837
135
496
339
559
386
667
438
754
496
940
610
1067
708
144
512
375
622
426
714
483
881
593
999
689
1096
721
155
564
398
649
450
805
555
918
644
1012
674
1199
817
175
532
361
667
444
770
516
848
541
1003
655
1152
768
138
474
318
535
362
638
410
722
465
900
571
1028
663
147
489
353
598
401
688
453
847
558
966
648
1052
678
160
530
362
610
410
757
504
871
586
959
613
1139
743
180
505
332
632
409
729
475
804
497
950
603
1092
706
141
456
298
513
340
611
385
691
436
864
535
991
622
150
472
332
574
377
661
427
813
525
934
610
1009
638
165
500
330
575
374
713
460
824
535
901
560
1074
678
185
479
306
599
376
692
438
763
458
902
555
1036
650
79
CLEAR SPAN IN FEET**
144
438
280
493
319
585
361
662
409
829
503
957
584
155
444
301
539
342
621
387
763
476
883
553
945
578
170
472
302
543
342
673
421
778
489
848
512
1014
620
190
456
282
570
347
658
404
725
423
858
512
984
600
147
421
263
475
300
561
340
635
385
797
473
921
549
160
418
274
507
311
583
352
718
433
830
503
887
526
175
446
276
514
313
637
386
736
449
800
469
959
569
195
434
261
542
321
626
374
690
391
816
474
936
555
150
405
247
457
282
539
320
610
362
766
445
886
517
165
396
250
479
284
548
321
677
395
783
459
834
480
180
424
255
488
288
603
355
697
412
756
431
909
523
200
414
242
516
298
596
347
657
363
777
440
891
515
155
380
224
430
256
505
290
571
329
719
404
832
469
170
374
229
452
260
516
293
639
361
738
420
785
439
185
402
234
463
266
572
327
661
380
716
397
862
481
205
395
225
492
277
568
322
626
336
741
408
850
478
160
357
204
405
232
474
264
536
299
675
367
782
426
175
354
209
427
238
487
269
604
331
698
385
741
403
190
382
216
440
245
543
301
628
350
679
367
819
444
210
376
209
469
258
542
300
596
313
706
380
811
445
165
335
186
381
212
445
241
504
272
635
335
736
389
180
335
192
404
218
460
247
571
301
660
353
700
370
195
362
200
417
227
516
279
596
324
644
340
778
411
215
359
195
448
240
517
279
569
292
675
354
775
415
170
316
170
360
194
419
220
475
249
598
306
694
355
185
318
177
383
201
435
228
541
280
626
326
662
341
200
345
186
398
210
491
259
568
301
612
315
741
381
220
344
182
428
224
495
261
543
272
645
330
741
387
175
298
156
340
178
396
202
448
229
564
281
656
326
190
302
164
364
186
413
210
514
259
594
301
628
315
205
329
172
379
195
468
240
541
279
582
292
706
354
230
329
170
410
209
473
244
519
255
617
309
709
362
180
281
143
322
163
373
186
423
210
533
258
620
300
195
287
152
346
172
391
195
488
240
564
278
595
291
210
314
160
361
181
446
224
516
260
554
272
673
329
235
315
159
392
196
453
228
496
238
591
289
678
339
185
266
132
305
150
353
171
400
193
504
238
587
276
200
273
140
325
160
371
181
464
222
536
258
565
270
215
300
149
345
169
426
208
492
242
528
253
642
307
240
302
149
376
184
434
214
475
224
566
271
650
318
190
252
122
289
139
334
158
378
178
477
220
556
255
205
260
130
312
148
353
167
441
206
511
240
537
250
220
286
140
330
158
407
195
470
226
504
236
613
287
290
140
360
173
416
201
455
210
543
255
623
298
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT
SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, SLH-SERIES
SECTION 200.
SCOPE
JANUARY 1, 1991
REVISED JANUARY 1, 2007
strength shall, if requested, be provided in the form of an
affidavit or by witnessed or certified test reports.
In the case of material, the mechanical properties of
which conform to the requirements of one of the listed
specifications, test specimens and procedure shall
conform to those of such specifications and to ASTM
A370.
These specifications cover the design, manufacture and
use of Super Longspan Steel Joists SLH Series.
SECTION 201.
DEFINITION
In the case of material, the mechanical properties of
which do not conform to the requirements of one of the
listed specifications, the test specimens and procedure
shall conform to the applicable requirements of ASTM
A370 and the specimens shall exhibit a yield strength
equal to or exceeding the design yield strength and an
elongation of not less than (a) 20 percent in 2 inches for
sheet and strip or (b) 18 percent in 8 inches for plates,
shapes and bars with adjustments for thickness for
plates, shapes, and bars as prescribed in ASTM
A36/A36M, A242/A242M, A529/A529M, A572/A572M,
and A588/A588M whichever specification is applicable
on the basis of design yield strength. The number of tests
shall be as prescribed in ASTM A6 for plates, shapes,
and bars; and ASTM A570/A570M, A606, AND A607 for
the sheet and strip.
The term "Super Longspan Steel Joists SLH Series" as
used herein, refers to open web, load-carrying members
utilizing hot-rolled steel. SLH series are suitable for the
direct support of roof decks in buildings.
The design for SLH Series joist chord or web sections
shall be based on a yield strength of at least 36,000 psi,
but not greater than 50,000 psi. Steel used for SLH
Series joist chord or web sections shall have a minimum
yield strength determined in accordance with one of the
procedures specified in Section 202.2, which is equal to
the yield strength assumed in the design. SLH Series
joists shall be designed in accordance with these
specifications to support the loads given in the attached
Standard Load Tables for SLH Series joists.
202.3 WELDING ELECTRODES
The following electrodes shall be used for arc welding:
(a) For connected members both having a specified
minimum yield strength greater than 36,000 psi
AWS A5.1 or A5.5, E70XX
AWS A5.17, F7X, EXXX flux electrode combination
AWS A5.18. E70S-X or E70U-1
AWS A5.20, E70T-X
SECTION 202.
MATERIALS
202.1 STEEL
The steel used in the manufacture of chord and web sections
shall conform to one of the following ASTM Specifications:
• Carbon Structural Steel, ASTM A36/A36M.
• High-Strength, Low-Alloy Structural Steel, ASTM
A242/A242M.
• High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of Structural
Quality ASTM A529/A529M, Grade 50.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel, ASTM A572/A572M Grade 42, 45, and 50.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi
(345 MPa) Minimum Yield Point to 4 inches (102 mm)
thick, ASTM A588/A588M.
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, High-Strength, Low-Alloy, HotRolled and Cold-Rolled, with Improved Corrosion Resistance, ASTM A606.
• Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, HighStrength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with
Improved Formability, ASTM A1008/A1008M.
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural,
High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy
with Improved Formability, ASTM A1011/A1011M.
or shall be of suitable quality ordered or produced to other than
the listed specifications, provided that such material in the state
used for final assembly and manufacture is weldable and is
proved by tests performed by the producer or manufacturer to
have the properties specified in Section 102.2.
(b) For connected members both having a specified
minimum yield strength of 36,000 psi or one having a
specified minimum yield strength of 36,000 psi and the
other having a specified minimum yield strength greater
than 36,000 psi
AWS A5.1, E60XX
AWS A5.17, F6X-EXXX flux electrode combination
AWS A5.20, E6O0T-X
or any of those listed in Section 202.3 (a)
Other welding methods, providing equivalent strength as
demonstrated by tests, may be used.
202.4 PAINT
The Standard shop paint is a primer coat intended to
protect the steel for only a short period of exposure in
ordinary atmospheric conditions and shall be considered
an impermanent and provisional coating. The Standard
shop paint shall conform to one of the following:
(a) Steel Structures Painting Council Specification,
SSPC No. 15.
(b) Or, shall be a shop paint which meets the minimum
performance requirements of one of the above listed
specifications.
SECTION 203.
DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
202.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
The yield strength used as a basis for the design stresses
prescribed in Section 203 shall be at least 36,000 psi, but
shall not be greater than 50,000 psi. Evidence that the
steel furnished meets or exceeds the design yield
203.1 METHOD
Joists shall be designed in accordance with these
specifications as simply supported uniformly loaded
80
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS SLH-SERIES
trusses supporting a roof deck so constructed as to brace
the top chord of the joists against lateral buckling. Where
any applicable design feature is not specifically covered
herein, the design shall be in accordance with the
American Institute of Steel Construction Specification for
the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel
for Buildings, latest adoption, where the material used
consists of plates, shapes or bars.
f
Fn
Ω
Fn /Ω
=
=
=
=
Stresses:
required stress
nominal stress
safety factor
allowable stress
ksi (MPa)
ksi (MPa)
(a) Tension: φt = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω t = 1.67 (ASD)
Design Basis:
For Chords: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
For Webs: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
Designs shall be made according to the provisions in
this Specification for either Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD) or for Allowable Strength Design (ASD).
Design Stress = 0.9Fy (LRFD)
Load Combinations:
(203.2-1)
(b) Compression: φc = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω c = 1.67 (ASD)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fy (ASD)
LRFD:
(203.2-2)
When load combinations are not specified to the joist
manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed for
the factored loads based on the factors and load combinations as follows:
For members with K l
r
1.4D
Fcr = Q 0.658
ASD:
1.2D + 1.6 (L, or Lr, or S, or R)
≤ 4.71
E
QFy
QFy
Fe
Fy
(203.2-3)
When load combinations are not specified to the joist
manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed
based on the load combinations as follows:
For members with K l
r
> 4.71
E
QFy
D
D + (L, or Lr, or S, or R)
Fcr = 0.877Fe
Where:
D = dead load due to the weight of the structural
elements and the permanent features of the structure
Where, Fe = elastic buckling stress determined in
accordance with Equation 203.2-5.
L = live load due to occupancy and movable equipment
Fe = π E 2
Lr = roof live load
2
S = snow load
When special loads are specified and the specifying
professional does not provide the load combinations,
the provisions of ASCE 7, “Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures” shall be used for
LRFD and ASD load combinations.
For hot-rolled sections, “Q” is the full reduction factor
for slender compression elements.
203.2 DESIGN AND ALLOWABLE STRESSES
Joists shall have their components so proportioned that
the required stresses, fu , shall not exceed φ Fn where,
ksi (MPa)
Fn = nominal stress
ksi (MPa)
Design Stress = 0.9Fcr (LRFD)
(203.2-6)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fcr (ASD)
(203.2-7)
In the above equations, l is taken as the distance in
inches (millimeters) between panel points for the
chord members and the appropriate length for web
members, and r is the corresponding least radius of
gyration of the member or any component thereof. E
is equal to 29,000 ksi (200,000 MPa).
Design Using Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
fu = required stress
(203.2-5)
Kl
r
R = load due to initial rainwater or ice exclusive of
the ponding contribution
φ
(203.2-4)
Use 1.2 l/rx for a crimped, first primary compression
web member when a moment-resistant weld group
is not used for this member; where = rx member radius of gyration in the plane of the joist.
= resistance factor
φ Fn = design stress
Design Using Allowable Strength Design (ASD)
Joists shall have their components so proportioned that
the required stresses, f, shall not exceed Fn / Ω where,
For cold-formed sections the method of calculating
the nominal column strength is given in the AISI,
North American Specification for the Design of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members.
81
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS SLH-SERIES
(c) Bending: φb = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω 6 = 1.67 (ASD)
203.3 MAXIMUM SLENDERNESS RATIOS
The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/ r and 1.0 ls /r of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed the values given in Table 203.3-1, Parts A.
Bending calculations are to be based on using the
elastic section modulus.
For chords and web members other than solid
rounds:
The effective slenderness ratio, K l/r *, to be used in
calculating the nominal stresses Fcr and F'e, is the
largest value as determined from Table 203.3-1, Parts
B and C.
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
Design Stress = 0.9Fy (LRFD)
(203.2-8)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fy (ASD)
(203.2-9)
In compression members when fillers or ties are used,
they shall be spaced so that the ls / r z ratio of each component does not exceed the governing l/ r ratio of the
member as a whole.
For web members of solid round cross section:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
Design Stress = 1.45Fy (LRFD)
(203.2-10)
The terms used in Table 203.3-1 are defined as follows:
Allowable Stress = 0.95Fy (ASD)
(203.2-11)
l = Length center-to-center of panel points, except
l = 36 in. (914 mm) for calculating l/ r y of top
chord member.
For bearing plates:
Fy = 50 ksi (345MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250MPa)
Design Stress = 1.35Fy (LRFD)
(d) Weld Strength:
Allowable Stress = 0.9Fy (ASD)
ls = maximum length center-to-center between panel
point and filler (tie), or between adjacent fillers (ties).
(203.2-12)
(203.2-13)
rx = member radius of gyration in the plane of the joist.
ry = member radius of gyration out of the plane
of the joist.
Shear at throat of fillet welds:
LRFD: φw = 0.75
Nominal Shear Stress = Fnw = 0.6Fexx (203.2-14)
rz = least radius of gyration of a member component.
Design Shear Strength =
φRn = φwFnw A = 0.45Fexx A
ASD: Ω w = 2.0
* See P.N. Chod and T. V. Galambos, Compression
Chords Without Fillers in Longspan Steel
Joists, Research Report No. 36, June 1975
Structural Division, Civil Engineering Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO.
(203.2-15)
Allowable Shear Strength =
Rn/Ω w = FnwA/Ω w = 0.3Fexx A
(203.2-16)
A = effective throat area
Made with E70 series electrodes or
F7XX-EXXX flux-electrode
combinations. . . . . . . . . .Fexx = 70 ksi (483 MPa)
Made with E60 series electrodes or
F6XX-EXXX flux-electrode
combinations. . . . . . . . . . .Fexx = 60 ksi (414 MPa)
Tension or compression on groove or butt welds
shall be the same as those specified for the connected material.
82
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS SLH-SERIES
TABLE 203.3-1
I
MAXIMUM AND EFFECTIVE SLENDERNESS RATIOS
TOP CHORD INTERIOR PANEL
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/ r and 1.0 ls / r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 90.
B. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “Fcr”
1. With fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
1.0 ls /rz
2. Without fillers or ties
0.75 l/rz
3. Single component members
0.75 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
C. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “F'e”
1. With fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
2. Without fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
3. Single component members
0.75 l/rx
II TOP CHORD END PANEL
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/r and 1.0 ls /r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 120.
B. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “Fcr”
1. With fillers or ties
1.0 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
1.0 ls /rz
2. Without fillers or ties
1.0 l/rz
3. Single component members
1.0 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
C. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “F'e”
1. With fillers or ties
1.0 l/rx
2. Without fillers or ties
1.0 l/rx
3. Single component members
1.0 l/rx
III TENSION MEMBERS - CHORDS AND WEBS
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/r and 1.0 ls /r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 240.
IV COMPRESSION WEB MEMBERS
A. The slenderness ratios, 1.0 l/r and 1.0 ls /r, of members as a whole or any component part shall not exceed 200.
B. The effective slenderness ratio to determine “Fcr”
1. With fillers or ties
0.75 l/rx
1.0 l/ry
1.0 ls /rz
2. Without fillers or ties
1.0 l/rz
3. Single component members
0.75 l/rx*
1.0 l/ry
* Use 1.2 l/rx for a crimped, first primary compression web member when a moment-resistant weld group is
not used for this member.
83
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS SLH-SERIES
203.4 MEMBERS
Where l is the panel length,in inches (millimeters),
as defined in Section 203.2(b) and rx is the radius
of gyration about the axis of bending.
(a) Chords
The bottom chord shall be designed as an axially loaded
tension member.
Q = Form factor defined in Section 203.2(b)
For ASD:
A = Area of the top chord, in.2 , (mm2 )
The radius of gyration of the top chord about its vertical
axis shall not be less than l/170 where l is the spacing in
inches (millimeters) between lines of bridging as specified
in Section 204.5(d)
at the panel point:
The top chord shall be considered as stayed laterally by
the floor slab or roof deck provided the requirements of
Section 204.9(e) of this specification are met.
at the mid panel:
The top chord shall be designed as a continuous member
subject to combined axial and bending stresses and shall
be so proportioned that
For LRFD:
at the panel point:
at the mid panel:
8
fau
+
φ cFcr 9
fau + fbu ≤ 0.9Fy
for
fa 8
+
Fa 9
fau
1– φ F'
c e
Qφ bFy
for
1–
for
≤ 1.0
fa
+
2Fa
(203.4-2)
(203.4-4)
fa
≥ 0.2,
Fa
Cmfb
1.67fa
F'e
(203.4-1)
fau
≥ 0.2,
φ cFcr
Cmfbu
fa + fb ≤ 0.6Fy
QFb
≤ 1.0
(203.4-5)
≤ 1.0
(203.4-6)
fa
< 0.2,
Fa
Cmfb
1.67fa
1–
F'e
QFb
fa = P/A = Required compressive stress, ksi (MPa)
for
fau
+
2φc Fcr
P = Required axial strength using ASD load
combinations, kips (N)
fau
< 0.2,
φcFcr
Cmfbu
fau
1–
φ cF'e
Qφ bFy
≤ 1.0
fb = M/S = Required bending stress at the location under
consideration, ksi (MPa)
M = Required flexural strength using ASD load
combinations, kip-in. (N-mm)
(203.4-3)
S = Elastic Section Modulus, in.3 (mm3)
fau = Pu /A = Required compressive stress, ksi (MPa)
Fa = Allowable axial compressive stress, based on l/r
as defined in Section 203.2(b), ksi (MPa)
Pu = Required axial strength using LRFD load combinations,
kips (N)
Fb = Allowable bending stress; 0.6Fy, ksi (MPa)
Cm = 1 - 0.50 fa/F'e for end panels
fbu = Mu/S = Required bending stress at the location
under consideration, ksi (MPa)
(b) Web
Cm = 1 - 0.67 fa/F'e for interior panels
Mu = Required flexural strength using LRFD load
combinations, kip-in. (N-mm)
The vertical shears to be used in the design of the web
members shall be determined from full uniform loading,
but such vertical shears shall be not less than 25 percent
of the end reaction.
S = Elastic Section Modulus, in.3 (mm3)
Fcr = Nominal axial compressive stress in ksi (MPa)
based on l/r as defined in Section 203.2(b)
Interior vertical web members used in modified Warren
type web systems shall be designed to resist the gravity
loads supported by the member plus an additional axial
load of 11⁄2 percent of the top chord axial force.
Cm = 1 - 0.3 fau/φ F'e for end panels
Cm = 1 - 0.4 fau/φ F'e for interior panels
Fy = Specified minimum yield strength, ksi (MPa)
2
π E , ksi (MPa)
F' =
e
Kl
rx
2
84
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS SLH-SERIES
(c) Depth
Joists can have either a top chord pitch of 1/4 inch per
foot or parallel chords. The depth, for the purpose of
design, in all cases shall be the depth at mid-span.
Parallel chord joists must be installed with a minimum
slope of 1/4 inch per foot.
2) Welding Program
Manufacturers shall have a program for
establishing weld procedures and operator
qualification and for weld sampling and testing.
3) Weld inspection by Outside Agencies (See
Section 204.14 of these specifications).
The agency shall arrange for visual inspection to
determine that welds meet the acceptance
standards of Section 203.5 a. 1) above.
Ultrasonic X-Ray, and magnetic particle testing
are inappropriate for joists due to the
configurations of the components and welds.
(b) Strength
Joint connections shall develop the maximum force
due to any of the design loads, but not less than 50
percent of the allowable strength of the member in
tension or compression, whichever force is the
controlling factor in the selection of the member.
(c) Shop Splices
Shop splices may occur at any point in chord or web
members. Splices shall be designed for the member
force, but not less than 50 percent of the allowable
member strength. Members containing a butt weld
splice shall develop an ultimatetensile force of at
least 57,000 psi times the full design area of the
chord or web. The term "member" shall be defined
as all component parts, comprising the chord or web,
at the point of splice.
(d ) Eccentricity
Members connected at a joint shall have their center of
gravity lines meet at a point, if practical. Eccentricity on
either side of the neutral axis of chord members may
be neglected when it does not exceed the distance
between the neutral axis and the back of the chord.
Otherwise, provision shall be made for the stresses due
to eccentricity. Ends of joists shall be proportioned to
resist bending produced by eccentricity at the support.
(e) Extended Ends
Extended top chords or full depth cantilever ends
require the special attention of the specifying
engineer or architect.
The magnitude and location of the design loads to be
supported, the deflection requirements, and the
proper bracing shall be clearly indicated on the
structural drawings.
203.5 CONNECTIONS
(a) Methods
Joint connections and splices shall be made by
attaching the members to one another by arc or
resistance welding or other approved method.
1) Welded Connections
(a) Selected welds shall be inspected visually
by the manufacturer. Prior to this inspection,
weld slag shall be removed.
(b) Cracks are not acceptable and shall be
repaired.
(c) Thorough fusion shall exist between layers
of weld metal and between weld metal and
base metal for the required design length of
the weld; such fusion shall be verified by
visual inspection.
(d) Unfilled weld craters shall not be included in
the design length of the weld.
(e) Undercut shall not exceed 1/16 inch for
welds oriented parallel to the principal
stress.
(f) The sum of surface (piping) porosity
diameters shall not exceed 1/16 inch in any
1 inch of design weld length.
(g) Weld spatter that does not interfere with
paint coverage is acceptable.
(d) Field Splices
Field splices shall be bolted connections designed by
the manufacturer. Splices shall be designed for the
member shear and moment forces, but not less than
50 percent of the member strength.
(e) Bridging Clips
Where double angles, separated by a nominal gap,
are used as chord members, the two angles must be
tied together with a filler or tie at all bridging clip
locations. These fillers and their connections must be
capable of developing the bridging forces indicated
by Section 204.6 (d).
85
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS SLH-SERIES
203.6 CAMBER
Joists shall have approximate cambers in accordance
with the following:
Top
Chord Length
111'-0"
120'-0"
130'-0"
140'-0"
150'-0"
160'-0"
180'-0"
200'-0"
220'-0"
240'-0"
TABLE 203.6.1
Double
Pitch Joists*
3 1/4"
3 1/2"
3 7/8"
4 1/8"
4 3/8"
4 3/4"
5 1/4"
5 7/8"
6 1/2"
7"
204.2 SPAN
The clear span of joists shall not exceed 24 times
their nominal depth.
204.3 DEPTH
Parallel
Chord Joists
5 1/4"
6"
7"
8"
8 3/4"
9 1/2"
10 1/2"
11 3/4"
13"
14"
The nominal depth of pitched chord joists shall be the
depth at mid-span. The standard pitch of the top
chord shall be 1/4 inch per foot.
204.4 PITCH
The standard configuration for SLH Series Joists is a
double pitched top chord with a pitch of 1/4 inch per
foot. The double pitched design was selected for
economy and positive roof drainage.
204.5 END SUPPORTS
(a) Masonry and Concrete
SLH Series Joists supported by masonry or concrete
are to bear on steel bearing plates, and shall be
designed as steel bearing. Due consideration of the
end reactions and all other vertical and lateral forces
shall be taken by the specifying engineer or architect
in the design of the steel bearing plate and the
masonry or concrete. The ends of SLH Series Joists
shall extend over the masonry or concrete support
not less than the distance shown in Table 204.5.1.
The plate shall be located not more than 1/2 inch
from the face of the wall and shall be not less than 9
inches wide perpendicular to the length of the joist. It
is to be designed by the specifying engineer or
architect in compliance with the allowable unit
stresses in Section A5.1 (Allowable Stress Design) of
the AISC Specifications, of latest adoption. The steel
bearing plate shall be furnished by other than the
joist manufacturer.
203.7 SHOP PAINTING
* Pitched 1 1/4 in 12" or greater
Joists and accessories shall receive one shop coat of
protective paint as specified in Section 202.4.
203.8 VERIFICATION OF DESIGN
Design data on SLH series joists will be supplied to
the specifying engineer upon request.
SECTION 204.
APPLICATION
204.1 USAGE
These specifications shall apply to any type of structure
where roof decks are to be supported directly by steel
joists installed as herein specified. Where joists are used
other than on simple spans under uniformly distributed
loading, as prescribed in Section 203.1, they shall be
investigated and modified if necessary to limit the unit
stresses to those listed in Section 203.2.
(b) Steel
Due consideration of the end reactions and all other
vertical and lateral forces shall be taken by the
specifying engineer or architect in the design of the
steel support. The end of SLH Series Joists shall
extend over the steel support a distance not less than
that shown in Table 204.5.1.
CAUTION: If a rigid connection of the bottom chord is to
be made to the column or other support, it shall be made
only after the application of the dead loads. The joist is
then no longer simply supported and the system must be
investigated for continuous frame action by the specifying
professional.
TABLE 204.5.1
Joist Section Number
Minimum Bearing Length*
SLH 15-18
4"
SLH 19-25
6"
*Excluding extension
86
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS SLH-SERIES
204.6 BRIDGING
(f) Bottom Chord Bearing Joists
It is not recommended that SLH-Series joists be
used in bottom chord bearing configuration.
(a) Horizontal
Horizontal bridging lines shall consist of two
continuous horizontal steel members, one attached
to the top chord and the other attached to the bottom
chord. The l/r ratio of the bridging member shall not
exceed 300, where l is the distance in inches
between attachments and r is the least radius of
gyration of the bridging member.
(b) Diagonal
Diagonal bridging lines shall consist of cross-bracing
with l/r ratio of not more than 200, where l is the
distance in inches between connections and r is the
least radius of gyration of the bracing member.
Where cross-bracing members are connected at
their point of intersection, the l distance shall be
taken as the distance in inches between connections
at the point of intersection of the bracing members
and the connections to the chords of the joists.
(c) Bridging Lines
Bolted diagonal bridging shall be used except when
the joist spacing is less than .66 x joist depth, then
bolted horizontal bridging shall be used in addition to
diagonal bridging.
(d) Spacing
The maximum spacing of lines of bridging shall not
exceed the values in Table 204.6.1. Bridging shall be
installed near a bottom chord panel point or an extra
web member shall be furnished to brace the bottom
chord for the vertical component of the bridging force
equal to the horizontal bracing force. See Section
204.13 for bridging required for uplift forces.
204.7 INSTALLATION OF BRIDGING
All bridging and bridging anchors shall be completely
installed before construction loads are placed on the
joists. Bridging shall support the top and bottom chords
against lateral movement during the construction period
and shall hold the steel joists in the approximate position
as shown on the plans.
The ends of all bridging lines terminating at walls or
beams shall be anchored thereto.
204.8 END ANCHORAGE
(a) Masonry and Concrete
Ends of SLH Series Joists resting on steel bearing
plates on masonry or structural concrete shall be
attached thereto as shown Table 204.8.1.
(b) Steel
Ends of SLH Series Joists resting on steel supports
shall be attached thereto as shown in Table 204.8.1.
In steel frames, where columns are not framed in at
least two directions with structural steel members,
joists at column lines shall be field bolted at the
columns to provide
lateral stability during
construction.
TABLE 204.8.1 END ANCHORAGE
Joist Section No.* Fillet Weld Bearing Seat Bolts
For Erection
SLH 15-18
2 - 1/4" x 2"
2 - 3/4" A325
SLH 19-25
2 - 1/4" x 4"
2 - 3/4" A325
TABLE 204.6.1
Joist-Section
Number*
15 to 17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Max. Spac. Of
Lines Of Bridging
21'-0"
21'-0"
26'-0"
26'-0"
30'-0"
30'-0"
30'-0"
30'-0"
30'-0"
*Last two digits of designation shown in load table.
(c) Uplift
Where uplift forces are a design consideration, roof
joists shall be anchored to resist such forces.
Horizontal
Bracing Force**
2,700 Ibs
3,400 Ibs
3,400 Ibs
3,700 Ibs
4,200 Ibs
5,000 Ibs
5,500 Ibs
6,300 Ibs
7,100 Ibs
204.9 JOIST SPACING
Joists shall be spaced so that the loading on each joist
does not exceed the allowable load given for the
particular designation and span in the Load Table.
204.10 ROOF DECKS
(a) Material
Decks may consist of cast-in-place or precast
concrete or gypsum, formed steel, wood or other
suitable material capable of supporting the required
load at the specified joist spacing.
(b) Thickness
Cast-in-place slabs shall not be less than 2 inches
thick.
(c) Bearing
Slabs or decks shall bear uniformly along the top
chords of the joist.
The number of lines of bridging is based on the joists
clear span dimensions.
* Last two digits of designation shown in load table.
**
Each connection to the chord shall resist one-half of
this force.
(e) Connections
Connections to the chords of the steel joists and
bridging anchors shall be made by positive
mechanical means and capable of resisting a
horizontal force not less than that specified in Table
204.6.1.
87
SPECIFICATIONS FOR VULCRAFT SUPER LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS, SLH-SERIES
(d) Attachments
The spacing of attachments along the top chord
shall not exceed 36 inches. Such attachments of the
slab or deck to the top chords of joists shall be
capable of resisting the following forces:
204.13 UPLIFT
Where uplift forces due to wind are a design
requirement, these forces must be indicated on the
structural drawings in terms of net uplift in pounds per
square foot. When these forces are specified, they must
be considered in the design of joists and bridging. A
single line of bottom chord bridging must be provided
near the first bottom chord panel points, whenever uplift
due to wind forces is a design consideration.**
TABLE 204.10.1
Joist Section Number* Equivalent Force Required
15 - 16 incl.
300 Ibs./ft.
17 - 19 incl.
300 Ibs./ft.
20 - 21 incl.
300 Ibs./ft.
22 - 24 incl
420 Ibs./ft.
25
520 Ibs./ft.
** For further information, refer to Steel Joist Institute Technical Digest
#6, "Structural Design of Steel Joist Roofs to Resist Uplift Loads".
204.14 INSPECTION
Joists shall be inspected by the manufacturer before
shipment to insure compliance of materials and
workmanship with the requirements of these
specifications. If the purchaser wishes an inspection of
the steel joists by someone other than the
manufacturer's own inspectors, he may reserve the right
to do so in the "Invitation to Bid" or the accompanying
"Job Specifications". Arrangements shall be made with
the manufacturer for such inspection of the joists at the
manufacturing facility by the purchaser's inspectors at
purchaser's expense.
*Last two digits of designation shown in load table.
(e) Wood Nailers
It is not recommended that SLH-Series joists be
used in conjunction with wood nailers.
(f) Joist With Standing Seam Roofing
The stiffness and strength of standing-seam roof clips
varies from one manufacturer to another. Therefore,
some roof systems cannot be counted on to provide lateral stability to the joists which support the roof. Sufficient stability must be provided to brace the joists
laterally under the full design load. The compression
chord must resist the chord axial design force in the
plane of the joist (i.e., x-x axis buckling) and out of the
plane of the joist (i.e., y-y axis buckling). Out of plane
strength may be achieved by adjusting the bridging
spacing and/or increasing the compression chord area,
the joist depth, and the y-axis radius of gyration. The effective slenderness ratio in the y-direction equals 0.94
L/ry; where L is the bridging spacing. The maximum
bridging spacing may not exceed that specified in Section 204.6d.
SECTION 205.
HANDLING AND ERECTION*
Particular attention should be paid to the erection of
Super Longspan Steel Joists.
Care shall be exercised at all times to avoid damage
through careless handling during unloading, storing, and
erecting. Dropping of joists shall not be permitted.
Each joist shall be adequately braced laterally before any
loads are applied. If lateral support is provided by bridging,
the bridging lines must be anchored to prevent lateral
movement.
Hoisting cables attached at a panel point approximately 1/5
of the span from each end will minimize erection stresses in
the steel joist. The angle of the hoisting cables from the
vertical shall not exceed 30 degrees. Two cranes are
recommended for spans greater than 150 feet.
204.11 DEFLECTION
The deflection due to the design live load shall not
exceed the following:
Roofs
l/360 of span where plaster ceiling is attached or
suspended.
l/240 of span for all other cases.
The specifying engineer or architect shall give due
consideration to the effects of deflection in selection of
joists.
204.12 PONDING
Unless a roof surface is provided with sufficient slope
toward points of free drainage or adequate individual
drains to prevent the accumulation of rain water, the roof
system shall be investigated to assure stability under
ponding conditions in accordance with Section K2
(Allowable Stress Design) of the AISC Specifications.*
A top chord pitch of 1/4" or more per foot is
recommended to minimize ponding.
The ponding investigation shall be performed by the
specifying engineer or architect.
Hoisting cables shall not be released until all
bridging lines are installed. For ease of alignment,
anchorage of joist ends in accordance with Section
204.8 should follow the installation of bridging. During the
construction period, the contractor shall provide means
for the adequate distribution of concentrated loads so the
carrying capacity of any joist is not exceeded.
* For further information, refer to Steel Joist Institute Technical Digest
#3, "Structural Design of Steel Joist Roofs to Resist Ponding Loads".
* For thorough coverage of this topic, refer to the Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #9, "Handling and Erection of Steel Joists and
Girders”.
88
VULCRAFT JOIST GIRDERS
WHAT ARE JOIST GIRDERS?
Joist girders are primary framing members. The design
is simple span, supporting equally spaced concentrated
loads from open web steel joists. These concentrated
loads are considered to act at the panel points of the joist
girder.
AFTER THE APPLICATION OF THE DEAD LOADS.
THE JOIST GIRDER IS THEN NO LONGER SIMPLY
SUPPORTED AND THE SYSTEM MUST BE
INVESTIGATED FOR CONTINUOUS FRAME ACTION
BY THE SPECIFYING PROFESSIONAL.
Joist girders are designed to allow for the efficient use of
steel in longer spans for primary framing members.
Joist girders along the perimeter, with joists coming in
from one side only, and those with unbalanced loads
must be designed such that the reactions pass through
the center of the joist girder.
The following weight tables list joist girders from 20" to
96" deep and spans up to 100 feet. (For depths and
lengths not listed contact Vulcraft.) The depth designation
is determined by the nominal depth at the center of the
span, except for offset double pitched girders, where the
depth is determined at the ridge.
The weight tables list the approximate weight per
linear foot for a joist girder supporting the panel point
loads given by the specifying engineer. NOTE: THE
WEIGHT OF THE JOIST GIRDER MUST BE
INCLUDED IN THE PANEL POINT LOAD. (SEE THE
EXAMPLE ON PAGE 101).
The standard configuration of a joist girder is parallel
chord with underslung ends and bottom chord
extensions. (Joist girders can be furnished in other
configurations, see below.) The standard depth of
bearing for joist girders is 7 1/2 inches at the end of the
bearing seat.*
For calculating the approximate deflection or checking
ponding the following formula may be used in
determining the approximate moment of inertia of the
joist girder. IJG = 0.027 NPLd
Where N = number of joist spaces, P = panel point load
in kips, L = joist girder length in feet and d = effective
depth of the joist girder in inches. Contact Vulcraft if a
more exact joist girder moment of inertia must be known.
The standard method of connecting girders to columns is
two 3/4" diameter A325 bolts. A loose connection of the
lower chord to the column or other support is required
during erection in order to stabilize the lower chord
laterally and to help brace the joist girder against
overturning. CAUTION: IF A RIGID CONNECTION OF
THE BOTTOM CHORD IS TO BE MADE TO COLUMN
OR OTHER SUPPORT, IT IS TO BE MADE ONLY
*Increase seat depth to 10” if weight of joist girder
appears to the right of the stepped blue lines in the
weight tables.
OTHER CONFIGURATIONS
G TYPE
AVAILABLE ARE:
DOUBLE PITCH TC, UNDERSLUNG
SINGLE PITCH TC, UNDERSLUNG
OFFSET DOUBLE PITCH TC, UNDERSLUNG
VG TYPE
SEE PAGE 101
FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE
BG TYPE
89
NOTE: JOIST GIRDER WEB
CONFIGURATION MAY
VARY FROM THAT SHOWN.
IF EXACT CONFIGURATION
IS REQUIRED CONTACT
VULCRAFT.
JOIST GIRDER DETAIL (a)
BOTTOM CHORD BRACE
SEE PAGE 93 FOR MOMENT CONNECTION DETAILS
JOIST GIRDER NOTES
(d) Joist Girder bottom chord struts do not require
welding to the stabilizer plate unless required by
design to transmit horizontal forces. When welding is
required, the amount of weld should be specified by
the specifying professional. UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED, BOTTOM CHORD STRUTS SHOULD
NOT BE WELDED.
(a) All Joist Girder dimensions shown are subject to
change when required by the physical size of large
Joist Girders. If changes are necessary Vulcraft will
so note on the placement plans.
(b) The standard connection for Joist Girders to columns
is 13/16 inch slots for 3/4 inch bolts in girder
bearings. The girder erection bolts are by others.
If the specifying professional wishes to use the Joist
Girder bearing to transmit horizontal loads, the
required amount of weld to connect the Joist Girder
seat to the column should be specified. For
additional information see the section of this catalog
"JOIST GIRDERS IN MOMENT RESISTIVE
FRAMES." (page 92)
(e) Joists are connected to the girder by welding except
that the joists at (or nearest) the column shall also be
bolted (O.S.H.A. Sec. 1910.12 Construction
Standards Sec 1518.751).
(f) The l/ry of the bottom chord of the Joist Girder cannot
exceed 240. For STANDARD Joist Girders, the
specifying engineer can use the "Joist Girder Bottom
Chord Brace Chart" in conjunction with the "Design
Guide Weight Table/Joist Girders, G Series" to select
the correct number of bottom chord braces. Joist
Girders which must resist uplift, end moments, or
axial bottom chord forces may require additional
braces.
(c) Stabilizer plates between bottom chord angles
stabilize the bottom chord laterally and brace the
Joist Girder against overturning during erection.
(Refer to 1004.4)
90
JOIST GIRDER NOTES
the compression load in the bottom chord, Vulcraft will
indicate their location on the placement plans. Bottom
chord braces may be either welded or bolted to the
girder, but are typically welded to the joist.
If fixed end moments or uplift are present, the specifying
professional should also specify bottom chord braces to
be designed and furnished by the joist girder
manufacturer. If any additional braces are required due to
JOIST GIRDER BOTTOM CHORD BRACE CHART*
SPAN IN FEET
NO BC BRACES
ONE BC BRACE
TWO BC BRACES
@ CENTERLINE
@ 1/3 POINTS
0' to 24'
>24' to 49'
>49' to 73'
0' to 28'
>28' to 57'
>57' to 85'
0' to 32'
>32' to 65'
>65' to 97'
0' to 36'
>36 to 73'
>73' to 110'
0' to 41'
>41' to 82'
>82' to 123'
0' to 49'
>49' to 98'
>98' to 147'
0' to 57'
>57' to 114'
>114' to 171'
JOIST GIRDER
WEIGHT/FT
0-22
23-30
31-45
46-66
67-87
88-135
136-173
* The bottom chords must be restrained in accordance with Section 1004.5 of The SJI Specifications.
ECONOMY TIPS
1. Designate Joist Girder with exact load required,
such as 60G8N11.2K.
the exact depth, span and loading that best suits
the building.
2. If Joist Girder depth is limited below the optimum
depth as shown in the weight tables, use the
maximum depth permitted by the building system:
such as 53G8N12K (odd depths can be designed
and furnished).
4. A Joist Girder depth in inches approximately equal
to the span in feet is often a good combination for
economy.
5. The specifying professional is urged to investigate
several combinations of bay sizes and joist spaces to
find the most economical combination.
3. The Joist Girder designations shown in the weight
guide are typical types included only as a guide.
The specifying professional is encouraged to specify
ROOF SYSTEM WEIGHT FOR RECOMMENDED BAY SIZES
Table G-1
BAY SIZE
Joist
Span
40'
40'
40'
45'
45'
45'
50'
50'
50'
Girder
Span
40'
50'
60'
40'
50'
60'
40'
50'
60'
6. The following table illustrates the economy possible
using this system.
35 (PSF)
1.69 +
1.73 +
1.69 +
1.89 +
1.98 +
1.89 +
2.19 +
2.21 +
2.19 +
.75 = 2.44
.95 = 2.68
1.13 = 2.82
.71 = 2.60
.96 = 2.94
1.16 = 3.05
.72 = 2.91
.92 = 3.13
1.12 = 3.31
Weight of joists* + Girders** = Total (PSF)***
Design Load (PSF)
40 (PSF)
45 (PSF)
1.78 +
1.90 +
1.78 +
2.04 +
2.11 +
2.04 +
2.28 +
2.43 +
2.28 +
.83 = 2.61
1.08 = 2.98
1.30 = 3.08
.80 = 2.84
1.09 = 3.20
1.24 = 3.28
.80 = 3.08
1.00 = 3.43
1.22 = 3.50
1.90 +
2.02 +
1.90 +
2.14 +
2.22 +
2.14 +
2.53 +
2.61 +
2.53 +
.90 = 2.80
1.18 = 3.20
1.40 = 3.30
.89 = 3.03
1.16 = 3.38
1.38 = 3.52
.86 = 3.39
1.12 = 3.73
1.34 = 3.87
50 (PSF)
2.07 + 1.03 = 3.10
2.13 + 1.28 = 3.41
2.07 + 1.53 = 3.60
2.41 + .96 = 3.37
2.40 + 1.29 = 3.69
2.41 + 1.49 = 3.90
2.80 + 1.06 = 3.86
2.70 + 1.20 = 3.90
2.80 + 1.50 = 4.30
Joist
Space
(Ft.)
Girder
Depth
(In.)
6.67
6.25
6.67
6.67
6.25
6.67
6.67
6.25
6.67
48
60
72
48
60
72
48
60
72
* Weight of joists in pounds per square foot.
** Weight of the joist girders in pounds per square foot.
*** Total weight of joists and joist girders in pounds per square foot.
The larger bay sizes become more economical as the column heights increase and in localities with high erection labor
costs. Larger bays speed construction by reducing the number of pieces and therefore the number of crane lifts.
Encasing the columns for fire proofing or decoration also makes the larger bays more attractive.
91
JOIST GIRDERS IN MOMENT RESISTANT FRAMES
If the axial load due only to the wind moment does not
exceed the values in Table 1, a strap angle connecting
the Joist Girders together as shown in Figure 2 can be
used to resist the continuity moments, By tying the
Joist Girder ends together, the Joist Girder-to-cap
plate connection need only resist the wind loads, the
strap angles do not transfer wind moments. The
design of such a strap angle to resist the continuity
moments is the responsibility of the specifying
professional.
When a Joist Girder is used as a component of a
moment resistive frame, both the design wind moment
and any continuity (usually live load) moment must be
specified for each end of each affected Joist Girder.
Provided this information, Vulcraft will design the Joist
Girder as a simply supported truss for full gravity
loading. The "fixed end" moments are then applied to
the Joist Girder. Using the appropriate combinations of
the gravity loads, the wind moments, and/or the
continuity moments, the critical member stresses are
identified and the Joist Girder members are sized
accordingly.
The Specifying Professional shall clarify when
allowable stresses are permitted to be increased or
load combinations reduced. (Vulcraft does not
design the Joist Girder for any dead load moments
unless specifically instructed to do so on the
structural drawings.) For this reason it is very
important that on the structural drawings the
specifying professional specify that all dead loads be
applied to the Joist Girders before the bottom chord
struts are welded to the stabilizer plates.
When the end moments on the Joist Girders are too
large for the seat to resist, it is necessary to utilize a
moment plate as shown in Details A-F. The use of this
simple moment plate virtually eliminates all
eccentricity problems.
One of the most important considerations of using a
Joist Girder in a moment resistive frame is the
connection of the Joist Girder to the column. As with a
beam connection, special provisions must be made to
develop the required moment capacity. As can be
readily seen in Figure 1, the use of a standard Joist
Girder seat results in an eccentric moment due to the
depth of the seat. This moment must be resisted by
the weld group connecting the Joist Girder seat to the
cap plate of the column.
By using the equations and Table 2 below, the
specifying professional can determine the minimum
Joist Girder top chord width for most Joist Girders. If
the end moments are very large, the Joist Girder loads
and/or spacings vary, or other special conditions exist,
a more exact analysis is required. Once the Joist
Girder top chord width is known, the specifying
professional can easily size the moment plate and its
weld requirements to complete the connection detail.
EQUATION 1 (ODD NO. OF JOIST SPACES)
A=
. 028P
(N2S - .67N + .67 - S)
D
EQUATION 2 (EVEN NO. OF JOIST SPACES)
. 028P
(N2S - .67N + .67)
D
Where:
P = Panel point load (kips)
N = No. of joist spaces
S = Joist spacing (ft.)
D = Joist Girder depth (in.)
A=
Vulcraft has done extensive testing of the maximum
eccentric top chord force capacity for joist girders. Based
on this test program, the maximum horizontal load for 7.5
inch deep seats are presented in Table 1 (below)
A
0.95 - 1.19
1.20 - 1.78
1.79 - 2.48
2.49 - 3.75
3.76 - 4.76
4.78 - 8.44
Greater than 8.44
Table 1
Table 2*
Minimum Top Chord Width
6"
7"
8"
9"
11"
13"
Consult Vulcraft
Please note that this chart is to be used only for
designing moment plates. It is not intended for
use as a general detailing aid.
*These values are based on using 3/4 inch A325 bolts and a minimum
of two 1/4 inch fillet welds 5 inches long along the sides of the seat.
Vulcraft must be notified of seat forces for final seat design.
*The bearing seat width may be larger than the top
chord width. Contact Vulcraft if seat width is needed for
determining column plate sizes.
92
MOMENT CONNECTION DETAILS
Presented below are six suggested details for a moment
resistive connection involving roof Joist Girders. Similar
details should be utilized for longspan joists with end
moments. In all cases, the bottom chord is to be
connected to the column with a vertical stabilizer plate
which is to be sized to carry the required load and obtain
required weld (use 6 x 6 x 3/4 plate minimum for Joist
Girders).
3 1/2" MIN. FOR
SHORTSPAN. VARIES
FOR LONGSPAN
AS REQ'D TO
PROVIDE 1/2" CLEAR
TO CAP PLATE
A
B
C
KNIFE PLATE
A
MOMENT
PLATE
A
TOP CHORD EXTENSION
FOR DECK SUPPORT
OVER MOMENT PLATE
MOMENT PLATE
GIRDER SEAT NOT
SHOWN FOR CLARITY
A—A
D
E
*WELD WIDTH &
PLATE MUST NOT
EXCEED 1"
F
NOTES:
(1) Connections type B & C would also be recommended for floor girder details.
(2) Where a backer bar is required for groove welds, additional clearance must be provided when determining girder hold back dimension.
(3) Similar details would apply at other types of columns.
(4) Additional stiffener plates as required not shown for clarity.
(5) In all details, moment plate design and material is not by Vulcraft.
93
American National Standard SJI-JG–1.1
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
FOR JOIST GIRDERS
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute November 4, 1985
Revised to November 10, 2003 - Effective March 01, 2005
SECTION 1000.
SECTION 1002.
SCOPE
MATERIALS
1002.1 STEEL
This specification covers the design, manufacture and use
of Joist Girders. Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD) and Allowable Strength Design (ASD) are included
in this specification.
The steel used in the manufacture of chord and web sections
shall conform to one of the following ASTM Specifications:
• Carbon Structural Steel, ASTM A36/A36M.
• High-Strength, Low-Alloy Structural Steel, ASTM
A242/A242M.
SECTION 1001.
DEFINITION
• High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel of Structural
Quality ASTM A529/A529M, Grade 50.
The term “Joist Girders”, as used herein, refers to open web,
load-carrying members utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed
steel, including cold-formed steel whose yield strength* has
been attained by cold working.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural
Steel, ASTM A572/A572M Grade 42 and 50.
• High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi
(345 MPa) Minimum Yield Point to 4 inches (100 mm)
Thick, ASTM A588/A588M.
The design of Joist Girder chord and web sections shall be
based on a yield strength of at least 36 ksi (250 MPa), but
not greater than 50 ksi (345 MPa). Steel used for Joist
Girder chord or web sections shall have a minimum yield
strength determined in accordance with one of the procedures specified in Section 1002.2, which is equal to the yield
strength assumed in the design. Joist Girders shall be
designed in accordance with this specification to support
panel point loadings.
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, High-Strength, Low-Alloy, HotRolled and Cold-Rolled, with Improved Corrosion
Resistance, ASTM A606.
• Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, HighStrength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy with
Improved Formability, ASTM A1008/A1008M.
• Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural,
High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy
with Improved Formability, ASTM A1011/A1011M.
* The term “Yield Strength” as used herein shall designate
the yield level of a material as determined by the applicable method outlined in paragraph 13.1, “Yield Point”
and in paragraph 13.2, “Yield Strength”, of ASTM Standard A370, “Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products”, or as
specified in Section 1002.2 of this Specification.
or shall be of suitable quality ordered or produced to other
than the listed specifications, provided that such material in
the state used for final assembly and manufacture is weldable
and is proved by tests performed by the producer or manufacturer to have the properties specified in Section 1002.2.
1002.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
The yield strength used as a basis for the design stresses
prescribed in Section 1003 shall be at least 36 ksi (250
MPa), but shall not be greater than 50 ksi (345 MPa).
Evidence that the steel furnished meets or exceeds the
design yield strength shall, if requested, be provided in the
form of an affidavit or by witnessed or certified test reports.
For material used without consideration of increase in yield
strength resulting from cold forming, the specimens shall be
taken from as-rolled material. In the case of material properties of which conform to the requirements of one of the listed
specifications, the test specimens and procedures shall conform to those of such specifications and to ASTM A370.
Standard Specifications and Weight Tables for Joist
Girders
Steel Joist Institute - Copyright 2005
94
JOIST GIRDERS
b) For connected members both having a specified minimum yield strength of 36 ksi (250 MPa) or one having a
specified minimum yield strength of 36 ksi (250 MPa),
and the other having a specified minimum yield strength
greater than 36 ksi (250 MPa).
In the case of material the mechanical properties of which do
not conform to the requirements of one of the listed specifications, the test specimens and procedures shall conform to the
applicable requirements of ASTM A370 and the specimens
shall exhibit a yield strength equal to or exceeding the design
yield strength and an elongation of not less than (a) 20 percent
in 2 inches (51 millimeters) for sheet and strip, or (b) 18 percent
in 8 inches (203 millimeters) for plates, shapes and bars with
adjustments for thickness for plates, shapes and bars as prescribed in ASTM A36/A36M, A242/A242M, A529/A529M,
A572/A572M, A588/A588M, whichever specification is applicable on the basis of design yield strength.
AWS A5.1: E60XX
AWS A5.17: F6XX-EXXX, F6XX-ECXXX flux electrode
combination
AWS A5.20: E6XT-X, E6XT-XM
AWS A5.29: E6XTX-X, E6XT-XM
or any of those listed in Section 1002.3(a).
Other welding methods, providing equivalent strength as
demonstrated by tests, may be used.
The number of tests shall be as prescribed in ASTM A6/A6M
for plates, shapes, and bars; and ASTM A606,
A1008/A1008M and A1011/A1011M for sheet and strip.
1002.4 PAINT
If as-formed strength is utilized, the test reports shall show
the results of tests performed on full section specimens in
accordance with the provisions of the AISI Specifications for
the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members and
shall indicate compliance with these provisions and with the
following additional requirements:
The standard shop paint is intended to protect the steel for
only a short period of exposure in ordinary atmospheric conditions and shall be considered an impermanent and provisional coating.
a) The yield strength calculated from the test data shall
equal or exceed the design yield strength.
a) Steel Structures Painting Council Specification, SSPC
No. 15
b) Where tension tests are made for acceptance and control
purposes, the tensile strength shall be at least 6 percent
greater than the yield strength of the section.
b) Or, shall be a shop paint which meets the minimum performance requirements of the above listed specification.
When specified, the standard shop paint shall conform to
one of the following:
SECTION 1003.
c) Where compression tests are used for acceptance and
control purposes, the specimen shall withstand a gross
shortening of 2 percent of its original length without
cracking. The length of the specimen shall not be greater
than 20 times its least radius of gyration.
DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURE
1003.1 METHOD
d) If any test specimen fails to pass the requirements of the
subparagraphs (a), (b), or (c) above, as applicable, two
retests shall be made of specimens from the same lot.
Failure of one of the retest specimens to meet such
requirements shall be the cause for rejection of the lot
represented by the specimens.
Joist Girders shall be designed in accordance with this specification as simply supported primary members. All loads
shall be applied through steel joists, and will be equal in
magnitude and evenly spaced along the joist girder top
chord. Where any applicable design feature is not specifically covered herein, the design shall be in accordance with
the following specifications:
1002.3 WELDING ELECTRODES
The following electrodes shall be used for arc welding:
a) Where the steel used consists of hot-rolled shapes, bars
or plates, use the American Institute of Steel
Construction, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.
a) For connected members both having a specified yield
strength greater than 36 ksi (250 MPa).
AWS A5.1: E70XX
AWS A5.5: E70XX-X
AWS A5.17: F7XX-EXXX, F7XX-ECXXX flux electrode
combination
AWS A5.18: ER70S-X, E70C-XC, E70C-XM
AWS A5.20: E7XT-X, E7XT-XM
AWS A5.23: F7XX-EXXX-XX, F7XX-ECXXX-XX
AWS A5.28: ER70S-XXX, E70C-XXX
AWS A5.29: E7XTX-X, E7XTX-XM
b) For members that are cold-formed from sheet or strip
steel, use the American Iron and Steel Institute, North
American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members.
Design Basis:
Designs shall be made according to the provisions in this
Specification for either Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD) or for Allowable Strength Design (ASD).
95
JOIST GIRDERS
Load Combinations:
Stresses:
(a) Tension: φt = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω t = 1.67 (ASD)
LRFD:
For Chords: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
When load combinations are not specified to the joist manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed for the factored loads based on the factors and load combinations as
follows:
For Webs: Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
Design Stress = 0.9Fy (LRFD)
(1003.2-1)
(b) Compression: φc = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω c = 1.67 (ASD)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fy (ASD)
1.4D
ASD:
1.2D + 1.6 ( L, or Lr, or S, or R )
For members with l
When load combinations are not specified to the joist manufacturer, the required stress shall be computed based on
the load combinations as follows:
r
≤ 4.71
D
Fcr = Q 0.658
D + ( L, or Lr, or S, or R )
(1003.2-2)
E
QFy
QFy
Fe
Where:
Fy
(1003.2-3)
D = dead load due to the weight of the structural elements
and the permanent features of the structure
For members with l
r
> 4.71
E
QFy
L = live load due to occupancy and movable equipment
Fcr = 0.877Fe
Lr = roof live load
(1003.2-4)
S = snow load
Where Fe = Elastic bucking stress determined in
accordance with Equation 1003.2-5.
R = load due to initial rainwater or ice exclusive of the
ponding contribution
When special loads are specified and the specifying professional does not provide the load combinations, the provisions of ASCE 7, “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures” shall be used for LRFD and ASD load
combinations.
r
For hot-rolled sections, “Q” is the full reduction factor for
slender compression elements.
Design Using Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Joist Girders shall have their components so proportioned
that the required stresses, fu, shall not exceed φ Fn where,
=
required stress
ksi (MPa)
Fn
=
nominal stress
ksi (MPa)
=
resistance factor
φ
φ Fn =
Design Using Allowable Strength Design (ASD)
required stress
ksi (MPa)
Fn
=
nominal stress
ksi (MPa)
=
safety factor
Ω
Fn/Ω =
(1003.2-6)
Allowable Stress = 0.6Fcr (ASD)
(1003.2-7)
Use 1.2 l/rx for a crimped, first primary compression web
member when a moment-resistant weld group is not used
for this member; where rx = member radius of gyration in
the plane of the joist.
Joist Girders shall have their components so proportioned
that the required stresses, f, shall not exceed Fn /Ω where,
=
Design Stress = 0.9Fcr (LRFD)
In the above equations, l is taken as the distance, in
inches (millimeters), between panel points for the chord
members and the appropriate length for web members,
and r is the corresponding least radius of gyration of the
member or any component thereof. E is equal to 29,000 ksi
(200,000 MPa).
design stress
f
(1003.2-5)
l
1003.2 DESIGN AND ALLOWABLE STRESSES
fu
π E2
2
Fe =
For cold-formed sections, the method of calculating the
nominal column strength is given in the AISI, North
American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members.
allowable stress
96
JOIST GIRDERS
(c) Bending: φb = 0.90 (LRFD) Ω b = 1.67 (ASD)
chord about its vertical axis shall not be less than l/240
where l is the distance between lines of bracing.
Bending calculations are to be based on using the elastic
section modulus.
The top chord shall be designed as an axial loaded compression member. The radius of gyration of the top chord
about the vertical axis shall not be less than Span/575.
For chords and web members other than solid rounds:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa)
Design Stress = 0.90Fy (LRFD)
(1003.2-8)
Allowable Stress = 0.60Fy (ASD)
(1003.2-9)
The top chord shall be considered as stayed laterally by
the steel joists provided positive attachment is made.
(b) Web
For web members of solid round cross section:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
Design Stress = 1.45Fy (LRFD)
(1003.2-10)
Allowable Stress = 0.95Fy (ASD)
(1003.2-11)
The vertical shears to be used in the design of the web
members shall be determined from full loading, but such
vertical shear shall be not less than 25 percent of the end
reaction.
Interior vertical web members used in modified Warren
type web systems that do not support the direct loads
through steel joists shall be designed to resist an axial
load of 2 percent of the top chord axial force.
For bearing plates:
Fy = 50 ksi (345 MPa), or Fy = 36 ksi (250 MPa)
Design Stress = 1.35Fy (LRFD)
(d) Weld Strength:
Allowable Stress = 0.90Fy (ASD)
(1003.2-12)
(1003.2-13)
Tension members shall be designed to resist at least 25
percent of their axial force in compression.
(c) Fillers and Ties
Shear at throat of fillet welds:
LRFD: φw = 0.75
In compression members composed of two components,
when fillers, ties or welds are used, they shall be spaced
so the l/r ratio for each component does not exceed the
l/r ratio of the member as a whole. In tension members
composed of two components, when fillers, ties or welds
are used, they shall be spaced so that the l/r ratio of
each component does not exceed 240. The least radius
of gyration shall be used in computing the l/r ratio of a
component.
Nominal Shear Stress = Fnw = 0.6Fexx (1003.2-14)
Design Shear Strength =
φRn = φwFnw A = 0.45Fexx A
ASD: Ω w = 2.0
Allowable Shear Strength =
Rn / Ω w = Fnw A / Ω w = 0.3Fexx A
(1003.2-15)
(1003.2-16)
(d) Eccentricity
A = effective throat area
Made with E70 series electrodes or F7XX-EXXX fluxelectrode combinations ..............Fexx = 70 ksi (483 MPa)
Members connected at a joint shall have their center of
gravity lines meet at a point, if practical. Eccentricity on
either side of the centroid of chord members may be neglected when it does not exceed the distance between the
centroid and the back of the chord. Otherwise, provision
shall be made for the stresses due to eccentricity. Ends of
Joist Girders shall be proportioned to resist bending produced by eccentricity at the support.
Made with E60 series electrodes or F6XX-EXXX fluxelectrode combinations ..............Fexx = 60 ksi (414 MPa)
Tension or compression on groove or butt welds shall be
the same as those specified for the connected material.
1003.3 MAXIMUM SLENDERNESS RATIOS
The slenderness ratio l/r, where l is the length center-tocenter of support points and r is the corresponding least
radius of gyration, shall not exceed the following:
In those cases where a single angle compression member is attached to the outside of the stem of a tee or double angle chord, due consideration shall be given to
eccentricity.
(e) Extended Ends
Top chord interior panels .................................. 90
Top chord end panels ..................................... 120
Extended top chords or full depth cantilever ends require
the special attention of the specifying professional. The
magnitude and location of the loads to be supported, deflection requirements, and proper bracing shall be clearly
indicated on the structural drawings.
Compression members other than top chord ......... 200
1003.4 MEMBERS
Tension members .......................................... 240
(a) Chords
The bottom chord shall be designed as an axially loaded
tension member. The radius of gyration of the bottom
97
JOIST GIRDERS
1003.5 CONNECTIONS
(c) Field Splices
(a) Methods
Field Splices shall be designed by the manufacturer
and may be either bolted or welded. Splices shall be
designed for the member force, but not less than 50 percent of the member strength.
Joint connections and splices shall be made by attaching the members to one another by arc or resistance
welding or other accredited methods.
1003.6 CAMBER
(1) Welded Connections
Joist Girders shall have approximate cambers in accordance with the following:
a) Selected welds shall be inspected visually by the
manufacturer. Prior to this inspection, weld slag
shall be removed.
TABLE 1003.6-1
Top Chord Length
b) Cracks are not acceptable and shall be repaired.
Approximate Camber
c) Thorough fusion shall exist between layers of
weld metal and between weld metal and base
metal for the required design length of the weld;
such fusion shall be verified by visual inspection.
20'-0"
(6096 mm)
1/4"
(6 mm)
30'-0"
(9144 mm)
3/8"
(10 mm)
40'-0"
(12192 mm)
5/8"
(16 mm)
d) Unfilled weld craters shall not be included in the
design length of the weld.
50'-0"
(15240 mm)
1"
(25 mm)
60'-0"
(18288 mm)
1 1/2"
(38 mm)
e) Undercut shall not exceed 1/16 inch (2 millimeters) for welds oriented parallel to the principal
stress.
70'-0"
(21336 mm)
2"
(51 mm)
80'-0"
(24384 mm)
2 3/4"
(70 mm)
f) The sum of surface (piping) porosity diameters shall
not exceed 1/16 inch (2 millimeters) in any 1 inch
(25 millimeters) of design weld length.
90'-0"
(27342 mm)
3 1/2"
(89 mm)
100'-0"
(30480 mm)
4 1/4"
(108 mm)
110'-0"
(33528 mm)
5"
(127 mm)
120'-0"
(36576 mm)
6"
(152 mm)
g) Weld spatter that does not interfere with paint coverage is acceptable.
The specifying professional shall give consideration to coordinating Joist Girder camber with adjacent framing.
(2) Welding Program
1003.7 VERIFICATION OF DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
Manufacturers shall have a program for establishing
weld procedures and operator qualification, and for
weld sampling and testing.
(a) Design Calculations
Companies manufacturing Joist Girders shall submit
design data to the Steel Joist Institute (or an independent
agency approved by the Steel Joist Institute) for verification
of compliance with the SJI Specifications.
(3) Weld Inspection by Outside Agencies (See Section
1004.10 of this specification).
The agency shall arrange for visual inspection to determine that welds meet the acceptance standards of
Section 1003.5(a)(1). Ultrasonic, X-Ray, and magnetic
particle testing are inappropriate for Joists Girders due to
the configurations of the components and welds.
(b) In-Plant Inspections
Each manufacturer shall verify their ability to manufacture Joist Girders through periodic In-Plant Inspections.
Inspections shall be performed by an independent
agency approved by the Steel Joist Institute. The frequency, manner of inspection, and manner of reporting
shall be determined by the Steel Joist Institute. The InPlant Inspections are not a guarantee of the quality of
any specific Joist Girder; this responsibility lies fully and
solely with the individual manufacturer.
(b) Strength
(1) Joint Connections – Joint connections shall develop
the maximum force due to any of the design loads,
but not less than 50 percent of the strength of the
member in tension or compression, whichever force is
the controlling factor in the selection of the member.
(2) Shop Splices - Shop splices may occur at any point
in chord or web members. Splices shall be designed
for the member force but not less than 50 percent of
the member strength. Members containing a butt
weld splice shall develop an ultimate tensile force of
at least 57 ksi (393 MPa) times the full design area of
the chord or web. The term “member” shall be
defined as all component parts comprising the chord
or web, at the point of splice.
98
JOIST GIRDERS
specifying professional. The girders must bear a minimum
of 4 inches (102 millimeters) on the steel bearing plate.
SECTION 1004.
(b) Steel
APPLICATION
1004.1 USAGE
Due consideration of the end reactions and all other vertical and lateral forces shall be taken by the specifying
professional in the design of the steel support. The ends
of Joist Girders shall extend a distance of not less than
4 inches (102 millimeters) over the steel supports and
shall have positive attachment to the support, either by
bolting or welding.
This specification shall apply to any type of structure where
steel joists are to be supported directly by Joist Girders
installed as hereinafter specified. Where Joist Girders are
used other than on simple spans under equal concentrated
gravity loading, as prescribed in Section 1003.1, they shall
be investigated and modified if necessary to limit the unit
stresses to those listed in Section 1003.2. The magnitude
and location of all loads and forces, other than equal concentrated gravity loading, shall be provided on the structural
drawings. The specifying professional shall design the supporting structure, including the design of columns, connections, and moment plates*. This design shall account for the
stresses caused by lateral forces and the stresses due to
connecting the bottom chord to the column or other support.
1004.5 BRACING
Joist Girders shall be proportioned such that they can be
erected without bridging (See Section 1004.9 for bracing
required for uplift forces). Therefore, the following requirements must be met:
a) The ends of the bottom chord are restrained from lateral movement to brace the girder from overturning.
For Joist Girders at columns in steel frames, restraint
shall be provided by a stabilizer plate on the column.
The designed detail of a rigid type connection and moment
plates shall be shown on the structural drawings by the
specifying professional. The moment plates shall be furnished by other than the joist manufacturer.
b) No other loads shall be placed on the Joist Girder until
the steel joists bearing on the girder are in place and
welded to the girder.
1004.6 END ANCHORAGE
(a) Masonry and Concrete
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #11, “Design of Joist-Girder Frames”
1004.2 SPAN
Ends of Joist Girders resting on steel bearing plates on
masonry or structural concrete shall be attached thereto
with a minimum of two 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) fillet welds
2 inches (51 millimeters) long, or with two 3/4 inch (19
millimeters) bolts, or the equivalent.
1004.3 DEPTH
The span of a Joist Girder shall not exceed 24 times its depth.
Joist Girders may have either parallel top chords or a top
chord slope of 1/8 inch per foot (1:96). The nominal depth of
sloping chord Joist Girders shall be the depth at mid-span.
(b) Steel
1004.4 END SUPPORTS
Ends of Joist Girders resting on steel supports shall be
attached thereto with a minimum of two 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) fillet welds 2 inches (51 millimeters) long, or
with two 3/4 inch (19 millimeters) bolts, or the equivalent.
In steel frames, bearing seats for Joist Girders shall be
fabricated to allow for field bolting.
(a) Masonry and Concrete
Joist Girders supported by masonry or concrete are to bear
on steel bearing plates and shall be designed as steel bearing. Due consideration of the end reactions and all other
vertical and lateral forces shall be taken by the specifying
professional in the design of the steel bearing plate and the
masonry or concrete. The ends of Joist Girders shall
extend a distance of not less than 6 inches (152 millimeters)
over the masonry or concrete support and be anchored to
the steel bearing plate. The plate shall be located not more
than 1/2 inch (13 millimeters) from the face of the wall and
shall be not less than 9 inches (229 millimeters) wide perpendicular to the length of the girder. The plate is to be
designed by the specifying professional and shall be furnished by other than the joist manufacturer.
(c) Uplift
Where uplift forces are a design consideration, roof Joist
Girders shall be anchored to resist such forces (Refer to
Section 1004.9).
1004.7 DEFLECTION
The deflections due to the design live load shall not exceed
the following:
Floors: 1/360 of span.
Roofs: 1/360 of span where a plaster ceiling is attached
or suspended.
Where it is deemed necessary to bear less than 6 inches
(152 millimeters) over the masonry or concrete support,
special consideration is to be given to the design of the
steel bearing plate and the masonry or concrete by the
1/240 of span for all other cases.
The specifying professional shall give consideration to the
99
JOIST GIRDERS
on the Joist Girder the following conditions must be met:
effects of deflection and vibration* in the selection of Joist
Girders.
a) The seat at each end of the Joist Girder is attached in
accordance with Section 1004.6.
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #5, “Vibration of Steel Joist-Concrete
Slab Floors” and the Institute’s Computer Vibration
Program.
When a bolted seat connection is used for erection purposes, as a minimum, the bolts must be snug tightened.
The snug tight condition is defined as the tightness that
exists when all plies of a joint are in firm contact. This
may be attained by a few impacts of an impact wrench
or the full effort of an employee using an ordinary spud
wrench.
1004.8 PONDING*
The ponding investigation shall be performed by the specifying
professional.
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #3, “Structural Design of Steel Joist
R o o f s t o R e s i s t Po n d i n g L o a d s ” a n d A I S C
S pec i fi c ati ons.
b) Where stabilizer plates are required the Joist Girder bottom chord must engage the stabilizer plate.
1004.9 UPLIFT
During the construction period, the contractor shall provide
means for the adequate distribution of loads so that the carrying capacity of any Joist Girder is not exceeded.
Where uplift forces due to wind are a design requirement,
these forces must be indicated on the contract drawings in
terms of NET uplift in pounds per square foot (Pascals). The
contract drawings must indicate if the net uplift is based on
ASD or LRFD. When these forces are specified, they must
be considered in the design of Joist Girders and/or bracing.
If the ends of the bottom chord are not strutted, bracing must
be provided near the first bottom chord panel points whenever uplift due to wind forces is a design consideration.*
Joist Girders shall not be used as anchorage points for a fall
arrest system unless written direction to do so is obtained
from a “qualified person”.(1)
Field welding shall not damage the Joist Girder. The total
length of weld at any one cross-section on cold-formed
members whose yield strength has been attained by cold
working and whose as-formed strength is used in the design, shall not exceed 50 percent of the overall developed
width of the cold-formed section.
* For further reference, refer to Steel Joist Institute
Technical Digest #6, “Structural Design of Steel Joist
Roofs to Resist Uplift Loads”.
* For a thorough coverage of this topic, refer to SJI
Technical Digest #9, “Handling and Erection of Steel
Joists and Joist Girders”.
1004.10 INSPECTION
(1)
Joist Girders shall be inspected by the manufacturer before
shipment to verify compliance of materials and workmanship
with the requirements of this specification. If the purchaser
wishes an inspection of the Joist Girders by someone other
than the manufacturer’s own inspectors, they may reserve
the right to do so in their “Invitation to Bid” or the accompanying “Job Specifications”. Arrangements shall be made
with the manufacturer for such inspection of the Joist
Girders at the manufacturing shop by the purchaser’s
inspectors at purchaser’s expense.
See Appendix E for OSHA definition of “qualified
person”.
SECTION 1006.
HOW TO SPECIFY
JOIST GIRDERS
For a given Joist Girder span, the specifying professional first
determines the number of joist spaces. Then the panel point
loads are calculated and a depth is selected. The following tables give the Joist Girder weight in pounds per linear foot
(kiloNewtons per meter) for various depths and loads.
SECTION 1005.*
HANDLING AND
ERECTION
1. The purpose of the Joist Girder Design Guide Weight Table
is to assist the specifying professional in the selection of a
roof or floor support system.
Particular attention should be paid to the erection of Joist
Girders.
2. It is not necessary to use only the depths, spans, or loads
shown in the tables.
Care shall be exercised at all times to avoid damage through
careless handling during unloading, storing and erecting.
Dropping of Joist Girders shall not be permitted.
3. Holes in chord elements present special problems which
must be considered by both the specifying professional
and the Joist Girder Manufacturer. The sizes and locations
of such holes shall be clearly indicated on the structural
drawings.
In steel framing, where Joist Girders are utilized at column lines,
the Joist Girder shall be field-bolted at the column. Before
hoisting cables are released and before an employee is allowed
100
JOIST GIRDERS
Example using Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD) and U. S. Customary units:
e) Check live load deflection:
Live load = 30 psf x 50 ft = 1500 plf
Approximate Joist Girder moment of inertia
= 0.018 NPLd
= 0.018 x 8 x 17.4 x 42 x 44 = 4630 in.4
Allowable deflection for plastered ceilings
42(12)
= L/360 =
= 1.40 in.
360
Deflection = 1.15
5wL4
384EI
=
1.15(5)(1.500/12)(42x12)4
384(29000)(4630)
= 0.90 in. < 1.40 in., Okay
Given 42'-0" x 50'-0" bay. Joists spaced on 5'-3" centers
Live load deflection rarely governs because of the relatively
small span-depth ratios of Joist Girders.
Example using Allowable Strength Design (ASD) and U. S.
Customary units:
Live Load = 30 psf x 1.6
Dead Load = 15 psf x 1.2
(includes the approximate Joist Girder weight)
Total Load = 66 psf (factored)
Note: Web configuration may vary from that shown. Contact
Joist Girder manufacturer if exact layout must be known.
1. Determine number of actual joist spaces (N).
In this example, N = 8
2. Compute total factored load:
Total load = 5.25 x 66 psf = 346.5 plf
3. Joist Girder Section: (Interior)
a) Compute the factored concentrated load at top chord
panel points
Given 42'-0" x 50'-0" bay. Joists spaced on 5'-3" centers.
P = 346.5 x 50 = 17,325 lbs = 17.4 kips
(use 18K for depth selection).
Live Load = 30 psf
b) Select Joist Girder depth:
Dead Load = 15 psf
(includes the approximate Joist Girder weight)
Refer to the LRFD Joist Girder Design Guide Weight
Table for the 42'-0" span, 8 panel, 18.0K Joist Girder.
The rule of about one inch of depth for each foot of span
is a good compromise of limited depth and economy.
Therefore, select a depth of 44 inches.
Total Load = 45 psf
Note: Web configuration may vary from that shown. Contact
Joist Girder manufacturer if exact layout must be known.
1. Determine number of actual joist spaces (N).
c) The Joist Girder will then be designated 44G8N17.4F.
Note that the letter “F” is included at the end of the designation to clearly indicate that this is a factored load.
In this example, N = 8
2. Compute total load:
d) The LRFD Joist Girder Design Guide Weight Table
shows the weight for a 44G8N17.4K as 49 pounds per
linear foot. The designer should verify that the weight
is not greater than the weight assumed in the Dead
Load above.
Total load = 5.25 x 45 psf = 236.25 plf
3. Joist Girder Section: (Interior)
a) Compute the concentrated load at top chord panel points
P = 236.25 x 50 = 11,813 lbs = 11.9 kips
(use 12K for depth selection).
b) Select Joist Girder depth:
Refer to the ASD Joist Girder Design Guide Weight
Table for the 42'-0" span, 8 panel, 12.0K Joist Girder.
101
JOIST GIRDERS
The rule of about one inch of depth for each foot of
span is a good compromise of limited depth and economy. Therefore, select a depth of 44 inches.
c) The Joist Girder will then be designated 44G8N11.9K.
d) The ASD Joist Girder Design Guide Weight Table
shows the weight for a 44G8N12K as 49 pounds per
linear foot. The designer should verify that the weight
is not greater than the weight assumed in the Dead
Load above.
e) Check live load deflection:
Live load = 30 psf x 50 ft = 1500 plf.
Approximate Joist Girder moment of inertia
= 0.027 NPLd
= 0.027 x 8 x 11.9 x 42 x 44 = 4750 in.4
Allowable deflection for plastered ceilings
42(12)
= L/360 =
= 1.40 in.
360
Deflection = 1.15
1.15(5)(1.500/12)(42x12)4
5wL4
=
384(29000)(4750)
384EI
= 0.88 in. < 1.40 in., Okay
Live load deflection rarely governs because of the relatively
small span-depth ratios of Joist Girders.
102
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
[email protected]
10.00
20
[email protected]
6.67
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
4.00
[email protected]
2.00
[email protected]
11
22
[email protected]
7.33
[email protected]
5.5
[email protected]
3.67
[email protected]
2.00
[email protected]
12.00
[email protected]
8.00
24
[email protected]
6.00
[email protected]
4.8
[email protected]
4.00
[email protected]
2.00
[email protected]
13.00
[email protected]
8.67
26
[email protected]
6.5
[email protected]
5.2
[email protected]
3.71
[email protected]
2.00
Bearing Depth
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
16
20
24
16
20
24
16
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24
16
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24
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16
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24
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24
16
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24
16
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24
20
24
28
20
24
28
20
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28
20
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28
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28
20
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28
20
24
28
20
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20
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20
24
28
16
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16
28
23
21
18
18
19
15
16
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17
16
32
26
24
18
18
19
16
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16
17
16
16
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17
29
27
25
22
23
23
15
16
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17
16
16
20
17
17
42
35
32
16
16
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16
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18
16
16
33
29
25
18
18
19
15
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21
19
17
39
31
28
18
18
19
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17
17
38
31
29
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23
15
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50
43
40
16
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18
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17
17
39
31
28
18
18
19
15
16
16
18
17
16
26
21
19
49
37
32
18
18
19
16
16
16
17
17
16
20
18
17
23
20
20
45
38
33
22
23
23
16
16
16
18
17
16
21
19
17
28
26
22
58
50
48
16
16
16
16
16
17
20
17
16
24
19
19
47
37
32
18
18
19
16
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16
21
18
17
29
26
21
57
43
38
18
18
19
16
16
16
19
18
16
22
20
19
27
23
22
51
45
40
22
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23
16
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21
18
17
25
21
19
33
28
27
70
62
55
16
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22
20
17
26
21
20
54
43
39
18
18
19
17
16
16
24
20
19
35
28
25
64
52
43
18
18
19
16
16
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21
19
17
25
21
20
30
26
25
59
53
45
22
23
23
17
16
16
24
20
19
28
24
21
36
31
29
86
66
64
16 16 17 18 21 23 26 30 35 41 47
16 16 16 16 17 19 22 24 31 35 39
16 17 17 17 17 17 19 20 26 29 34
18 20 22 24 27 31 35 38 48 54 69
16 17 19 21 23 26 28 31 38 47 56
17 17 18 19 23 25 26 31 34 38 45
26 28 29 32 38 42 50 54 66 83 100
20 21 23 26 30 34 39 43 52 60 76
19 20 21 22 25 28 32 38 44 54 61
29 33 37 39 47 54 59 66 83 101 113
26 28 29 32 37 41 49 53 65 80 95
22 24 28 28 31 35 39 45 55 67 78
62 72 78 83 101 109 131 141 195 226 247
49 56 61 64 77 86 104 108 145 179 203
43 46 55 54 66 80 84 89 119 141 171
18 19 20 20 23 26 29 32 39 46 53
18 18 19 19 20 21 23 27 33 37 46
19 19 19 19 19 20 21 24 29 33 36
19 23 24 25 29 33 37 40 53 61 73
17 19 20 23 24 27 30 34 42 48 55
16 17 18 19 24 24 27 28 36 43 48
28 30 33 36 40 46 53 58 77 98 100
22 25 27 28 33 37 42 48 60 71 84
20 20 21 26 27 31 34 40 47 61 69
39 42 49 50 58 73 82 99 107 139 160
31 34 38 42 51 59 60 68 85 103 122
27 30 32 34 40 47 54 61 75 87 106
77 82 99 100 113 140 150 162 222 256
59 64 76 80 94 103 116 133 168 203 235
50 54 62 65 78 90 108 110 138 182 205
18 18 19 19 21 24 27 30 36 44 47
18 18 18 19 20 21 22 26 32 34 40
19 19 19 19 19 20 21 23 28 32 35
18 20 22 23 26 29 33 36 45 54 62
16 17 19 21 24 27 29 31 38 47 55
17 17 18 18 24 26 26 30 35 40 48
25 27 28 31 36 39 47 50 63 78 100
22 24 25 28 32 35 38 43 54 65 76
20 20 21 25 27 30 36 38 44 53 62
28 31 35 36 43 51 55 62 78 100 105
26 28 29 32 36 41 49 53 65 80 94
22 25 27 29 32 36 42 46 58 66 82
33 38 41 44 51 59 69 74 101 109 141
29 32 34 38 43 53 60 61 76 103 106
28 29 31 33 39 44 49 55 76 84 106
70 75 84 101 103 122 143 166 196 265 320
61 62 72 77 87 105 113 126 175 199 249
54 56 69 71 79 91 113 114 144 183 215
22 23 24 24 26 27 29 32 37 45 53
23 23 23 24 25 25 27 29 32 38 44
23 23 23 23 24 25 26 27 31 34 39
19 22 23 25 28 33 36 39 50 57 68
17 19 21 23 25 28 31 34 40 51 58
17 17 19 20 25 25 28 29 38 45 48
27 28 30 33 39 42 50 54 69 82 100
23 25 27 28 33 37 40 48 60 71 79
20 20 22 26 29 32 35 39 50 60 69
31 35 39 40 48 54 62 69 91 100 114
27 28 31 34 38 43 51 55 71 84 103
23 27 28 29 34 39 43 50 61 80 86
42 47 54 58 65 78 91 100 119 140 162
35 40 44 49 56 64 71 80 103 116 143
32 35 38 42 50 58 62 70 86 106 114
91 103 109 110 131 152 173 202 252
76 88 93 97 112 127 154 166 225 248
68 74 90 90 100 115 130 148 177 232 283
7 1/2 in.
54
44
37
79
64
51
108
85
75
140
104
88
358
236
197
61
48
42
90
67
57
119
102
76
180
143
113
69
56
48
101
78
67
140
105
89
172
134
109
317
250
77
62
49
103
80
70
159
115
104
237
175
148
100
76
66
141
109
97
188
145
126
247
198
152
108
85
73
152
117
109
209
169
149
296
221
183
140
104
88
187
156
122
314
238
189
313
98
70
63
129
102
82
179
143
113
107
83
72
149
115
97
206
165
145
119
101
81
170
132
111
235
187
148
158
121
103
207
165
137
296
244
244
206
222 252 322
178 202 240 330
289
238
54
46
41
74
64
55
101
85
74
131
104
97
163
124
112
301
68
55
48
92
78
67
130
107
88
164
134
115
192
172
129
78
67
57
105
94
86
161
124
108
196
157
138
245
196
177
99
79
69
130
108
97
183
147
126
225
186
168
294
232
202
267
240 289
288
234
60
51
45
78
67
56
107
101
76
140
108
104
192
166
137
305
68
61
52
99
80
69
140
110
104
172
143
118
238
198
178
90
70
62
113
102
81
161
143
112
200
166
147
308
242
212
99
83
71
140
113
97
186
166
145
239
201
178
112
101
81
151
132
110
213
188
149
275
225
200
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
103
83
64
57
114
95
80
162
124
107
212
167
128
103
93
72
151
117
108
192
168
149
282
218
180
293
253 292
131
106
95
175
156
122
246
225
187
285
231
140
115
103
196
155
136
284
223
204
310
249
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
[email protected]
14.00
[email protected]
9.33
28
[email protected]
7.00
[email protected]
5.6
[email protected]
4.67
[email protected]
4.00
[email protected]
2.00
[email protected]
15.00
[email protected]
10.00
[email protected]
7.5
30
[email protected]
6.00
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
3.75
[email protected]
2.00
[email protected]
10.67
[email protected]
8.00
32
[email protected]
6.4
[email protected]
5.33
[email protected]
4.00
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
24
28
32
24
28
32
24
28
32
24
28
32
24
28
32
24
28
32
24
28
32
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
24
28
32
36
Bearing Depth
29
29
30
16
16
16
16
17
16
16
16
16
17
16
17
18
17
17
33
30
28
29
29
30
30
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
16
16
17
21
20
19
19
40
34
30
29
15
16
16
16
16
16
17
16
16
16
16
16
18
17
16
17
23
21
20
19
29
29
30
16
16
16
16
17
16
17
16
16
19
19
17
22
20
20
43
38
33
29
29
30
30
16
16
16
17
16
16
16
16
17
16
16
17
19
19
17
18
25
23
22
21
50
41
39
35
15
16
16
16
16
16
17
16
19
17
16
17
21
19
19
17
28
26
23
22
29
30
30
16
16
16
17
17
16
19
17
17
21
21
20
26
24
23
51
45
40
29
29
30
30
16
16
16
17
17
17
16
17
20
19
17
17
24
20
20
19
31
29
26
24
58
52
47
42
15
16
16
17
18
17
17
18
22
19
18
17
25
21
20
20
33
28
27
26
29
30
30
16
16
16
19
18
18
22
20
19
25
22
22
31
26
25
59
53
47
29
29
30
30
16
16
16
17
20
18
18
17
23
21
19
19
28
26
22
21
36
32
30
28
66
60
54
49
17
16
16
17
22
19
18
18
26
22
20
19
29
26
24
21
39
33
30
29
29
30
30
16
16
17
21
20
19
24
21
20
29
26
24
33
29
27
66
61
54
29
29
30
30
18
16
16
17
24
21
19
18
26
24
21
21
31
28
26
24
41
37
32
30
78
68
62
56
19
17
16
17
24
22
20
19
29
24
22
20
33
28
26
25
42
37
34
32
29 29 30 31 31 33 34 37 39 42 49 57 65 77 91 103 129
30 30 30 30 31 32 34 34 38 40 43 46 58 66 78 93 106
30 30 30 30 31 32 33 34 37 39 40 44 52 60 68 76 95
18 21 22 23 26 29 33 36 44 54 61 70 91 105 124 133 174
16 18 19 21 23 26 29 31 39 47 52 61 77 94 107 115 156
17 17 18 19 24 24 27 29 36 42 47 54 70 80 97 110 131
24 27 28 31 35 39 45 50 62 74 91 101 121 143 165 190 244
23 24 25 28 32 36 39 44 57 64 76 85 109 124 151 170 206
20 21 22 24 27 31 37 39 46 54 62 74 88 108 126 149 185
28 31 33 35 41 47 55 62 78 92 105 114 152 176 215 244
26 28 29 32 35 40 47 52 64 80 94 104 134 156 186 213 260
22 26 27 29 32 38 42 46 58 66 82 97 111 136 162 190 232
32 36 39 43 50 59 66 73 100 109 121 142 191 219 254 314
29 32 34 37 44 52 57 60 76 103 105 123 149 194 223 253
27 30 31 34 38 45 51 54 71 87 105 108 148 177 201 230 301
37 43 48 51 59 67 79 84 103 131 144 166 219 261
32 36 41 45 53 61 65 74 95 109 125 147 184 224 272 312
30 33 37 40 47 55 60 67 83 106 115 127 169 202 240 277
79 84 102 103 121 143 155 173 221 281
70 75 82 88 106 114 137 149 198 235 274 332
63 72 76 79 100 113 118 132 172 206 244 284
29 30 30 31 32 33 35 37 40 46 53 60 72 85 102 103 139
30 30 30 30 32 32 34 36 38 41 44 49 65 74 86 92 115
30 30 30 30 31 32 33 34 37 40 41 45 55 66 75 89 106
30 30 30 30 31 32 32 33 36 38 41 42 51 60 68 76 95
19 22 24 25 29 31 34 38 48 57 65 74 91 109 130 151 176
17 20 21 24 25 28 31 33 43 50 58 67 79 94 108 126 156
17 18 19 21 25 26 29 30 38 45 51 60 69 89 96 110 136
17 17 18 20 24 26 27 30 34 42 46 55 70 80 92 99 122
26 27 30 32 37 42 47 54 66 78 99 104 140 161 183 210 265
23 25 27 28 33 37 42 46 56 71 79 93 110 143 156 179 223
20 21 23 27 29 32 36 41 50 60 69 76 104 112 146 149 202
19 21 22 24 27 30 35 38 45 54 62 71 87 106 115 147 184
29 32 34 38 45 53 58 62 78 100 108 131 162 193 231 262
27 28 31 34 38 46 49 56 71 79 102 107 143 166 195 224 285
25 26 28 31 36 39 44 50 64 73 85 104 118 147 177 198 248
22 25 27 29 31 38 40 44 58 66 76 88 108 127 151 179 220
34 39 42 47 54 62 69 78 100 109 140 161 190 237 288
31 34 37 40 46 52 60 67 84 102 111 143 167 195 222 289
28 31 32 35 41 47 53 60 74 87 106 113 148 175 200 237 304
28 28 30 33 38 44 49 55 67 79 90 108 129 154 180 206 275
47 50 58 62 73 83 100 102 131 162 188 216 255
40 44 49 53 61 72 81 86 111 144 147 175 224 281
36 41 45 50 57 65 75 82 105 114 147 159 204 242 308 343
35 38 39 43 53 59 69 74 89 111 118 152 185 218 256 314
92 101 106 115 142 165 181 196 257 326
76 85 103 105 113 137 152 176 216 265 329
73 77 83 91 111 117 133 159 195 242 275 325
66 72 79 82 103 117 127 142 183 222 260 290
21 23 25 26 31 34 37 42 50 63 72 86 102 123 130 150 197
19 21 22 24 27 29 32 35 44 51 64 67 87 105 114 132 173
17 19 21 22 25 27 30 32 39 45 52 60 77 93 107 115 156
17 18 19 21 25 25 28 30 37 44 51 54 69 79 97 110 131
26 29 31 34 40 45 53 58 69 89 99 107 139 161 187 222 273
24 26 27 30 35 38 46 48 62 70 83 101 115 143 165 187 243
24 25 25 28 32 36 39 46 56 65 73 85 109 124 151 172 203
20 22 23 26 28 34 37 39 50 57 66 75 88 107 125 149 184
31 34 38 41 47 54 61 68 91 103 113 140 172 200 237 275
27 29 32 35 41 47 54 62 71 92 102 114 143 175 209 233 305
26 27 30 33 36 42 47 55 64 80 94 103 133 156 187 203 258
23 25 28 29 35 37 43 48 58 72 82 96 111 137 162 189 230
36 40 46 49 57 65 73 82 100 119 141 161 214 242 307
31 36 39 43 50 59 62 70 92 102 121 142 171 219 249 290
28 32 34 37 44 52 57 60 76 103 105 123 149 194 223 253 321
27 30 32 35 39 46 51 57 74 87 105 108 148 176 200 229 299
50 57 58 65 77 91 100 108 140 162 188 216 282
42 48 51 59 67 75 85 101 111 143 167 192 241 292
38 42 46 52 61 69 76 86 109 125 149 176 207 258 304
36 39 43 46 54 62 74 76 97 116 129 152 195 241 277 316
7 1/2 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
104
10 in.
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
[email protected]
11.33
34
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
5K 18
6K
7K
9K 10K
60K 124
70K 150
80K 173
100K
4K 18
ASD
73 50K
91 109
28 18
18 8K
19 20
22 11K
23 12K
25 14K
28 16K
31 18K
34 20K
40 25K
48 30K
57 35K
65 40K
[email protected]
8.50
[email protected]
6.80
[email protected]
5.67
[email protected]
4.86
[email protected]
3.78
[email protected]
12.00
[email protected]
9.00
36
[email protected]
7.20
[email protected]
6.00
[email protected]
5.14
[email protected]
4.00
[email protected]
12.67
[email protected]
9.50
38
[email protected]
7.60
[email protected]
6.33
[email protected]
4.75
[email protected]
3.80
Bearing Depth
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
28
32
36
40
32
36
40
44
32
36
40
44
32
36
40
44
32
36
40
44
32
36
40
44
32
36
40
44
18
18
19
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
19
18
17
17
25
21
20
19
18
18
18
19
16
16
17
16
16
16
16
17
18
17
16
17
19
18
18
17
24
23
21
20
22
23
23
23
16
16
17
18
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
20
20
20
19
27
25
23
22
18
19
19
16
16
17
18
17
17
16
17
20
19
18
18
23
20
20
20
28
26
25
23
18
18
18
19
16
16
17
18
18
17
16
17
20
20
18
18
24
21
20
20
31
27
26
24
23
23
23
24
16
17
17
18
17
17
16
17
20
19
18
18
26
24
25
23
32
30
28
26
18
19
19
18
17
18
18
21
18
17
18
24
21
20
19
27
26
22
23
34
30
28
28
18
18
19
19
19
17
17
18
21
20
18
17
25
23
21
20
28
26
25
24
36
31
29
27
23
23
23
24
18
17
18
18
20
18
17
18
23
21
20
20
30
28
28
27
38
35
33
31
19
19
19
20
19
18
18
23
21
20
19
28
25
22
22
31
27
27
25
39
35
32
30
18
18
19
19
21
20
18
18
25
22
21
20
27
25
24
22
33
28
28
26
41
37
33
30
23
23
23
24
21
19
18
18
23
22
20
20
27
26
23
22
35
32
31
29
45
39
37
35
19
19
19
23
20
19
19
26
24
21
21
30
28
26
24
34
31
29
28
43
40
36
34
19
18
19
19
23
23
21
19
26
24
23
21
33
28
26
26
37
32
31
29
46
40
37
35
23
23
24
24
23
23
20
19
26
24
22
21
31
28
26
26
39
36
34
32
48
47
42
38
19
19
19
26
24
21
20
29
27
25
23
33
31
28
27
39
35
32
30
51
44
41
38
21
19
19
19
27
24
24
21
31
27
26
24
36
31
29
27
40
37
33
31
54
48
41
39
24
24
24
24
26
24
23
21
29
27
25
23
34
32
29
28
43
41
37
36
55
49
48
44
20
20
20
27
24
23
21
32
30
28
26
36
34
31
29
43
38
36
33
58
49
45
43
23
21
20
19
29
26
25
23
34
30
28
26
39
35
32
30
47
40
36
34
57
52
50
43
25
25
24
24
28
26
24
23
32
29
28
26
36
34
32
30
49
44
43
39
62
56
50
49
22
20
20
29
27
26
23
35
32
28
29
41
37
32
30
47
42
38
36
63
56
50
46
25
23
21
20
31
28
27
23
36
34
30
28
42
39
36
33
50
43
41
37
65
59
52
46
26
26
25
25
30
26
26
24
35
31
30
28
39
37
33
33
55
50
48
43
70
64
57
53
7 1/2 in.
23
22
21
32
30
27
26
38
34
33
29
44
40
36
33
54
47
42
39
67
60
53
51
27
25
22
22
34
31
28
26
40
35
33
31
47
42
37
35
54
49
44
41
69
63
56
51
26
26
26
26
32
29
28
27
37
34
33
30
43
40
36
34
59
53
51
49
78
71
64
58
26 28 32 35 42
26 27 29 31 39
25 27 28 32 37
36 40 47 54 62
32 37 42 47 56
29 33 38 41 50
28 33 35 39 45
45 47 54 62 77
39 46 48 55 70
36 39 47 50 64
35 38 40 48 58
54 58 65 73 100
48 52 59 67 83
41 50 53 60 74
39 42 51 54 67
62 70 78 91 105
56 64 71 79 102
50 57 65 69 86
45 53 59 63 79
78 92 101 109 142
70 80 95 103 124
62 72 81 88 113
59 68 76 84 107
30 33 40 41 48
27 30 33 36 44
26 28 31 34 43
26 26 29 32 40
39 45 50 54 69
35 40 46 48 62
33 37 40 46 57
28 32 38 40 50
45 54 61 68 81
41 46 54 59 70
37 42 47 55 63
36 39 43 49 57
57 62 69 77 99
48 55 62 70 83
44 52 56 63 80
41 46 53 58 71
62 77 82 99 113
56 64 71 80 102
53 57 65 73 94
49 55 62 66 82
82 99 104 113 141
73 84 102 103 133
65 74 85 95 113
62 68 76 87 107
29 33 36 40 47
27 28 32 36 43
29 28 31 33 43
28 29 29 33 39
36 41 46 54 62
34 38 42 47 56
31 35 38 41 51
29 34 36 39 48
44 47 55 62 77
38 46 49 56 71
37 41 47 50 63
35 39 42 49 57
51 58 65 73 99
48 52 59 64 83
42 50 56 61 73
39 46 51 58 70
67 79 92 101 121
61 69 81 86 106
58 66 74 82 106
54 60 72 76 98
91 102 107 121 155
79 93 103 108 145
76 81 95 106 120
67 76 83 97 113
49
45
44
78
71
61
54
99
79
73
66
108
102
86
83
131
111
105
99
164
148
127
116
60
54
48
44
81
70
65
58
100
91
79
73
113
102
102
86
140
116
109
106
173
157
146
121
57
50
48
44
78
71
61
58
91
79
74
69
106
102
86
82
143
125
115
111
191
173
150
139
58
51
46
91
79
69
62
106
101
85
80
130
110
105
97
152
134
118
109
194
175
150
142
69
61
55
51
99
83
73
66
114
101
93
81
140
121
106
105
162
143
125
113
205
185
160
151
65
61
55
50
91
79
72
66
105
93
93
81
121
110
105
97
167
147
139
123
212
196
176
168
66
60
54
100
92
76
74
120
107
104
96
142
123
113
108
175
155
136
122
220
198
178
159
81
71
63
57
104
101
85
76
130
112
104
95
160
142
123
111
188
166
147
127
236
215
187
178
74
67
63
58
100
93
80
74
115
107
104
96
142
123
113
108
191
175
168
153
260
214
203
192
87
73
70
130
108
104
87
153
133
119
111
190
167
148
128
219
193
176
154
284
265
227
206
94
87
76
69
140
115
109
96
162
143
133
111
191
167
147
148
225
196
183
167
293
268
236
207
91
85
73
70
120
108
104
88
152
134
118
111
189
167
148
127
239
224
202
184
325
275
250
109
104
93
89
161
143
125
111
196
177
156
137
236
199
193
177
291
246
213
200
298
270
109
97
89
88
152
134
113
106
177
158
147
137
218
192
176
163
309
258
240
222
282
264 314
239 288
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
105
91
89
79
152
134
113
106
185
156
146
137
220
193
177
153
255
223
203
196
112
99
92
174
155
146
115
212
197
170
151
248
224
199
187
126
115
110
199
177
149
148
248
214
198
181
307
252
228
216
156
136
132
243
223
200
182
267
241
227
298
269
268
241 285
225 258 332
330
299
130
112
107
97
183
165
150
126
231
199
186
162
282
241
214
200
151
132
115
110
211
188
172
149
262
233
200
188
186
164
156
131
265
230
212
183
300
258
230
285
252 317
228 296
297
256 306
231 274
307
124
112
99
96
175
155
146
121
207
184
171
161
251
222
199
189
142
126
115
110
190
177
149
148
233
213
197
188
305
260
228
210
325
292 333
272 309
173
156
145
131
244
223
199
182
274
239
221
298
272
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
[email protected]
13.33
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
[email protected]
10.00
[email protected]
8.00
40
[email protected]
6.67
[email protected]
5.71
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
4.00
[email protected]
14.00
[email protected]
10.50
[email protected]
8.40
42
[email protected]
7.00
[email protected]
6.00
[email protected]
5.25
[email protected]
3.82
Bearing Depth
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
32
36
40
44
48
22
23
23
23
23
16
16
17
16
17
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
19
18
18
18
18
21
21
20
20
19
27
27
25
23
22
29
29
30
30
30
16
16
17
17
18
17
16
16
16
17
18
17
17
17
17
20
20
18
18
18
22
20
20
21
21
31
27
27
25
24
23
23
23
23
24
16
17
17
16
17
18
17
16
17
17
20
20
18
18
18
24
21
20
21
22
27
25
23
24
24
33
30
28
28
26
29
29
30
30
30
17
16
17
17
18
20
17
18
18
18
21
20
19
18
18
24
23
22
21
20
28
26
24
23
25
37
35
32
31
29
23
23
23
23
24
19
18
17
18
18
22
20
18
17
17
24
23
21
21
20
28
26
25
23
24
31
29
27
29
26
40
35
33
31
29
29
30
30
30
30
20
18
18
18
18
23
21
20
19
18
26
24
21
21
21
29
27
25
24
24
33
29
28
28
28
45
41
37
35
34
23
23
23
24
24
22
21
19
18
18
25
23
21
20
19
28
26
25
22
24
32
28
28
27
27
36
32
30
30
29
43
41
39
37
34
30
30
30
30
30
23
21
21
19
18
26
23
22
21
20
29
27
26
24
24
34
30
28
27
26
38
34
33
31
29
53
48
42
40
38
24
23
23
24
24
25
25
23
20
19
28
25
23
23
23
32
28
28
27
25
34
32
31
29
30
39
37
35
34
32
51
48
43
40
38
31
30
30
30
31
25
23
22
21
20
28
26
24
25
24
33
30
28
26
26
37
35
32
30
29
43
40
36
34
32
61
55
49
48
45
24
24
23
24
24
26
25
25
21
20
31
27
27
24
25
35
31
29
29
28
40
35
33
31
33
47
40
38
38
35
58
55
50
48
42
31
31
30
30
31
28
25
24
25
25
33
28
27
26
24
37
34
32
29
29
42
38
35
32
32
47
43
41
37
35
69
62
56
51
50
25
25
24
24
24
28
26
26
23
23
34
31
28
28
25
39
35
32
30
29
45
40
36
34
37
50
48
41
41
40
63
62
56
51
50
32
32
31
32
32
30
28
26
25
27
36
32
29
28
27
40
36
34
32
30
47
41
39
36
34
54
49
45
43
39
77
70
64
58
54
26
25
25
26
26
30
29
27
24
25
37
34
30
29
28
42
38
36
33
31
47
43
41
37
39
58
51
46
45
43
70
64
57
57
54
33
34
34
32
32
33
30
28
27
25
39
34
32
30
29
45
39
36
34
33
53
46
42
40
37
58
55
50
47
44
82
72
65
65
60
7 1/2 in.
27 30 34 38 40 51
27 27 32 34 39 46
27 27 28 32 35 43
26 28 28 32 33 42
26 29 29 29 32 38
33 39 45 50 53 68
31 34 40 44 48 62
29 32 38 41 46 56
28 30 34 37 40 51
26 28 32 34 37 49
40 46 54 58 65 78
35 41 46 54 59 71
33 37 42 47 53 64
31 35 39 46 49 60
29 33 37 41 47 57
47 54 62 69 77 99
41 48 55 62 70 83
38 44 49 56 64 79
36 42 49 53 58 74
33 40 44 52 55 72
54 62 70 77 91 105
48 56 63 71 79 102
45 51 57 65 72 94
41 50 58 63 67 82
42 48 57 63 71 81
62 70 83 100 101 121
56 64 72 84 93 111
51 61 69 76 86 105
50 58 66 75 78 98
46 55 60 72 76 90
78 92 103 110 122 168
72 79 94 107 116 145
65 74 86 95 109 134
59 74 81 88 98 120
59 67 76 83 98 114
34 35 38 40 45 53
33 35 36 38 40 47
34 34 35 37 39 46
33 35 35 36 37 43
33 35 35 36 39 43
35 42 45 50 57 68
33 37 44 46 52 66
30 34 38 45 47 59
29 32 36 42 46 54
28 31 35 39 43 50
44 47 54 61 68 90
37 44 48 54 62 74
34 40 45 52 55 67
32 38 41 47 53 64
30 36 39 43 49 57
47 57 65 73 81 99
43 51 58 62 70 91
40 47 55 59 64 79
36 43 50 57 60 76
35 41 46 52 58 70
54 68 77 90 99 113
51 59 70 78 83 102
47 56 63 71 79 95
43 51 57 65 73 87
41 47 52 59 67 83
65 77 83 100 105 140
59 67 79 84 101 116
53 61 69 81 86 107
52 58 66 79 83 107
48 56 64 69 78 100
91 104 114 130 151 189
79 92 106 115 132 166
73 84 103 108 117 149
66 81 95 106 111 139
67 76 84 98 108 122
60
54
49
47
44
77
71
68
57
58
100
91
80
73
67
108
102
94
86
79
130
115
108
106
99
152
144
119
113
111
190
181
160
150
140
60
57
53
48
48
89
75
68
65
63
103
91
79
77
70
119
106
103
95
83
140
122
109
106
98
163
143
126
116
111
218
197
182
167
154
81 94 108 124 150
69
70 87 104 111 126
61
62 84 93 107 125
55
63 73 89 99 115
55
57 70 80 92 102
51
90 104 129 152 173 202
93 115 143 166 179
79
93 109 119 150 172
77
76 104 111 126 150
66
74 87 108 116 139
66
106 130 157 188 227 255
102 107 143 167 196 230
93 104 128 159 182 210
96 116 138 161 186
81
93 111 122 152 178
80
140 151 189 220 266
115 142 167 197 232 275
105 118 147 185 215 245
105 111 148 177 199 227
98 108 130 156 180 204
152 175 218 255
143 155 197 232 276
118 145 184 214 255 300
113 127 167 199 237 272
114 125 169 195 234 267
175 197 241
156 182 222 277
148 171 203 257 294
129 153 193 240 278 320
118 144 183 218 261 295
218 246
199 240 306
186 212 277
175 190 255 302
157 182 230 277 324
81 94 118 140 160
69
70 87 109 122 141
64
71 85 97 112 126
61
63 73 89 99 115
56
61 74 88 99 110
53
99 104 140 161 186 214
91 101 115 143 175 191
94 109 134 159 177
79
82 106 120 138 164
74
81 98 114 139 153
71
113 130 172 197 225 256
105 115 152 177 207 233
93 107 133 156 186 210
93 104 119 148 171 200
81
96 111 137 162 187
140 160 190 236 289
121 142 177 209 240 293
109 123 167 192 222 253
105 113 148 176 202 227
106 108 139 163 188 208
162 187 226 289
142 166 205 248 292
134 147 182 222 272 303
119 137 176 202 246 283
113 122 164 191 220 255
188 216 268
167 190 231 290
151 175 215 264 326
141 157 201 239 291 333
130 156 182 214 278 315
267
232 270
209 243 310
190 218 281
180 205 259 318
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
106
185
164
156
131
131
252
230
212
189
178
298
262
245
217
313
294
271
185
173
156
146
132
274
240
214
202
192
266
238
220
303
270
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
[email protected]
15.00
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
[email protected]
11.25
[email protected]
9.00
45
[email protected]
7.50
[email protected]
6.43
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
3.75
[email protected]
12.00
[email protected]
9.60
48
[email protected]
8.00
[email protected]
6.00
[email protected]
5.33
[email protected]
4.00
Bearing Depth
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
36
40
44
48
54
30
30
30
30
30
18
19
19
19
20
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
20
19
18
18
24
25
22
23
22
21
32
30
28
27
25
18
19
19
19
20
17
17
17
17
18
18
17
17
17
17
24
21
21
21
23
27
24
25
23
23
34
32
30
29
27
30
30
30
30
30
19
19
19
20
20
18
18
17
18
18
22
20
19
19
18
24
22
22
21
24
30
28
28
26
24
39
35
33
31
30
19
19
19
20
20
21
19
18
17
18
23
22
20
20
20
28
27
27
24
26
31
29
28
28
26
41
38
35
34
32
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
23
21
20
19
18
24
24
23
22
21
28
27
25
24
26
35
32
31
29
28
48
42
40
37
36
21
20
20
20
21
24
24
23
22
21
26
24
24
24
22
33
31
29
29
28
37
35
33
31
29
50
46
42
40
38
30
30
31
31
32
23
21
21
21
21
25
23
23
24
21
29
27
26
24
24
32
30
28
27
30
39
37
36
34
31
55
49
48
43
40
24
22
21
20
21
27
25
25
24
22
30
27
27
25
24
39
35
33
32
33
42
38
36
35
33
58
55
50
46
42
31
31
31
31
32
25
24
23
22
22
28
26
24
25
24
32
30
28
27
25
36
34
31
29
32
47
42
39
37
35
62
56
53
52
47
26
24
25
24
24
30
27
26
24
24
34
32
30
28
27
43
40
37
36
37
47
43
42
40
37
68
62
56
51
51
31
31
31
31
32
27
25
26
25
24
30
28
27
26
26
35
33
31
29
28
40
38
36
33
35
54
48
45
41
39
70
64
57
58
52
29
27
27
27
25
33
31
29
27
26
37
35
33
31
29
50
46
41
39
40
54
49
48
43
41
76
70
64
57
54
32
32
32
32
32
29
28
26
25
25
33
31
29
28
26
39
35
33
31
30
46
41
39
37
39
58
52
50
46
43
78
71
65
63
58
31
29
29
27
26
36
33
31
30
28
40
38
36
34
32
54
49
47
43
43
61
55
52
49
45
82
74
71
66
61
34 35 36 38 39 44 52 60 69 81 95 120 134
33 35 35 37 38 39 51 59 62 70 88 110 122
33 34 34 36 37 38 46 53 59 67 85 98 113
32 33 36 36 38 37 41 48 58 63 82 90 101
32 33 36 36 37 39 41 48 53 60 71 89 97
31 34 42 43 50 57 65 77 90 104 130 152 174
30 32 37 43 46 51 65 75 87 101 115 143 165
28 30 34 40 44 47 59 68 76 93 109 134 156
26 29 32 35 40 42 54 64 73 81 104 114 136
26 27 30 33 38 41 50 58 66 74 97 108 116
36 39 46 54 58 65 78 99 110 131 152 194 228
34 37 44 46 54 58 75 91 105 112 143 176 206
32 34 39 45 48 56 67 79 94 107 133 156 182
30 32 37 41 46 53 64 78 89 96 118 148 162
29 31 33 40 43 47 58 70 79 92 112 131 153
43 47 54 62 69 78 99 109 140 151 189 217 261
38 42 49 55 62 71 92 102 116 142 168 196 246
36 39 47 52 56 64 80 103 109 123 159 192 222
34 37 43 50 57 61 74 87 105 113 148 175 199
33 35 38 45 52 55 68 83 98 108 128 155 178
47 54 62 70 77 91 105 130 152 175 217 255
46 49 56 63 71 79 102 116 143 155 196 231 290
42 47 56 63 65 72 94 109 123 147 182 213 257
40 43 50 57 65 73 82 105 119 136 175 201 238
41 45 49 57 63 72 83 100 114 125 165 195 231
63 70 78 92 101 109 141 164 194 226 282
56 64 72 84 93 103 123 156 179 197 250
53 57 66 76 86 130 113 146 175 187 244 295
51 54 63 74 81 88 109 129 152 177 226 269 313
46 51 60 69 76 84 108 116 144 159 193 243 280
83 100 106 121 142 155 191 225 272
79 84 103 108 123 145 171 198 246 294
74 81 95 105 111 125 163 196 216 264
68 75 83 97 108 116 153 179 201 240 301
62 73 79 86 101 112 133 158 184 218 274 333
34 37 43 48 56 57 73 89 102 109 139 171 195
32 35 41 44 49 57 65 77 91 104 130 152 174
30 32 36 43 45 50 63 75 87 93 113 134 155
30 31 33 40 44 46 60 68 77 89 109 129 157
26 29 32 37 41 43 49 61 70 79 97 112 128
39 44 50 57 64 68 90 103 113 130 171 197 228
37 39 44 51 57 65 77 91 106 125 153 177 206
34 36 43 47 52 59 71 87 101 107 133 156 195
32 35 39 45 47 53 67 78 90 108 128 157 184
30 32 37 41 46 49 61 70 81 96 116 137 163
45 50 61 68 76 81 99 119 140 160 201 236 288
41 46 54 62 69 77 92 106 130 143 176 218 250
39 42 48 55 63 71 84 103 111 132 168 195 231
36 39 47 50 57 64 80 94 108 118 148 182 213
35 38 40 49 52 58 74 83 106 111 139 163 195
61 65 77 91 100 105 140 163 188 216 278
55 59 71 79 92 101 116 143 167 191 246 300
50 56 64 72 81 94 109 135 159 174 223 280
49 51 61 67 76 82 107 120 150 175 203 249 301
49 51 59 67 75 81 98 114 130 154 191 229 268
69 70 91 99 105 114 151 174 206 237
63 67 78 92 101 107 142 165 191 219 266
57 64 73 80 94 104 118 147 175 199 235 284
53 57 66 74 82 96 111 138 161 186 235 284
50 52 60 68 76 84 108 122 153 165 204 254 301
91 100 109 130 142 164 192 243 294
79 92 102 116 132 144 180 219 258 301
73 81 103 108 117 134 173 198 239 276 288
72 75 86 105 111 120 151 187 215 248 318
68 73 84 98 108 114 141 167 201 227 288
7 1/2 in.
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
107
151
141
126
117
104
199
178
178
151
140
254
231
209
186
166
187
166
157
148
132
252
230
211
198
176
295
265
238
217
281
250
227 295
202 266
299
278
263
321
221
200
177
172
149
266
234
222
207
185
273
253
231
212
188
278
266
229
292
265
251 313
216 279
314
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
[email protected]
12.50
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
[email protected]
10.00
50
[email protected]
8.33
[email protected]
6.25
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
3.85
[email protected]
11.00
[email protected]
9.17
55
[email protected]
7.86
[email protected]
6.11
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
3.93
Bearing Depth
40
44
48
54
60
40
44
48
54
60
40
44
48
54
60
40
44
48
54
60
40
44
48
54
60
40
44
48
54
60
44
48
54
60
66
44
48
54
60
66
44
48
54
60
66
44
48
54
60
66
44
48
54
60
66
44
48
54
60
66
23
23
23
27
27
17
16
17
18
18
18
17
17
18
18
23
22
22
25
24
28
27
27
26
25
35
32
30
29
28
19
19
20
20
21
18
18
19
19
20
22
21
19
20
20
25
25
25
24
24
31
29
28
26
27
39
36
34
31
32
24
24
24
27
28
21
19
19
18
20
22
22
22
20
21
27
27
25
26
25
33
32
32
29
28
41
39
36
34
33
22
21
21
22
22
23
23
22
20
20
25
24
24
23
23
30
28
28
28
27
37
34
33
32
31
46
43
41
39
38
24
24
24
27
28
24
23
22
21
20
26
24
23
23
22
31
31
29
31
28
41
37
35
33
32
51
48
44
40
40
25
24
23
22
23
26
24
24
23
23
28
28
26
25
25
35
33
33
33
31
46
41
39
37
36
55
50
49
46
44
27
26
26
28
28
25
24
25
24
22
29
27
26
25
25
37
34
33
34
32
46
44
41
40
38
59
56
51
48
45
27
25
25
24
24
29
29
27
25
26
33
31
29
29
29
41
39
38
37
35
52
47
46
41
39
63
63
57
52
50
27
28
28
28
28
29
28
25
26
25
32
30
28
29
27
41
39
37
37
35
55
49
48
43
41
67
61
57
53
50
30
29
26
27
26
33
31
30
30
29
36
34
32
31
32
46
43
42
40
39
58
55
49
48
46
71
71
66
61
57
28
28
28
28
29
32
30
29
27
27
36
34
32
29
31
48
44
40
41
39
62
56
54
50
45
74
69
66
60
57
32
30
29
27
28
37
34
33
31
32
41
39
36
34
33
54
49
46
43
42
66
63
57
51
50
79
77
71
68
63
31 33 36 42 44 50
29 31 34 38 43 49
29 30 32 36 42 44
28 30 31 33 38 42
29 30 31 32 36 40
35 38 42 46 54 58
33 36 39 44 50 54
31 33 36 40 46 53
30 31 33 38 42 46
28 31 31 35 41 46
41 46 47 54 62 70
37 40 46 49 55 63
35 38 39 47 56 63
32 35 37 43 49 57
31 33 35 41 45 51
54 55 62 71 83 92
49 52 56 65 75 84
45 50 53 61 73 81
46 48 51 58 70 76
42 47 49 57 64 72
66 74 78 92 105 115
63 67 72 88 102 107
57 64 68 80 94 103
55 58 62 74 82 96
51 54 58 68 77 84
83 92 102 111 132 144
75 85 95 105 117 134
74 77 87 105 111 120
68 74 78 90 108 114
64 71 73 83 94 113
35 38 43 49 54 61
33 36 39 45 50 58
31 34 36 44 46 52
31 32 34 39 45 47
29 32 33 37 42 46
40 46 47 54 62 70
37 42 46 52 59 66
35 39 41 47 56 60
34 37 40 44 50 58
32 35 37 41 49 52
46 51 54 62 71 78
45 46 52 59 68 77
39 43 48 57 64 69
37 41 43 50 59 67
37 38 43 50 54 60
58 63 70 78 92 101
55 60 64 72 84 102
51 57 58 69 79 87
48 50 58 67 79 83
45 50 52 61 70 77
70 78 91 101 107 131
67 72 79 93 106 116
62 69 73 81 96 109
59 64 68 80 84 98
55 62 65 74 84 100
92 102 107 121 144 157
80 94 104 112 134 148
75 83 97 107 120 138
77 78 85 101 114 123
71 75 80 96 113 119
7 1/2 in.
56
51
50
45
43
65
58
59
52
48
78
71
65
58
59
102
102
86
83
77
131
116
109
106
98
169
148
138
125
115
66
62
60
53
49
77
71
65
61
59
91
79
78
70
68
110
108
97
89
85
142
113
116
112
102
179
172
152
142
130
65
66
60
55
51
86
75
68
61
62
100
92
80
73
68
122
111
107
106
99
156
155
135
121
114
196
194
174
157
148
85
75
67
64
62
100
92
80
77
72
105
106
95
84
82
143
134
114
108
101
179
158
150
140
124
218
206
187
168
163
85
74
68
62
59
100
91
88
78
70
109
106
103
87
83
153
144
126
114
115
193
180
160
152
142
252
228
200
191
174
95
91
88
77
71
114
106
95
96
84
131
117
109
406
100
166
157
148
124
117
205
195
181
166
147
269
254
215
202
197
90 104 130 152 173 199 252
87 104 115 153 174 180 230
93 108 133 156 178 213
79
82 106 112 137 159 197
73
76 97 113 122 138 178
69
110 125 152 184 219 253
105 113 152 177 205 230 294
94 107 134 159 183 209 269
96 117 138 162 184 238
90
93 112 133 163 166 217
79
131 151 188 226 260
116 142 168 205 246 281
109 123 159 191 222 258
105 112 148 174 197 226 293
98 109 129 155 178 205 265
176 195 248
167 182 222 288
149 175 214 263 310
141 163 193 239 283 315
125 146 178 215 258 291
229 267
208 239 302
186 214 274
173 188 251 306
167 180 225 275 317
303
260 313
248 288
216 256 326
216 235 297
111 125 153 180 219 253
106 112 153 177 205 230
94 108 128 158 182 207 265
97 116 137 162 185 237
90
93 112 133 164 176 217
80
131 151 188 226 261
116 143 177 205 246 279
109 119 160 181 211 251
105 112 149 174 197 226 279
99 110 130 156 187 205 269
153 176 216 263
143 158 205 237 291
129 148 182 213 259 301
113 138 166 199 235 277
114 124 157 194 219 261 317
195 228 282
182 205 266
164 187 243 282
154 174 202 264 309
145 159 194 242 286 319
253 297
231 269
199 241 302
189 214 269
170 194 261 293
302
263
241
223
307
284
262 321
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
108
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
[email protected]
12.00
[email protected]
10.00
60
[email protected]
7.50
[email protected]
6.00
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
4.00
[email protected]
10.83
[email protected]
8.13
65
[email protected]
6.50
[email protected]
5.91
[email protected]
5.00
Bearing Depth
48
54
60
66
72
48
54
60
66
72
48
54
60
66
72
48
54
60
66
72
48
54
60
66
72
48
54
60
66
72
54
60
66
72
54
60
66
72
54
60
66
72
54
60
66
72
54
60
66
72
21
21
21
22
22
21
19
19
20
20
24
23
23
29
30
30
29
27
27
27
35
33
32
31
30
39
37
35
36
36
22
22
22
23
24
23
32
32
31
30
28
28
32
32
30
29
36
34
33
32
23
21
22
22
23
23
23
22
22
21
28
26
26
31
31
36
34
33
32
32
41
39
37
36
35
49
47
42
44
43
25
24
24
24
28
26
34
34
37
35
34
34
39
36
36
34
42
40
38
38
26
24
23
23
23
26
25
26
25
24
32
31
29
34
33
43
40
38
36
35
49
46
41
40
40
62
56
51
54
49
28
26
26
26
33
32
41
34
44
41
39
37
45
45
41
39
50
49
45
43
28
27
26
25
24
31
29
28
27
27
38
35
32
36
34
50
46
41
40
39
55
50
50
47
44
70
64
59
57
57
31
31
29
29
38
36
43
42
50
46
44
41
52
48
46
43
57
57
52
51
31
30
28
28
27
34
32
31
30
29
41
39
38
40
38
58
51
47
46
43
63
57
56
53
52
78
73
68
65
67
34
32
31
30
42
39
44
45
56
52
47
47
59
54
50
50
65
61
60
55
34 37 42 43 50 55 62 66 85 96 111 125 153
32 35 38 42 44 51 56 62 75 88 106 112 144
30 33 35 38 44 46 51 57 68 86 95 108 128
97 117
29 33 34 36 40 46 47 53 65 78 91
93 113
29 31 34 35 38 44 47 52 62 72 81
38 40 46 47 58 66 70 77 100 114 131 152 188
35 38 41 45 53 59 67 71 92 106 117 119 169
34 36 39 42 48 55 61 68 81 95 110 134 160
32 34 67 41 47 50 58 62 77 96 106 112 140
32 33 35 38 43 50 52 60 72 84 99 114 142
48 54 55 62 70 78 92 101 121 152 176 192 241
43 47 55 56 64 72 81 94 109 134 158 180 221
41 44 49 52 59 66 76 83 106 120 149 163 199
46 48 50 56 64 72 76 82 101 116 142 165 191
43 47 49 51 59 69 74 83 102 118 126 147 190
65 66 75 78 92 106 116 132 157 193 229 265
59 60 68 76 88 95 107 144 147 180 205 232 296
53 61 61 70 79 90 97 110 136 162 183 210 272
49 55 62 64 75 81 97 99 120 143 165 190 254
48 53 58 61 73 77 86 100 116 137 169 191 225
71 79 92 93 107 116 142 156 191 229 266
65 73 80 81 104 109 118 135 172 197 238 274
59 67 74 79 96 107 112 121 163 187 219 247 316
60 61 68 76 85 99 110 115 145 177 201 228 288
54 63 64 75 80 89 104 114 130 160 194 219 273
92 101 106 110 132 155 167 189 228 289
81 94 95 105 118 135 158 171 208 254 298
76 83 88 98 112 122 141 164 197 229 276 307
73 80 88 94 113 118 130 158 193 221 261 294
75 77 84 91 107 121 126 143 178 219 240 283
38 43 45 47 55 66 69 75 92 107 132 152 177
36 38 42 46 53 60 67 71 92 107 116 133 169
34 36 40 43 49 54 61 68 80 96 110 119 159
33 35 39 43 47 50 56 63 75 92 107 113 141
47 52 55 63 70 78 92 101 116 143 166 192 229
43 48 50 57 65 72 80 94 109 135 158 180 210
48 53 55 61 68 73 81 93 114 133 151 167 212
47 49 54 57 69 74 82 83 106 121 143 167 194
63 67 75 76 92 107 113 127 156 182 220 243
58 64 68 77 88 95 109 115 136 180 196 222 283
54 61 65 70 82 91 98 112 132 163 184 210 263
50 56 63 63 72 81 94 100 120 143 168 193 247
66 71 77 87 101 107 126 133 176 205 230 264
61 69 73 78 94 108 110 118 160 181 208 243
56 62 70 71 83 97 111 113 141 166 200 215 287
55 60 65 73 81 93 100 114 167 166 187 214 257
72 80 92 102 108 123 144 158 192 229 269
70 74 81 94 105 111 125 148 182 209 252 286
67 72 75 83 99 109 116 129 167 199 234 263
62 70 77 78 88 110 116 120 158 182 210 253 309
7 1/2 in.
189
168
158
139
135
227
204
181
175
166
109
252
221
208
188
177
281
256
228
217
269
242
216 278
206 266
268
239 290
230 280 313
228 255 191
296
283
319
207
195
184
166
284
259
246
241
295
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
218
204
182
162
164
262
229
209
198
188
250
231
209
196
296
277
288
262
236
218 276
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
[email protected]
10.00
[email protected]
7.78
70 [email protected]
6.36
[email protected]
5.83
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
10.00
80
[email protected]
8.00
[email protected]
6.15
[email protected]
5.00
[email protected]
10.00
90
[email protected]
8.18
[email protected]
6.00
[email protected]
5.00
Bearing Depth
54
60
66
72
84
54
60
66
72
84
54
60
66
72
84
54
60
66
72
84
54
60
66
72
84
60
66
72
84
96
60
66
72
84
96
60
66
72
84
96
60
66
72
84
96
72
84
96
108
72
84
96
108
72
84
96
108
72
84
96
108
24
23
23
23
26
27
25
25
25
25
33
32
32
31
31
36
34
32
33
31
40
38
36
36
34
29
29
30
30
30
32
35
34
34
35
40
38
37
36
37
47
44
43
42
44
38
38
38
38
41
41
44
45
45
47
48
49
49
49
49
49
28
26
27
26
28
33
31
31
31
31
43
40
38
36
35
45
41
39
38
37
48
46
43
42
43
32
32
32
32
32
37
42
38
37
36
47
47
44
43
42
55
55
51
49
48
40
40
40
40
46
45
45
46
55
50
50
53
62
62
60
61
32
31
31
29
30
37
35
35
35
35
50
46
44
41
39
52
48
47
44
42
58
56
50
51
47
38
36
34
34
34
42
46
46
46
42
59
54
50
50
47
67
65
59
57
58
44
44
44
44
51
47
47
48
61
58
57
57
73
74
69
66
36
33
32
33
32
44
40
40
40
40
58
51
47
47
45
59
56
50
50
47
66
64
58
58
54
43
40
38
38
38
49
55
51
48
48
66
60
59
54
53
78
72
70
64
64
47
47
47
47
61
53
50
51
72
65
64
62
80
82
77
74
40
38
36
35
35
48
47
47
46
43
66
59
55
54
50
67
60
58
57
53
75
71
65
65
62
47
46
43
43
43
55
61
57
53
50
71
68
67
59
57
92
80
79
74
70
52
52
52
52
64
61
56
57
80
73
71
70
94
91
86
87
44
44
39
39
37
54
49
49
49
49
67
67
61
57
53
75
68
65
63
55
90
79
74
72
66
52
48
47
47
47
62
64
64
59
55
78
77
71
67
66
101
94
83
81
81
57
57
57
57
73
67
64
60
94
81
81
75
108
107
95
92
50
46
45
42
40
61
56
56
56
51
75
68
68
63
58
78
77
70
69
65
92
92
81
76
74
58
53
79
48
49
70
72
65
61
58
92
80
79
75
72
107
104
97
90
86
61
61
61
61
78
72
70
66
103
93
87
83
115
117
111
101
7 1/2 in.
54
51
47
47
44
66
64
62
57
53
86
76
40
72
68
92
80
78
73
69
105
93
94
84
78
65
59
54
54
54
78
77
74
67
64
101
94
83
79
81
115
109
107
104
92
68
69
67
67
89
78
72
75
109
98
92
93
128
122
121
115
58
53
52
48
47
70
67
69
63
58
92
87
78
73
68
101
93
82
71
80
106
104
96
95
83
66
63
61
61
61
78
86
78
72
72
106
103
96
84
79
132
117
111
106
97
76
73
71
70
94
90
80
76
114
112
106
97
135
130
126
118
65
63
59
55
51
90
76
74
72
67
106
94
91
83
76
107
107
96
94
86
131
117
110
110
101
78
71
69
69
69
100
98
91
82
78
116
109
111
101
94
153
134
121
120
114
88
82
77
75
108
94
94
84
134
121
121
113
157
149
139
132
73
67
67
62
59
100
93
82
81
76
115
108
97
98
87
132
115
110
108
91
152
133
120
115
108
91
79
78
78
78
105
109
101
95
86
143
134
120
112
109
175
158
149
131
128
94
94
85
80
115
113
98
98
156
140
128
126
181
174
156
145
86
75
71
70
66
105
102
96
93
80
132
118
110
112
99
142
133
120
117
106
164
155
136
126
122
100
93
89
89
89
115
114
110
104
98
155
145
137
119
118
192
180
162
152
140
108
104
98
89
131
120
107
104
179
163
144
134
205
195
181
165
91
87
78
78
71
114
107
106
99
89
153
134
120
114
106
154
145
136
124
119
177
169
160
145
134
105
105
95
95
95
132
129
126
113
104
175
157
152
128
124
206
194
185
174
159
115
114
108
99
146
133
123
113
184
166
163
152
229
210
199
184
111
106
94
96
83
151
134
121
115
104
177
167
160
142
126
192
180
163
156
142
225
205
184
189
166
131
126
115
115
115
164
169
159
135
125
206
195
186
170
155
252
232
225
207
196
145
134
125
114
181
161
146
140
233
210
199
182
280
256
233
223
131
126
114
111
102
174
156
149
141
119
217
205
183
166
149
229
205
198
188
170
266
244
233
223
199
153
154
136
134
126
191
194
183
166
143
252
231
213
193
177
287
268
253
231
178
162
139
129
216
190
180
164
285
242
232
210
153
153
135
121
117
202
180
174
163
145
250
231
207
191
172
268
245
224
214
196
288
267
251
234
189
177
159
157
141
226
219
207
185
171
175
165
156
140
125
225
205
200
185
171
258
236
221
196
226
204
184
183
170
276
256
244
216
195
284
260
145 286
220 254 313
300
273
234 287 317
290
256 300
287
267
246 304
221 277 318
285
262
205
192
182
179
163
252
250
235
212
192
320
253
233
260
217
199
284
258
264
225 272 301
256
239 281
261
253 298
229 255
201 235 294
287
268
205
187
170
152
246
220
196
186
298
228
212
190
176
278
258
221 278
205 247 286
250
235 286
204 262
295
261 302
249 277
306
285
267 298
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
110
263
242
222
211
192
DESIGN GUIDE WEIGHT TABLE FOR JOIST GIRDERS
U. S. CUSTOMARY
Based on a 50ksi maximum yield strength
Joist Girder Weight – Pounds Per Linear Foot
Load on Each Panel Point
Girder Joist Girder
Span Spaces Depth
(ft)
(ft)
(in)
LRFD 6K 7.5K 9K 10.5K 12K 13.5K 15K 16.5K 18K 21K 24K 27K 30K 37.5K 45K 52.5K 60K 75K 90K 105K 120K 150K
ASD 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 14K 16K 18K 20K 25K 30K 35K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 100K
84
[email protected] 96
10.00 108
120
84
[email protected] 96
8.33 108
120
84
[email protected] 96
100 6.25 108
120
84
[email protected] 96
5.88 108
120
84
[email protected] 96
5.00 108
120
Bearing Depth
56
58
58
60
50
50
52
54
55
56
58
60
57
60
64
67
67
67
66
71
57
58
60
60
54
54
54
57
60
60
63
65
65
65
67
68
77
73
72
75
58 62 64 72 76
59 61 64 67 70
60 61 63 68 70
62 64 66 67 68
58 66 70 75 89
57 61 68 70 80
58 62 65 72 74
60 62 66 69 77
71 76 83 96 110
67 75 79 88 102
67 72 81 87 93
68 74 79 90 93
73 82 92 98 112
72 81 89 103 110
72 76 86 96 108
73 80 85 90 99
87 105 115 122 132
82 95 111 120 126
79 91 101 116 125
82 88 96 106 120
7 1/2 in.
88
78
73
71
92
84
79
79
112
105
106
98
114
123
113
112
148
135
130
123
90
88
77
74
101
96
89
86
119
119
111
110
123
123
123
119
159
152
131
136
103
94
93
85
112
106
101
92
139
128
125
117
151
145
135
133
193
177
162
149
118
106
96
99
129
116
110
107
161
145
136
134
164
177
158
143
208
199
184
170
129
120
111
108
138
123
121
117
184
168
157
147
187
179
172
167
226
211
197
193
142
131
111
113
159
137
128
126
199
191
180
166
203
198
182
178
246
227
207
205
172
152
139
139
187
179
164
151
235
218
204
208
250
256
231
214
200
180
170
157
221
205
193
178
288
265
251
248
225
204
188
188
257
228
221
206
257
228
209 258
201 242 289
271
246 299
239 283
301
292
275 304
285
264 308
250 281 330
279
267 316
246 289 332
10 in.
Joist Girder weights between the heavy black and blue lines have 7 1/2 inch bearing depths.
Joist Girder weights to the right of the heavy blue line have 10 inch bearing depths. Check with Vulcraft for material availability.
111
NOTES
112
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS
WITH STEEL JOISTS
• Some assemblies stipulate an allowable maximum joist
design stress level less than the 30 ksi (207 MPa) used
in the joist and Joist Girder Specifications. It is the
responsibility of the Specifying Professional to apply the
proper stress level reductions (when applicable) when
selecting joists and/or Joist Girders. This is accomplished by prorating the joist and/or Joist Girder capacities. To adjust the stress level of joists or Joist Girders,
multiply the design load by the ratio of the joist design
stress to the required maximum [e.g. 30/26 (207/179),
30/24 (207/165), 30/22 (207/152)], and then using this
increased load, select a joist or Joist Girder from the load
and/or weight tables.
The Underwriters Laboratories (U.L.) Fire Resistance
Directory lists hundreds of assemblies and their fire resistance ratings. The Specifying Professional can choose
between numerous Floor-Ceiling and Roof-Ceiling assemblies that include steel joists and Joist Girders.
As a convenience, a selected number of assemblies are
listed on the following pages. In addition, the Steel Joist
Institute’s Technical Digest #10 “Design of Fire Resistive
Assemblies with Steel Joists” has a complete listing of steel
joist assemblies and additional information about fire ratings. However, the listing that follows and the Technical
Digest are intended as a guide only, and the Specifying
Professional must refer to the current U.L. Fire Resistance
Directory for complete design requirements.
• Some U.L. Roof-Ceiling Assemblies using direct applied
protection limit the spacing of the joists for certain types
and gages of metal decking – refer to the U.L. Fire
Resistance Directory for this information.
Hundreds of fire tests on steel joist-supported assemblies
have been conducted at nationally recognized testing laboratories in accordance with ASTM Standard E119, ANSI
A2.1/UL 263, and NFPA 251. Because of practical loading
restrictions and limitations of furnace dimensions, the vast
majority of these tests were run using lightweight joists –
normally from 8 inches to 14 inches (203 mm to 356 mm)
deep. This practice was advantageous in that it established
the minimum acceptable joists at the shallow and lightweight
end of the joist load tables. This also resulted in a specified
minimum joist designation being listed in the U.L. Fire
Resistance Assembly, which is the joist that combines the
required minimum depth and minimum weight per foot.
Joists of the same series which equal or exceed the specified minimum joist depth and joist weight per foot may be
used provided the accessories are compatible. The dimension from the bottom chord of the joists to the ceiling,
whether given or calculated, is a minimum.
• Where fire protective materials are to be applied directly
to the steel joists or Joist Girders, it is often desired to
have the joist furnished as unpainted. The Specifying
Professional should indicate on the structural contract
drawings if the joists or Joist Girders are to be painted
or not.
• Certain older U.L. fire rated assemblies may refer to
joist series that predate the K-Series joists. Where one
of these assemblies is selected, refer to the U.L Fire
Resistance Directory for special provisions for substituting a K-Series joist in lieu of an S-, J-, and/or H-Series
joist.
Where a U.L. Fire Resistance Assembly is being utilized, the
Specifying Professional shall indicate the assembly number
being used on the structural contract drawings. In addition,
the Specifying Professional shall consider the following, as
applicable:
• Joist designations specified on the structural contract
drawings shall not be less than the minimum size for
that assembly. The assembly may also require a minimum bridging size that may be larger than required by
the SJI Specifications for the particular designation and
joist spacing.
• Some assemblies stipulate minimum size materials or
minimum cross sectional areas for individual joist and
Joist Girder components. It is the responsibility of the
Specifying Professional to show all special requirements on the contract drawings.
• Note that the maximum joist spacing shown for FloorCeiling Assemblies may be increased from the spacing
listed in the U.L. Fire Resistance Directory to a maximum of 48 inches on center, provided the floor slab
meets the structural requirements and the spacing of
hanger wires supporting the ceiling is not increased.
113
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
1 Hr.
FLOOR – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH MEMBRANE PROTECTION
Protection
Material
Acoustical
Minimum Joist
Size
12K1, 18LH02
10K1
Exposed Grid
10K1
Gypsum Board
10K1
Acoustical
Gypsum Board
10K1
Exposed Grid
Gypsum Board
Acoustical
Gypsum Board
Concealed Grid
2 Hr.
Exposed Grid
LW, NW
2
NW
72
2.5
NW
48
2.5
2.5
2.5
10K1
2.5
10K1
2
2.5
10K1
2
2.5
12K1
2
2.5
10K1
2.25
10K1
2.5
10K1
2.5
10K1
10K1
10K1
10K1
72
72
NL
24 (48)
72
NW
NW
LW, NW
NW
NW
2.5
10K1
NL
72
2.5
12K1, 18LH02
8K1
NW
2.5
10K1
10K1
LW, NW
2.5
10K1
10K1
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary Support
Spacing (in.)
Member
2.5
12K1, 18LH02
10K1
1 1/2 Hr.
Concrete
Minimum
Type
Thickness (in.)
2.5
NW
2.5
2.5
2.5
24 (48)
[email protected]
W8 x 15
[email protected] *
W6 x 12
G548
[email protected]
W8 x 28
D502
[email protected] *
W6 x 12
G205
[email protected]
W8 x 15
[email protected]
W6 x 12
W6 x 12
[email protected]
W6 x 12
NL
24 (48)
[email protected]
W8 x 24
[email protected]
W8 x 31
24 (48)
24 (48)
G203
G208
G213
G228
G229
G243
G268
D502
D216
D219
W6 x 25
G023
[email protected]
W10 x 21
G036
[email protected]
W6 x 12
72
D219
[email protected]
W8 x 28
[email protected]
W8 x 15
24 (48)
24 (48)
D216
G502
24 (48)
72
G256
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 20
30 (48)
G205
W8 x 24
24 (48)
24 (48)
D219
G208
24 (48)
24 (48)
D216
W6 x 12
[email protected] *
W6 x 12
[email protected]
W8 x 31
24 (48)
UL Design
Number
[email protected] *
W6 x 12
W6 x 12
W8 x 31
[email protected]
W8 x 31
G031
G203
G205
G208
G213
G227
G228
(Continued Next Page)
114
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
FLOOR – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH MEMBRANE PROTECTION
Protection
Material
Exposed Grid
2 Hr.
Minimum Joist
Size
10K1
2.5
10K1
2.5
10K1
10K1
Acoustical
Concealed Grid
10K1
10K1
10K1
12K1, 18LH02
10K1
Exposed Grid
10K1
10K1
(22 ksi max.)
Gypsum Board
* Special Area Requirements
NL = Not Listed
NS = Not Specified
2.5
10K1
10K1
10K1
NW
2.5
2.5
3.25
LW, NW
3.5
3.5
24 (48)
[email protected]
W8 x 24
72
[email protected] *
W6 x 12
24 (48)
24 (48)
2.5
10K1
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary Support
Spacing (in.)
Member
24 (48)
2
3.25
10K1
NW
2.5
10K1
10K1
3 Hr.
2.5
10K1
10K1
Gypsum Board
Concrete
Minimum
Type
Thickness (in.)
NW
3.5
NW
3.5
2.63
3
NW
2.75
3
115
[email protected]
W8 x 31
24 (48)
30 (48)
24 (48)
G268
G523
[email protected]
W8 x 24
NL
G256
[email protected]
W10 x 21
24 (48)
24 (48)
G243
G505
24 (48)
24 (48)
G229
NS
[email protected] *
W8 x 31
48
3.25
[email protected]
W6 x 12
UL Design
Number
[email protected]
W10 x 21
[email protected]
W8 x 15
G514
G529
G547
D216
D219
[email protected]
W8 x 20
G033
[email protected] *
W6 x 12
G205
[email protected]
W10 x 21
G036
W6 x 12
G213
[email protected] *
W6 x 12
G256
24 (48)
[email protected]
W10 x 21
G523
24 (48)
[email protected]
W10 x 21
G547
24 (48)
[email protected]
W8 x 24
24 (48)
[email protected]
W8 x 31
48
24 (48)
[email protected]
W8 x 24
G229
G268
G529
FLOOR – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH SPRAY APPLIED FIRE RESISTIVE MATERIALS
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
Protection
Material
Minimum Joist
Size
NS
10K1
10K1
SAFRM
LW, NW
2.5
LW
2.5
16K6*
NS
LW, NW
3.75
NW
16K6
16K6*
16K6
NS
16K6*
12K1
NS
10K1
10K1
LW
3.5
NW
3
LW
2.5
LW, NW
3
LW
3.75
NW
2.5
2.5
LW, NW
3
LW
2.5
LW, NW
2.5
3.75
NW
2.5
2.5
NS
3.25
3
LW
16K6*
2.5
LW, NW
4.5
NW
10K1*
SAFRM
2.5
3.25
16K6*
1 1/2 Hr.
2.5
NS
10K1*
1 Hr.
Concrete
Minimum
Type
Thickness (in.)
16K6
16K6*
16K6
16K6*
NS
16K6*
12K5
LW
4
NW
3.5
LW
2.5
LW, NW
3.5
LW
4.5
NW
2.5
2.5
LW, NW
3.5
LW
2.5
4.5
NW
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary Support
Spacing
Member
NL
W8 x 28
42
[email protected]
W8 x 28
42
NS
50.5
50.5
NS
NS
G701
G702
G708
G801
G802
D759
W8 x 28
42
[email protected]
W8 x 28
42
NS
NS
D779
D780
D782
D925
G701
G702
G705
NS
G706
W8 x 28
G709
42
[email protected]
W8 x 28
42
[email protected]
W8 x 24
50.5
D925
G709
NL
42
D782
W8 x 28
[email protected]
W8 x 24
50.5
D780
G706
42
50.5
D779
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 28
50.5
D759
G705
42
42
UL Design
Number
NS
G708
G801
G802
(Continued Next Page)
N
116
FLOOR – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH SPRAY APPLIED FIRE RESISTIVE MATERIALS
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
Protection
Material
Minimum Joist
Size
NS
10K1
10K1
SAFRM
5.25
NW
16K6
16K6*
16K6
NS
10K1
10K1
NS
10K1*
16K6*
NW
4
LW
2.5
LW,NW
4
LW
5.25
NW
2.5
2.5
LW, NW
4
LW
2.5
LW, NW
4.19
LW
2.5
5.25
NW
2.5
2.5
3.25
LW
5.25
NW
NS
2.75
NS
2.75
2.75
16K6*
2.75
NS
3.25
10K1
LW
4.5
16K6*
16K6*
* Special Area Requirements
NL = Not Listed
NS = Not Specified
LW
LW, NW
12K5
SAFRM
3.25
2.5
2.5
16K6*
4 Hr.
LW, NW
16K6*
NS
SAFRM
2.5
3.25
16K6*
3 Hr.
2.5
NS
10K1*
2 Hr.
Concrete
Minimum
Type
Thickness (in.)
LW, NW
2.5
LW, NW
LW
117
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary Support
Spacing
Member
NL
W8 x 28
42
[email protected]
W8 x 28
42
NS
50.5
50.5
NS
D779
D780
D782
D925
G701
G702
G705
G706
W8 x 28
G709
[email protected]
W8 x 28
42
[email protected]
W8 x 24
50.5
D759
NS
42
42
UL Design
Number
NS
G708
G801
G802
D759
D779
D780
NL
W8 x 28
42
[email protected]
W8 x 28
42
[email protected]
W8 x 28
G708
42
[email protected]
W8 x 24
G801
42
42
NL
NS
W8 x 28
W8 x 28
D782
D925
G701
G705
G709
D779
D782
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
ROOF – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH MEMBRANE PROTECTION
Protection
Material
Minimum Joist
Size
12K1
10K1
10K1
12K3
12K1
12K3
26 MSG Min.
24 MSG Min.
Building Units
26 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
Fiber Board
24 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
26 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
Metal Roof Deck
Panels
10K1
Metal Roof Deck
Panels
10K1
24 MSG Min.
12K3
10K1
48
22 MSG Min.
10K1
12K3
[email protected]
W6 x 12
Fiber Board
28 MSG Min.
10K1
72
72
26 MSG Min.
12K1
W6 x 12
[email protected]
72
28 MSG Min.
W8 x 17
48
Foamed Plastic
10K1
10K1
48
24 MSG Min.
28 MSG Min.
12K1
84
72
12K1
10K1
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary Support
Spacing (in.)
Member
Fiber Board
28 MSG Min.
12K5
Fiber Board
28 MSG Min.
10K1
12K1
Gypsum Board
26 MSG Min.
12K3
10K1
Fiber Board
26 MSG Min.
26 MSG Min.
10K1
1 Hr.
22 MSG Min.
12K3
12K1
Exposed Grid
Built Up Roof
Deck Material
Insulation
Description
[email protected]
W8 x 17
NS
UL Design
Number
P201
P202
P211
P214
P225
P227
[email protected]
W6 x 12
P230
W8 x 15
P235
48
[email protected] *
W8 x 15
Insulating
Concrete
72
[email protected]
W8 x 15
P246
Insulating
Concrete
72
[email protected]
W6 x 12
P251
Insulating
Concrete
72
W8 x 15
P255
48
72
72
Insulating
Concrete
72
Batts and
Blankets
60
W6 x 12
W6 x 12
NS
P231
P250
P254
P259
[email protected]
W6 x 12
P261
NS
P265
72
[email protected] *
W8 x 15
P264
26 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
48
W6 x 16
P267
26 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
72
[email protected] *
W8 x 15
P269
W6 x 16
P303
Batts and
Blankets
Fiber Board
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
26 MSG Min.
24 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
20 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
60
NS
48
NS
W6 x 16
NS
NS
60
72
48
W8 x 24
[email protected]
W8 x 13
NS
P268
P301
P302
P509
P510
P519
(Continued Next Page)
2
118
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
ROOF – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH MEMBRANE PROTECTION
Protection
Material
Minimum Joist
Size
12K1
12K3
1 1/2 Hr.
Gypsum Board
2 Hr.
Building Units
26 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
48
24 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
72
20 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
26 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
10K1
Metal Roof Deck
Panels
10K1
Metal Roof Deck
Panels
12K1
10K1
24 MSG Min.
Batts and
Blankets
24 MSG Min.
10K1
20 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
Fiber Board
14K1
26 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
10K1
28 MSG Min.
119
Fiber Board
Insulating
Concrete
P227
P230
P231
NS
P259
48
NS
P266
72
[email protected] *
W8 x 24
P269
60
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 12
Fiber Board
20 MSG Min.
NS
P225
P250
72
Insulating
Concrete
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
60
UL Design
Number
W6 x 12
72
12K5
10K1
72
[email protected]
W6 x 12
Fiber Board
Fiber Board
10K1
[email protected] *
W8 x 24
[email protected]
W8 x 13
24 MSG Min.
24 MSG Min.
48
NS
10K1
12K3
NS
Fiber Board
Fiber Board
Fiber Board
* Special Area Requirements
NL = Not Listed
NS = Not Specified
Batts and
Blankets
22 MSG Min.
28 MSG Min.
Metal Lath
Insulating
Concrete
12K5
12K1
Metal Lath
48
[email protected]
W6 x 12
48
Fiber Board
12K1
Fiber Board
[email protected]
W6 x 12
26 MSG Min.
Exposed Grid
Gypsum Board
3 Hr.
24 MSG Min.
72
12K5
10K1
Metal Lath
Fiber Board
26 MSG Min.
10K1
Fiber Board
26 MSG Min.
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary
Support
Spacing (in.)
Member
12K3
12K1
Exposed Grid
Built Up Roof
Deck Material
Insulation
Description
72
72
48
NS
72
W6 x 16
NS
W6 x 12
NS
W6 x 16
P251
P265
P268
P301
P404
P510
P237
P251
P266
P301
72
NS
[email protected]
P404
66
NS
P520
48
48
NS
NS
P514
P519
P405
ROOF – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH SPRAY APPLIED FIRE RESISTIVE MATERIALS
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
1 Hr.
1 Hr.
and
1-1/2 Hr.
1-1/2 Hr.
and
2 Hr.
Protection
Material
SAFRM
Minimum Joist
Size
10K1
12K3
and
2 Hr.
Building Units
22 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
NS
NS
NS
W8 x 20
UL Design
Number
P822
P824
12K5
28 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
96
W6 x 16
P919
SAFRM
10K1
22 MSG Min.
Building Units
NS
W6 x 16
P728
14K4
22 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 16
P701
12K3
22 MSG Min.
Foamed Plastic
NS
W6 x 16
P717
Fiber Board
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 16
22 MSG Min.
Foamed Plastic
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 28
14K4
22 MSG Min.
Fiber Board
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 16
14K4
SAFRM
22 MSG Min.
10K1
10K1
1-1/2 Hr.
22 MSG Min.
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary Support
Spacing (in.)
Member
SAFRM
14K4
1 Hr.,
Built Up Roof
Deck Material
Insulation
Description
10K1
10K1
10K1
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
12K3
22 MSG Min.
10K1
22 MSG Min.
10K1
10K1
10K1
10K1
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
10K1
28 MSG Min.
10K1
Fiber Board
Foamed Plastic
NS
Fiber Board
Fiber Board
Foamed Plastic
Foamed Plastic
Foamed Plastic
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 16
[email protected]
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
P726
P734
P736
P739
P740
P743
NS
P801
NS
W6 x 16
P816
NS
NS
NS
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
Fiber Board
NS
Insulating
Concrete
NS
W8 x 10
Insulating
Concrete
P725
[email protected]
W6 x 16
[email protected]
W8 x 20
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
NS
NS
Fiber Board
28 MSG Min.
NS
Fiber Board
Foamed Plastic
22 MSG Min.
12K1
10K1
Fiber Board
P711
NS
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 10
[email protected]
W8 x 10
P815
P819
P825
P827
P828
P907
P902
P908
(Continued Next Page)
120
ROOF – CEILING ASSEMBLIES WITH SPRAY APPLIED FIRE RESISTIVE MATERIALS
Restrained
Assembly
Rating
Protection
Material
Minimum Joist
Size
10K1
1-1/2 Hr.
and
2 Hr.
SAFRM
1 Hr.,
1-1/2 Hr.,
2 Hr.
and
3 Hr.
SAFRM
* Special Area Requirements
NS = Not Specified
W8 x 10
P920
[email protected]
W8 x 10
P921
28 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 10
P923
28 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
NS
W8 x 10
P926
12K5
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
NS
NS
W6 x 16
[email protected]
W8 x 10
P922
P925
14K4
28 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 10
P927
12K3
28 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 10
P929
10K1
SAFRM
NS
UL Design
Number
NS
10K1
12K5
2 Hr.
Minimum
Maximum Joist
Primary
Support
Spacing (in.)
Member
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
10K1
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
12K5
10K1
1 Hr.,
Built Up Roof
Deck Material
Insulation
Description
12K3
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
Insulating
Concrete
28 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
Foamed Plastic
NS
NS
NS
[email protected]
W8 x 10
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
P928
P936
P718
12K3
22 MSG Min.
Foamed Plastic
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 16
10K1
22 MSG Min.
Foamed Plastic
NS
[email protected]
W6 x 16
P719
10K1
22 MSG Min.
Foamed Plastic
NS
W6 x 16
P723
12K3
10K1
10K1
10K1* ,16K2
10K1*
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
22 MSG Min.
Foamed Plastic
Foamed Plastic
Foamed Plastic
Foamed Plastic
Foamed Plastic
121
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
W8 x 28
W6 x 16
W6 x 16
P720
P729
P722
P732
P733
P826
NOTES
122
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Where the joist span is in the GREEN SHADED area of
the table, the row of bridging nearest the mid span shall
be diagonal bridging with bolted connections at chords
and intersection. Hoisting cables shall not be released
until this row of bolted diagional bridging is completely
installed.
The following table is an economy guide with the Joists
listed in sequence of increasing relative cost. That is, the
most economical joist for given length is listed first. The
economies were based on production costs and do not
include bridging requirements or erection costs.
Where the joist span is in the BLUE SHADED area of the
table, all rows of bridging shall be diagonal bridging with
bolted connections at chords and intersection. Hoist
cables shall not be released until the two rows of bridging
nearest the third points are completely installed.
HOW TO USE THE ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE: The
specifying professional simply turns to the length
required and proceeds down the allowable loads column
until the first joist type in the list that will carry the required
load is found. (However, additional bridging due to
erection stability requirements should be taken into
consideration.) This will then be the most economical
joist type for the combination of length and required load.
The approximate weight per foot of the joist is listed to the
right of the live load.
Where the joist span is in the GRAY SHADED area of
the table hoisting cables shall not be released until all
rows of bridging are completely installed.
EXAMPLE: Given 40'-0" length and a required load of
300 plf. On page 126 of the table under 40', it is found
that a 30K7 at 40'-0" will carry 319 plf TL.
SHADING LEGEND
The figures shown in red are the live loads per lineal foot
of joist which will produce an approximate deflection of
1/360 of the length. If a deflection limitation of 1/240 is
required multiply the figures in red by 1.5. In no case shall
the total load capacity of the joist be exceeded.
GREEN
BLUE
GRAY
NOTE: Length as used in the economical joist guide
means: clear span + 8" for K Series and clear span +
12" for LH and DLH Series joists.
Total loads shown in the table are allowable total loads in ASD; the loads multiplied by 1.5 are approximately factored
total loads in LRFD.
You will note that the tables have been shaded to match
the load tables. This shading indicates when bolted cross
bridging needs to be installed per the Steel Joist Institute
specification for a particular joist series.
123
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
10K 1
10K 1
10K 1
10K 1
12K 1
10K 1
14K 1
10K 1
12K 1
14K 1
14K 3
10K 1
12K 1
14K 1
12K 3
14K 3
10K 1
12K 1
14K 1
12K 3
16K 2
16K 3
10K 1
12K 1
14K 1
12K 3
14K 3
16K 2
16K 3
14K 4
14K 6
10K1
12K1
14K1
12K3
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
16K5
12K 1
14K 1
12K 3
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
10' LENGTH
Joist
Weight
550
550
5.0
550
542
5.0
550
455
5.0
479
550
363
510
5.0
5.0
11' LENGTH
12' LENGTH
13' LENGTH
14' LENGTH
412
550
289
550
5.0
5.2
358
434
511
550
234
344
475
507
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.9
15' LENGTH
16' LENGTH
313
380
448
476
550
192
282
390
351
467
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.7
5.9
277
336
395
420
512
550
159
234
324
291
488
526
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.7
5.5
6.3
246
299
352
374
441
456
508
530
550
134
197
272
245
339
409
456
397
408
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.5
5.8
5.5
6.3
6.7
6.9
221
268
315
335
408
455
514
547
550
113
167
230
207
347
386
494
452
455
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.6
5.5
6.3
6.6
7.0
7.2
241
284
302
142
197
177
5.0
5.2
5.5
17' LENGTH
18' LENGTH
19' LENGTH
20' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
20' LENGTH (Cont.)
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
16K5
12K1
14K1
12K3
14K3
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
16K5
18K4
20K4
12K1
14K1
12K3
14K3
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
22K6
18LH2
18LH3
18LH4
18LH5
18LH6
18LH7
18LH8
18LH9
14K1
12K3
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
22K6
18LH3
18LH4
20LH5
18LH5
18LH6
18LH7
20LH8
18LH9
20LH9
20LH10
14K1
12K3
Joist
Weight
368
410
463
493
550
297
330
423
386
426
5.5
6.2
6.5
7.0
7.5
218
257
273
322
333
371
420
447
468
503
506
550
123
170
153
212
255
285
364
333
453
373
426
520
5.0
5.2
5.5
5.7
5.5
6.3
6.6
7.0
6.7
7.5
7.2
7.6
199
234
249
293
303
337
382
406
426
460
514
518
550
554
614
715
808
955
992
1034
1108
106
147
132
184
222
247
316
289
393
370
461
414
548
439
488
566
637
738
776
810
864
5.0
5.1
5.5
5.6
5.5
6.2
6.5
6.9
6.7
7.2
7.6
7.7
7.5
8.8
10
11
12
14
15
15
16
21' LENGTH
22' LENGTH
23' LENGTH
214
128
227
116
277
194
308
216
349
276
371
252
389
344
420
323
469
402
473
362
550
518
587
446
684
517
697
589
772
582
913
674
949
709
1024 858
1059 790
1121 935
1209 1008
5.1
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.6
7.0
6.7
7.2
7.6
7.7
7.7
10
11
11
13
15
15
15
16
16
17
196
208
5.1
5.6
24' LENGTH
113
101
Joist
24' LENGTH (Cont.)
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
18K6
20K5
24K6
18LH3
20LH4
18LH4
20LH5
18LH5
18LH6
20LH6
18LH7
18LH8
20LH7
20LH8
18LH9
20LH9
20LH10
14K1
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
16K6
18K5
16K7
18K6
20K5
18K7
20K6
16K9
24K6
20LH4
18LH4
20LH5
18LH5
20LH6
18LH7
18LH8
20LH7
20LH8
18LH9
20LH9
20LH10
14K1
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
22K4
20K5
20K6
22K5
26K5
124
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
254
283
320
340
357
385
430
434
473
485
550
562
621
655
668
739
875
892
908
946
951
980
1014
1073
1158
170
189
242
221
302
284
353
318
345
396
544
409
503
474
540
534
619
713
650
679
761
787
725
857
924
5.5
6.1
6.5
6.9
6.7
7.2
7.6
7.7
8.5
8.2
7.7
10
10
11
11
12
15
15
15
16
15
16
17
16
17
180
234
260
294
313
329
355
384
400
428
435
446
485
486
514
550
596
628
641
709
855
872
908
912
941
973
1030
1111
100
150
167
214
195
266
250
238
281
263
305
350
337
380
311
520
463
436
497
492
656
599
625
701
724
667
789
851
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.3
6.9
6.7
7.1
8.1
7.7
8.6
8.5
8.2
9.0
8.9
10
8.6
10
11
11
13
15
16
16
16
16
17
17
18
166
216
240
272
289
304
328
366
369
404
412
449
455
542
83
133
148
190
173
236
222
277
249
338
310
337
379
535
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.4
6.8
6.7
7.2
7.6
7.7
8.0
8.2
8.9
8.8
8.8
25' LENGTH
26' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
26' LENGTH (Cont.)
24K6
24K7
20LH4
18LH4
20LH5
18LH5
20LH6
18LH7
18LH8
20LH7
18LH9
20LH9
20LH10
14K1
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
22K4
20K5
20K6
22K5
24K6
26K6
26K7
20LH4
18LH4
20LH5
18LH5
20LH6
20LH7
20LH8
20LH9
20LH10
14K1
16K2
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
16K5
18K4
20K4
18K5
18K6
20K5
22K5
26K5
24K6
22K7
26K6
28K6
28K7
20LH4
20LH5
18LH5
20LH6
20LH7
20LH8
20LH9
20LH10
543
550
574
604
616
684
822
840
876
878
936
990
1068
493
499
428
403
459
454
606
553
577
647
616
729
786
8.9
9.2
11
12
11
13
15
16
16
16
17
17
18
154
200
223
252
268
281
303
339
342
374
382
416
422
503
547
550
566
571
609
648
791
845
873
953
1028
79
119
132
169
155
211
198
247
222
301
277
301
337
439
519
522
406
367
437
414
561
599
619
675
724
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.3
6.8
6.6
7.0
7.4
7.7
8.0
8.2
8.8
8.7
8.6
8.9
9.1
11
12
12
14
15
16
16
17
19
143
186
207
234
249
261
281
282
315
318
346
355
392
466
467
475
508
548
550
558
602
614
763
814
842
918
991
70
106
118
151
138
189
155
177
221
199
216
248
302
427
393
364
464
541
543
386
416
378
521
556
575
626
673
5.1
5.5
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.7
7.4
7.2
7.5
7.7
8.5
8.2
8.8
8.1
8.5
9.2
8.9
9.2
9.2
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
27' LENGTH
28' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
16K3
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
22K4
20K5
22K5
26K5
24K6
28K6
28K7
18LH5
20LH5
18LH6
24LH6
24LH7
20LH7
24LH8
24LH9
24LH10
24LH11
18K3
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
20K5
20K6
22K6
26K5
24K6
26K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
26K8
26K9
20LH5
18LH6
24LH6
24LH7
24LH8
24LH9
24LH10
24LH11
16K4
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
22K4
20K5
24K4
20K6
22K5
22K6
26K5
24K6
22K7
28K6
22K9
28K8
24LH6
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
29' LENGTH
Joist
Weight
193
218
232
243
263
293
296
324
330
365
434
435
511
550
581
595
648
708
778
786
830
977
1033
1088
106
136
124
170
159
199
179
242
223
272
384
354
486
522
345
395
377
567
623
518
662
775
822
861
5.9
6.2
6.7
6.6
7.0
7.4
7.7
7.8
8.1
8.7
8.0
8.4
9.1
9.5
14
13
15
14
15
16
16
18
19
20
203
216
227
245
274
276
308
336
371
405
406
441
477
492
531
544
550
571
605
684
752
802
944
998
1052
123
112
153
144
179
161
201
218
266
346
319
377
439
417
486
457
459
366
340
529
582
618
724
768
804
6.1
6.6
6.5
6.9
7.3
7.7
8.0
8.7
8.2
8.0
8.4
8.8
9.0
9.2
9.5
10
10
13
15
14
15
16
18
19
21
30' LENGTH
31' LENGTH
203
212
229
256
258
283
289
310
314
319
347
379
380
387
446
465
550
662
101
138
130
162
146
198
182
237
198
222
241
314
289
267
397
316
480
495
6.6
6.6
6.9
7.4
7.7
7.8
8.1
8.4
8.8
8.7
8.3
8.1
8.6
8.8
9.0
10
10
14
Joist
31' LENGTH (Cont.)
24LH7
24LH8
24LH9
24LH10
24LH11
16K2
16K3
18K3
20K4
18K5
20K5
24K4
22K5
22K6
26K5
24K6
26K6
28K6
22K9
28K7
26K8
28K8
28K9
24LH6
24LH7
24LH8
24LH9
24LH10
24LH11
18K3
20K4
22K4
20K5
24K4
20K6
22K5
26K5
24K6
26K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
28K8
26K9
28K9
28K10
24LH6
24LH7
24LH8
24LH9
24LH10
24LH11
18K3
20K3
18K4
18K6
24K4
20K6
22K5
26K5
26K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
727
776
913
965
1017
545
579
677
718
752
15
16
19
20
21
142
158
178
240
242
271
290
299
326
356
357
387
418
436
466
477
515
549
641
704
752
884
935
985
71
79
101
147
132
165
215
201
219
285
262
309
361
287
400
375
433
463
465
511
543
635
674
705
5.5
5.8
6.1
7.2
7.6
7.9
8.1
8.4
8.4
8.0
8.5
8.6
8.9
10
9.5
9.9
10
11
14
15
16
19
20
20
168
226
249
254
273
277
281
334
335
364
393
406
438
484
488
527
532
621
683
729
857
906
955
92
134
164
150
196
163
183
259
239
282
329
312
364
399
370
432
435
437
480
510
597
633
663
6.1
7.3
7.9
8.1
8.3
8.7
8.5
8.0
8.3
8.6
8.8
9.1
9.4
10
11
11
11
15
16
16
19
20
22
158
176
190
233
257
261
265
315
343
370
382
412
84
105
98
120
179
149
167
237
257
300
285
333
6.1
6.4
6.9
8.2
8.1
8.6
8.4
7.9
8.5
8.8
9.1
9.4
32' LENGTH
33' LENGTH
34' LENGTH
Joist
18K3
20K3
18K4
20K4
20K6
26K5
26K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
28K8
26K9
28K9
28K10
28LH6
28LH7
28LH8
24LH8
28LH9
28LH10
28LH11
28LH12
28LH13
18K3
20K3
18K4
20K4
18K5
24K6
22K7
24K7
28K6
26K7
24K8
28K7
26K8
30K7
28K9
28K10
28LH6
28LH7
28LH8
24LH8
28LH9
28LH10
28LH11
28LH12
28LH13
125
Joist
Weight
34' LENGTH (Cont.)
24K9
28K8
28K9
28K10
28LH6
28LH7
28LH8
24LH8
28LH9
24LH9
28LH10
28LH11
28LH12
28LH13
20K3
20K4
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
423
456
496
516
552
624
668
707
823
832
900
965
1060
1105
286
364
395
410
443
499
533
480
656
562
714
763
835
872
10
10
11
11
13
14
15
17
17
20
19
20
23
23
149
166
179
200
246
297
323
349
360
389
430
433
468
501
537
606
649
677
799
874
938
1030
1073
77
96
90
112
137
217
236
275
261
305
333
310
361
389
417
471
503
447
618
673
719
787
822
6.1
6.5
6.9
7.3
8.7
7.9
8.5
8.7
9.0
9.4
9.9
10
11
11
13
14
15
17
18
20
21
23
24
141
157
169
189
191
281
286
313
330
340
346
367
376
395
442
487
521
589
631
649
777
850
911
1001
1043
70
88
82
103
92
183
169
203
252
240
222
280
263
323
332
366
394
445
475
416
584
636
680
744
777
6.1
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
8.7
8.8
8.8
9.1
9.5
9.4
9.8
9.6
11
12
13
14
15
17
18
19
21
23
24
148
179
81
95
6.4
7.3
35' LENGTH
36' LENGTH
37' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
37' LENGTH (Cont.)
26K5
24K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
30K7
28K8
26K9
30K8
28K9
30K9
30K10
28LH6
24LH6
28LH7
24LH7
28LH8
24LH8
28LH9
28LH10
28LH11
28LH12
28LH13
20K3
20K4
24K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
30K7
28K8
26K9
30K8
28K9
30K9
30K10
28LH6
24LH6
28LH7
24LH7
28LH8
28LH9
28LH10
28LH11
28LH12
28LH13
20K3
20K4
20K5
28K6
26K7
28K7
30K7
28K8
26K9
30K8
28K9
30K9
26K10
30K10
32LH7
32LH8
28LH7
32LH9
32LH10
32LH11
28LH11
265
266
312
322
348
373
384
387
413
418
449
474
507
530
573
588
614
622
755
826
886
974
1015
183
169
232
221
257
297
282
262
325
305
352
374
373
331
421
367
449
388
553
602
643
704
735
7.9
8.3
8.7
9.1
9.3
9.5
9.9
10
10
11
11
12
13
15
15
16
16
17
18
21
21
23
25
141
170
252
296
305
329
354
364
367
391
396
426
461
494
504
558
565
597
735
804
863
948
988
74
87
156
214
204
237
274
260
241
300
282
325
353
354
306
399
343
426
524
570
609
667
696
6.3
7.2
8.3
8.6
9.0
9.2
9.5
9.9
10
10
11
11
11
13
15
15
16
16
19
20
22
23
26
133
161
181
280
289
313
336
346
348
371
376
404
413
449
486
528
543
662
732
802
841
69
81
90
198
188
219
253
240
223
277
260
300
262
333
388
421
379
526
581
635
578
6.4
7.3
7.9
8.6
9.0
9.1
9.5
9.9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
14
15
17
18
20
22
38' LENGTH
39' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Joist
Weight
39' LENGTH (Cont.)
32LH12
28LH13
32LH13
32LH14
32LH15
20K3
20K4
22K4
20K5
24K7
26K7
28K7
30K7
28K8
26K9
28K9
30K9
26K10
30K10
32LH7
32LH8
28LH7
32LH9
32LH10
32LH11
32LH12
32LH13
32LH14
32LH15
22K4
24K4
24K7
26K7
24K8
24K9
30K7
26K9
28K9
30K9
26K10
30K10
32LH7
32LH8
28LH7
32LH9
32LH10
32LH11
28LH11
32LH12
32LH13
32LH14
32LH15
22K4
24K7
26K7
24K8
28K7
26K8
30K7
26K9
30K8
28K9
30K9
26K10
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
941
962
1050
1081
1117
742
661
825
850
878
23
26
25
26
26
127
153
169
172
253
275
297
319
328
331
357
384
393
438
474
514
529
645
713
782
918
1024
1054
1089
64
75
91
84
148
174
203
234
222
207
241
278
243
315
368
400
360
500
552
604
705
784
807
834
6.4
7.2
7.6
7.9
8.9
9.0
9.1
9.4
9.9
10
11
11
12
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
23
26
26
27
161
176
241
262
266
290
303
315
340
365
374
427
462
502
516
630
696
762
799
895
998
1028
1062
85
101
137
162
150
162
217
192
224
258
225
300
351
380
342
476
525
574
523
671
746
768
794
7.6
8.0
8.9
9.0
9.5
10
9.5
10
11
11
12
12
13
14
16
17
19
21
23
23
26
26
28
153
229
249
253
269
275
289
300
320
324
348
356
79
127
150
139
175
164
202
178
221
208
240
210
7.6
8.9
9.0
9.6
9.2
9.7
9.5
10
10
11
11
12
40' LENGTH
41' LENGTH
42' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
42' LENGTH (Cont.)
28K10
30K10
30K11
32LH7
32LH8
28LH7
28LH8
32LH9
32LH10
32LH11
32LH12
32LH13
32LH14
32LH15
22K4
24K4
26K5
30K7
26K9
30K8
28K9
30K9
26K10
28K10
30K10
30K11
36LH8
32LH7
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
36LH12
32LH12
36LH13
32LH13
36LH14
36LH15
22K4
24K4
22K5
26K5
26K6
24K7
28K6
30K8
28K9
30K9
26K10
28K10
30K10
30K11
36LH8
32LH7
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
36LH12
32LH12
36LH13
36LH14
36LH15
384
413
417
451
490
505
540
614
679
744
874
974
1003
1037
245
282
284
334
362
326
348
453
500
547
639
710
732
756
12
12
12
14
15
16
16
17
19
21
24
26
27
28
146
160
196
276
286
305
309
332
339
367
394
407
434
441
478
555
612
668
727
799
853
940
952
1036
1092
73
88
116
188
166
206
194
223
195
228
263
270
354
318
346
451
499
543
522
647
610
758
678
833
877
7.5
8.0
7.9
9.3
10
10
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
21
21
25
25
27
28
29
139
153
157
187
204
209
220
291
295
317
324
350
376
398
424
431
467
543
598
653
781
834
918
1012
1067
68
82
76
108
118
110
137
192
181
208
182
212
245
258
338
304
330
431
476
518
617
582
724
795
837
7.5
8.1
8.3
7.9
8.5
8.9
8.6
10
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
21
25
25
28
29
43' LENGTH
44' LENGTH
126
Joist
24K4
26K5
26K6
28K6
26K7
24K8
28K7
24K10
26K10
28K10
30K10
30K11
36LH8
32LH7
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
36LH12
32LH12
36LH13
36LH14
36LH15
24K4
26K5
26K6
28K6
26K7
24K8
26K8
26K10
28K10
30K10
30K11
36LH8
32LH7
28LH7
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
36LH12
32LH12
36LH13
36LH14
36LH15
24K4
26K5
26K6
28K6
24K8
24K10
26K10
28K10
30K10
36LH7
30K11
36LH8
32LH7
28LH7
32LH8
28LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
45' LENGTH
Joist
Weight
146
179
194
210
217
220
234
285
310
334
359
389
414
421
457
531
584
638
763
815
898
990
1043
76
101
110
128
122
113
142
144
170
198
229
246
323
291
315
412
455
495
590
556
692
760
800
7.8
7.9
8.5
8.6
9.0
9.5
9.2
12
12
12
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
19
21
26
25
28
29
139
171
186
201
207
211
229
296
320
344
380
405
412
427
447
519
572
624
679
747
797
878
968
1020
71
95
103
120
114
106
125
159
186
214
236
309
278
251
302
394
435
474
455
564
532
662
727
765
7.9
7.9
8.5
8.6
9.1
9.6
9.7
12
12
12
14
13
14
16
16
16
18
19
22
23
26
26
28
30
133
164
178
192
202
261
284
306
329
360
372
396
403
410
437
438
508
559
611
664
67
89
96
112
99
126
149
174
201
270
226
296
266
236
289
525
377
417
454
436
7.9
7.9
8.5
8.6
9.6
12
12
12
12
12
14
13
15
16
16
17
17
18
20
22
46' LENGTH
47' LENGTH
Joist
Joist
Weight
47' LENGTH (Cont.)
36LH12
32LH12
36LH13
32LH13
36LH14
36LH15
24K4
26K5
26K6
24K7
28K6
24K6
24K10
26K10
28K10
30K10
30K12
36LH8
28LH7
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
36LH12
32LH12
36LH13
36LH14
36LH15
40LH15
40LH16
26K5
26K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
26K8
30K7
28K8
26K9
30K8
30K10
30K11
30K12
28LH7
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
36LH12
32LH12
36LH13
32LH13
32LH14
36LH14
36LH15
40LH15
40LH16
26K5
26K6
26K7
28K7
26K8
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
731
780
859
870
947
999
541
510
634
566
696
733
23
26
26
28
29
30
128
157
171
175
184
194
250
272
294
315
365
388
394
428
497
548
598
650
715
764
841
927
978
1009
1112
63
83
90
85
105
93
118
140
163
188
216
284
222
277
362
400
435
418
518
489
607
667
703
810
890
7.9
7.8
8.4
8.9
8.6
9.6
12
12
12
12
14
14
16
16
17
18
20
23
23
27
26
29
31
31
34
150
164
177
183
197
202
212
218
220
234
303
347
357
379
419
487
536
586
637
701
748
824
834
859
908
958
988
1089
78
85
99
94
110
103
127
120
112
139
177
202
207
209
266
347
383
417
401
497
469
583
521
536
640
674
777
854
7.9
8.4
8.6
9.1
9.3
9.7
9.4
9.9
10
10
12
14
14
16
16
17
18
20
23
24
27
28
30
31
30
31
31
34
144
157
175
189
194
73
80
89
103
97
7.9
8.5
9.1
9.3
9.7
48' LENGTH
49' LENGTH
50' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
50' LENGTH (Cont.)
30K7
26K9
28K9
30K9
26K10
28K10
30K11
30K12
36LH8
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
36LH12
36LH13
36LH14
36LH15
40LH15
40LH16
26K5
26K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
26K8
26K9
28K9
30K9
26K10
28K10
30K10
30K11
30K12
28LH7
36LH8
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
36LH12
36LH13
32LH13
36LH14
36LH15
40LH15
40LH16
26K5
26K6
28K6
26K7
28K7
26K8
26K9
28K9
30K9
26K10
28K10
30K10
28K12
30K12
28LH7
32LH8
36LH9
36LH10
36LH11
203
211
228
245
250
270
333
350
372
411
477
526
574
625
687
807
890
938
968
1067
119
105
123
141
124
144
190
199
262
255
333
368
400
385
477
559
615
647
746
820
51' LENGTH
139
151
163
168
182
186
203
219
235
241
260
279
320
343
352
365
397
468
515
563
602
673
791
801
872
920
949
1046
69
75
88
83
97
91
99
115
133
116
136
157
179
192
186
251
242
320
354
385
363
459
538
480
591
622
717
788
52' LENGTH
133
145
157
162
175
179
195
210
226
231
250
268
325
336
339
383
459
505
552
65
71
83
79
92
86
93
109
126
110
128
148
165
184
176
229
308
340
370
9.4
10
11
11
12
12
14
14
14
16
17
18
21
23
23
28
30
32
31
34
7.9
8.5
8.6
9.1
9.3
9.8
10
11
11
12
12
12
14
15
16
14
16
17
19
21
23
24
28
30
31
33
31
33
7.9
8.4
8.6
9.1
9.3
9.7
10
11
11
12
12
12
15
15
16
16
18
19
21
Joist
Joist
Weight
Joist
52' LENGTH (Cont.)
32LH11
36LH12
36LH13
36LH14
36LH15
40LH15
40LH16
28K6
28K7
30K7
28K8
28K9
30K9
28K10
30K10
40LH8
30K12
44LH9
36LH9
44LH11
32LH9
36LH10
36LH11
44LH12
36LH12
36LH13
44LH14
36LH14
36LH15
44LH15
40LH15
44LH16
44LH17
28K6
28K7
30K7
28K8
28K9
30K9
28K10
30K10
30K11
40LH8
36LH7
30K12
44LH9
36LH9
44LH11
32LH9
36LH10
40LH11
36LH11
44LH12
36LH12
44LH13
36LH13
44LH14
36LH14
36LH15
44LH15
40LH15
44LH16
44LH17
28K6
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
580
660
776
855
902
931
1026
343
441
517
568
598
690
758
23
25
28
31
33
31
34
151
168
181
186
203
218
240
258
315
330
380
450
454
463
496
541
562
647
761
767
839
885
892
913
1029
1105
78
87
100
95
103
119
121
140
233
177
309
296
368
270
327
356
454
424
498
616
547
575
716
664
824
880
8.6
9.2
9.4
9.9
11
11
12
12
12
16
14
18
16
19
19
21
19
25
28
26
31
34
31
32
34
37
145
162
174
179
195
209
232
249
285
309
313
324
373
442
445
447
486
488
531
552
635
654
747
753
824
868
876
896
1010
1084
74
82
94
89
97
112
114
132
150
225
204
170
298
285
354
256
315
350
343
437
409
518
479
594
527
554
690
639
793
848
8.7
9.2
9.4
9.9
11
11
12
12
14
13
13
16
14
18
16
19
19
18
22
19
25
23
29
26
32
34
31
33
34
37
140
70
8.6
53' LENGTH
54' LENGTH
55' LENGTH
Joist
Weight
55' LENGTH (Cont.)
28K7
30K7
28K8
30K8
28K9
30K9
28K10
30K10
40LH8
36LH7
30K12
44LH9
36LH9
40LH10
36LH10
36LH11
32LH11
44LH12
36LH12
44LH13
36LH13
44LH14
36LH14
36LH15
44LH15
40LH15
44LH16
44LH17
28K6
28K7
30K7
28K8
30K8
28K9
30K9
28K10
30K10
30K11
40LH8
30K12
44LH9
36LH9
44LH11
40LH10
36LH10
40LH11
36LH11
44LH12
36LH12
44LH13
40LH13
36LH13
44LH14
32LH14
36LH14
36LH15
44LH15
40LH15
44LH16
44LH17
30K7
30K8
30K9
30K10
30K11
40LH8
48LH10
127
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
156
168
173
185
188
202
223
240
304
307
312
366
434
439
477
521
522
541
624
642
734
739
809
852
860
880
991
1065
77
89
85
98
92
106
108
125
216
197
161
287
275
312
304
330
292
421
394
499
462
572
507
534
665
616
765
817
9.3
9.4
9.9
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
16
15
18
17
20
22
24
20
25
23
29
26
32
34
31
33
34
36
135
151
162
166
179
181
195
215
231
265
298
301
359
426
429
431
469
471
512
532
613
631
675
720
726
738
794
837
844
864
974
1046
66
73
84
80
92
87
100
102
118
135
209
153
277
265
329
301
293
326
319
406
380
482
465
445
552
395
489
515
641
594
737
788
8.6
9.2
9.4
9.9
10
11
11
12
12
14
13
16
15
18
17
17
21
19
23
20
25
23
26
30
27
33
34
35
30
33
35
37
156
173
188
223
256
293
353
80
88
95
112
128
201
293
9.4
10
11
12
14
13
15
56' LENGTH
57' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
57' LENGTH (Cont.)
48LH11
36LH9
44LH11
40LH10
36LH10
36LH11
36LH12
44LH13
40LH13
36LH13
32LH14
36LH14
36LH15
44LH14
40LH15
48LH16
44LH16
44LH17
30K7
30K8
30K9
30K10
30K11
40LH8
44LH9
48LH11
40LH9
44LH10
32LH9
44LH11
40LH10
36LH10
36LH11
36LH12
44LH13
36LH13
44LH14
36LH14
36LH15
44LH15
48LH16
40LH16
44LH16
48LH17
44LH17
30K7
30K8
30K9
30K10
40LH8
48LH10
44LH10
32LH9
44LH11
36LH10
36LH11
36LH12
44LH13
36LH13
44LH14
36LH14
36LH15
44LH15
40LH15
48LH16
40LH16
44LH16
Joist
Weight
383
418
422
424
461
503
602
619
664
708
713
780
822
829
849
905
956
1027
316
256
318
290
283
308
367
465
449
430
374
472
497
619
573
737
711
761
15
18
17
17
21
22
25
23
26
30
33
34
36
31
33
31
36
38
151
167
181
215
247
288
347
376
378
383
391
414
416
454
495
593
609
697
701
768
809
815
890
919
940
999
1009
76
83
90
106
121
195
258
305
254
284
208
307
280
273
297
354
449
415
514
456
480
597
712
608
687
796
734
9.4
10
11
12
14
13
15
15
17
16
19
17
18
21
22
25
23
30
28
35
36
31
31
37
37
37
40
146
161
175
208
283
341
377
379
407
440
480
575
598
675
689
755
795
801
820
874
903
924
72
79
86
101
188
273
274
198
296
260
283
338
434
395
497
434
464
577
535
688
588
664
9.4
10
11
12
13
14
16
19
17
20
23
25
24
30
28
35
36
31
34
32
37
37
58' LENGTH
59' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
59' LENGTH (Cont.)
48LH17
44LH17
30K7
30K8
30K9
30K10
30K11
40LH8
48LH10
44LH10
44LH11
36LH10
40LH11
36LH11
36LH12
44LH13
36LH13
44LH14
36LH14
48LH15
36LH15
44LH15
48LH16
44LH16
48LH17
44LH17
40LH8
48LH10
44LH10
44LH11
40LH10
36LH10
40LH11
36LH11
44LH12
40LH12
44LH13
40LH13
48LH14
44LH14
48LH15
44LH15
40LH15
48LH16
44LH16
48LH17
44LH17
40LH8
48LH10
44LH10
44LH11
40LH10
36LH10
40LH11
36LH11
44LH12
40LH12
44LH13
40LH13
48LH14
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
Joist
Weight
982
992
769
710
37
39
141
156
169
201
231
278
335
370
401
426
439
465
557
588
654
677
729
746
781
788
860
908
965
975
69
75
81
96
109
182
264
265
287
248
283
269
322
419
376
480
412
577
448
558
665
642
744
686
9.4
10
11
12
14
13
15
16
17
20
19
23
25
25
30
28
34
28
36
31
32
36
37
39
274
330
364
394
396
413
432
451
488
526
579
620
638
666
734
775
793
846
893
949
959
176
256
257
277
253
236
274
257
342
334
405
391
487
464
558
540
500
643
621
719
664
13
15
16
17
18
21
21
23
21
25
25
28
26
28
29
31
36
33
37
37
39
269
324
358
388
389
401
425
438
480
517
569
610
628
655
736
762
827
170
247
248
268
245
225
265
246
331
323
392
379
472
450
584
522
658
14
15
17
18
19
21
21
23
21
25
25
29
26
29
29
31
32
60' LENGTH
61' LENGTH
62' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
62' LENGTH (Cont.)
48LH16
44LH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
48LH10
40LH9
44LH10
44LH11
40LH10
36LH10
40LH11
36LH11
44LH12
40LH12
44LH13
40LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
44LH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
48LH10
40LH9
44LH10
44LH11
40LH10
36LH10
40LH11
48LH12
44LH12
36LH12
44LH13
40LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
48LH10
44LH10
44LH11
40LH10
40LH11
48LH12
44LH12
36LH12
40LH12
52DLH12
Joist
Weight
832
879
892
934
944
1026
623
601
732
696
642
835
33
37
34
37
41
40
265
319
348
353
381
383
389
418
425
472
509
560
600
634
645
724
750
814
819
865
878
919
929
1010
165
239
215
240
260
237
215
257
234
321
313
380
367
506
435
565
506
637
603
582
708
674
622
809
14
15
18
17
18
19
21
21
23
22
25
25
28
26
29
29
31
32
33
37
35
38
40
40
261
314
342
347
375
377
378
412
430
465
493
551
591
625
635
713
738
801
806
864
905
914
994
160
232
209
233
252
230
206
249
314
311
267
368
355
490
422
547
490
617
584
686
653
602
783
15
15
18
17
18
19
21
21
19
22
25
25
28
26
29
29
31
32
34
35
39
43
40
257
309
342
370
371
405
424
458
478
493
506
155
225
226
244
223
241
305
301
255
294
392
15
15
17
18
19
21
20
23
25
25
22
63' LENGTH
64' LENGTH
65' LENGTH
Joist
Joist
Weight
65' LENGTH (Cont.)
44LH13
40LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
52DLH16
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
48LH10
44LH10
44LH11
40LH10
40LH11
48LH12
44LH12
40LH12
52DLH12
44LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
40LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
44LH9
40LH9
44LH10
44LH11
56DLH11
44LH12
36LH12
40LH12
52DLH12
44LH13
48LH14
52DLH13
44LH14
40LH14
48LH15
52DLH14
44LH15
40LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
44LH9
40LH9
44LH10
56DLH11
44LH12
40LH12
44LH13
128
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
543
581
614
625
702
727
789
851
900
979
357
344
475
409
531
475
598
665
584
759
26
28
26
29
30
31
33
34
43
40
254
305
337
364
367
399
417
451
486
498
535
605
615
691
716
734
777
781
838
886
964
150
216
219
237
216
234
295
292
285
380
346
461
396
515
461
427
580
549
645
566
736
15
16
17
18
20
22
20
23
25
23
26
26
31
30
31
36
34
35
37
43
40
247
300
323
332
359
422
444
450
472
491
527
581
596
606
638
668
681
705
712
765
770
825
864
873
950
144
193
188
212
230
363
283
232
273
369
336
404
447
385
367
462
499
447
408
563
533
626
596
549
715
15
16
18
18
18
20
23
25
25
23
26
27
27
30
34
31
31
31
36
34
35
37
40
44
40
241
296
315
327
415
437
459
519
138
187
180
206
352
275
261
326
15
17
18
18
20
23
25
26
66' LENGTH
67' LENGTH
68' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
68' LENGTH (Cont.)
48LH14
52DLH13
44LH14
48LH15
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
44LH9
40LH9
44LH10
40LH10
44LH11
56DLH11
44LH12
40LH12
48LH13
44LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
48LH15
52DLH14
44LH15
56DLH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
52DLH17
40LH8
40LH9
44LH10
40LH10
44LH11
36LH11
40LH11
56DLH11
44LH12
40LH12
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
48LH14
52DLH13
44LH14
48LH15
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
56DLH17
52DLH17
40LH8
44LH9
40LH9
Joist
Weight
572
587
597
658
671
695
754
758
813
851
860
935
392
434
373
449
485
434
546
517
608
578
533
694
28
27
30
32
31
31
34
36
37
41
45
42
234
291
306
322
338
348
409
431
447
478
511
578
588
648
661
684
735
743
747
801
839
848
922
132
182
173
200
190
216
342
267
251
323
317
421
363
436
471
421
568
530
502
590
562
518
674
15
17
18
18
20
20
21
23
25
24
29
27
31
32
31
31
32
34
36
38
41
45
44
228
298
317
329
343
348
358
403
425
435
469
471
504
556
570
580
639
652
675
732
736
789
827
835
901
909
127
166
195
183
210
173
198
332
259
241
338
313
307
370
409
352
423
457
409
515
488
573
546
503
700
654
15
18
18
20
20
23
22
21
24
25
24
24
27
29
29
31
32
31
31
34
36
37
41
45
40
44
222
283
291
122
172
160
15
17
18
69' LENGTH
70' LENGTH
71' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
71' LENGTH (Cont.)
44LH10
40LH10
44LH11
40LH11
56DLH11
44LH12
40LH12
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
40LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
56DLH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
36LH7
36LH8
40LH8
44LH9
40LH9
44LH10
40LH10
44LH11
56DLH11
44LH12
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
44LH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
40LH8
44LH9
40LH9
44LH10
40LH10
44LH11
56DLH11
44LH12
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
52DLH15
48LH16
52DLH16
44LH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
Joist
Weight
313
321
338
349
398
419
424
463
464
497
500
562
572
642
665
722
778
815
824
889
896
1017
189
176
204
190
323
252
231
328
305
299
271
398
342
444
398
501
557
530
489
680
636
818
18
20
20
22
21
24
25
24
26
28
30
28
31
31
31
35
37
41
45
40
44
46
196
215
217
279
283
308
313
333
392
413
456
458
490
554
564
633
656
712
716
767
812
883
1003
95
104
117
167
153
184
169
199
314
245
319
296
291
387
333
432
387
487
461
542
475
618
796
15
16
16
17
18
18
20
19
20
25
24
26
29
28
31
31
31
35
38
38
45
44
46
211
275
276
304
305
329
387
407
450
451
483
546
556
625
647
702
706
757
801
871
989
112
162
147
179
162
193
305
238
311
288
283
376
324
420
376
474
448
527
462
601
774
15
17
18
18
20
19
20
25
24
26
29
28
31
32
31
37
37
38
47
44
46
72' LENGTH
73' LENGTH
Joist
40LH8
40LH9
44LH9
40LH10
44LH10
56DLH11
44LH12
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
48LH14
52DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
60DLH15
52DLH15
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
60DLH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
40LH8
44LH9
40LH10
44LH10
56DLH11
44LH12
48LH13
44LH13
48LH14
56DLH13
44LH14
52DLH14
44LH15
60DLH15
52DLH15
48LH16
60DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
44LH17
60DLH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
40LH8
44LH9
40LH10
44LH10
48LH11
44LH11
52DLH10
44LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
48LH14
52DLH13
52DLH14
44LH15
60DLH15
52DLH15
60DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
74' LENGTH
Joist
Weight
206
269
272
297
300
381
402
444
445
477
525
539
549
616
639
669
692
747
782
790
846
859
976
108
141
158
156
174
297
232
302
280
275
331
366
315
409
366
525
461
513
488
450
667
585
753
15
18
18
20
19
21
25
24
25
29
29
29
31
32
31
32
37
38
45
47
40
45
46
201
265
290
293
376
393
439
466
518
532
534
608
623
660
683
687
726
737
771
780
834
848
963
104
152
150
168
289
224
273
265
322
356
302
398
352
511
449
425
571
499
475
438
649
570
733
15
18
20
19
21
25
25
28
29
29
31
33
31
32
37
39
35
40
45
47
40
45
47
196
259
283
286
287
310
353
383
387
432
433
454
511
525
600
608
652
674
716
727
761
100
146
144
162
177
175
240
215
263
286
266
254
313
347
388
339
497
437
556
486
462
15
17
20
19
18
21
21
25
23
26
26
28
30
30
34
31
32
37
36
40
45
75' LENGTH
76' LENGTH
Joist
76' LENGTH (Cont.)
44LH17
60DLH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
40LH8
44LH9
44LH10
48LH11
44LH11
44LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
52DLH13
40LH15
56DLH14
52DLH14
44LH15
60DLH15
52DLH15
60DLH16
56DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
40LH8
44LH9
44LH10
48LH11
44LH11
44LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
52DLH13
40LH15
56DLH14
52DLH14
52DLH15
48LH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
40LH8
44LH9
44LH10
48LH11
44LH11
52DLH10
44LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
52DLH13
56DLH14
52DLH14
52DLH15
129
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
769
823
837
950
428
632
555
714
47
41
45
47
192
253
279
283
302
374
382
427
428
444
518
538
577
592
593
643
665
707
711
717
751
826
938
97
141
155
172
168
207
256
279
259
246
338
268
404
378
326
484
425
541
508
473
450
540
695
16
18
19
18
21
25
24
26
27
28
30
36
32
34
31
34
38
36
37
40
45
46
47
187
247
272
279
295
365
377
421
422
433
511
524
569
585
657
661
698
702
708
742
815
926
93
136
150
168
162
200
249
272
252
236
329
258
394
368
415
393
528
495
461
439
526
677
16
18
19
18
21
25
24
26
26
28
30
36
32
34
38
40
38
38
41
45
45
46
183
242
266
276
289
339
356
372
416
417
423
505
562
577
648
90
131
144
164
157
222
192
243
265
246
228
321
384
359
404
15
18
19
18
21
22
25
24
26
26
29
30
31
34
38
77' LENGTH
78' LENGTH
79' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
79' LENGTH (Cont.)
48LH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
64DLH17
60DLH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
40LH8
40LH9
44LH9
40LH10
44LH10
48LH11
44LH11
52DLH10
44LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH13
48LH14
52DLH13
60DLH14
56DLH14
52DLH14
52DLH15
64DLH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
60DLH17
52DLH17
60DLH18
44LH9
44LH10
48LH11
44LH11
52DLH10
44LH12
48LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH13
48LH14
52DLH13
56DLH14
52DLH14
52DLH15
64DLH16
60DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
64DLH17
52DLH17
64DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
44LH9
44LH10
44LH11
44LH12
Joist
Weight
652
689
693
699
732
788
792
805
914
383
514
482
450
428
622
585
513
660
40
38
38
41
45
41
44
48
47
178
233
236
255
260
272
282
335
347
368
410
412
413
486
498
527
555
570
640
675
680
684
690
723
782
795
903
86
113
127
124
139
160
151
217
185
237
258
240
220
283
313
380
374
350
394
533
501
470
438
417
570
500
644
15
18
18
20
19
18
21
22
25
24
26
26
29
32
31
30
32
35
38
35
38
38
41
47
44
48
48
231
254
269
276
331
339
340
363
405
407
480
492
548
563
632
667
672
682
714
769
785
888
891
998
122
134
156
146
211
179
196
231
252
234
276
305
365
341
384
520
489
428
407
592
488
669
628
803
18
19
18
21
22
25
23
23
26
27
32
31
32
35
38
36
38
42
47
41
48
47
53
52
226
249
269
331
118
130
140
172
18
19
21
25
80' LENGTH
81' LENGTH
82' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
82' LENGTH (Cont.)
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH13
44LH14
52DLH13
60DLH14
44LH15
52DLH14
60DLH15
52DLH15
64DLH16
60DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
52DLH17
64DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
44LH9
44LH10
44LH11
44LH12
48LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
44LH14
60DLH13
56DLH13
52DLH13
60DLH14
44LH15
52DLH14
60DLH15
56DLH15
60DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
60DLH17
52DLH17
64DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
Joist
Weight
359
400
402
446
486
514
524
556
604
624
659
664
673
706
775
877
880
986
225
246
228
231
298
362
271
333
427
375
508
477
417
397
476
653
613
783
24
27
28
31
31
31
31
35
34
39
36
38
44
47
48
46
53
52
221
243
264
323
329
354
396
436
457
473
480
508
512
549
596
611
656
665
690
754
766
866
870
974
114
125
136
166
185
220
240
223
332
311
291
353
261
325
417
392
466
407
383
529
465
637
598
765
18
19
21
25
24
25
27
31
28
30
32
30
31
35
34
37
38
44
47
45
48
48
53
54
83' LENGTH
84' LENGTH
44LH9
44LH10
44LH11
44LH12
52DLH10
48LH12
52DLH11
52DLH12
44LH14
56DLH13
52DLH13
44LH15
60DLH14
48LH15
52DLH14
60DLH15
56DLH15
60DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
52DLH17
64DLH18
60DLH18
216
238
258
315
319
322
350
391
425
467
475
500
502
521
543
589
604
648
657
675
745
751
757
856
859
110
121
131
160
196
179
215
234
215
304
284
252
345
287
317
407
383
455
397
371
517
485
454
622
584
18
19
21
25
23
24
25
27
31
30
32
31
31
36
37
34
38
39
44
47
45
46
52
48
53
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
84' LENGTH (Cont.)
68DLH19
44LH9
44LH10
44LH11
44LH12
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
44LH14
56DLH13
52DLH13
44LH15
60DLH14
48LH15
52DLH14
60DLH15
56DLH15
60DLH16
56DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
72DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
52DLH17
64DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
44LH9
44LH10
44LH11
44LH12
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
44LH14
56DLH13
52DLH13
60DLH14
48LH15
52DLH14
60DLH15
56DLH15
52DLH15
68DLH16
64DLH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
52DLH16
48LH17
72DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
52DLH17
68DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
44LH9
44LH10
44LH11
44LH12
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
Joist
Weight
962
746
54
211
233
252
308
315
346
386
415
462
469
488
496
510
536
582
596
640
644
650
660
690
736
742
748
846
849
951
108
117
127
155
192
210
229
207
297
277
243
336
278
310
397
374
444
416
388
358
564
505
474
443
607
570
729
18
19
21
25
24
25
27
31
30
32
31
31
36
37
34
38
39
41
45
47
38
45
46
52
47
53
54
207
228
247
300
312
342
382
406
456
463
490
499
530
575
589
595
626
628
633
636
642
646
682
727
733
739
816
839
940
103
113
123
149
187
205
223
200
290
271
329
269
302
388
365
341
488
461
434
407
379
346
551
493
463
433
627
557
712
18
19
21
25
24
26
27
31
30
33
32
36
37
36
38
41
37
38
40
41
45
47
38
45
48
52
46
53
54
85' LENGTH
86' LENGTH
87' LENGTH
202
223
242
293
308
338
377
99
110
119
144
183
200
218
18
19
21
25
24
26
27
Joist
87' LENGTH (Cont.)
44LH14
48LH14
56DLH13
52DLH13
44LH15
60DLH14
48LH15
52DLH14
64DLH15
56DLH15
52DLH15
64DLH16
56DLH16
52DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
52DLH17
68DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
44LH9
44LH10
44LH11
44LH12
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
44LH14
48LH14
56DLH13
52DLH13
44LH15
60DLH14
52DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
56DLH15
64DLH16
52DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
52DLH17
72DLH18
68DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
48LH14
52DLH13
60DLH14
52DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
52DLH15
64DLH16
60DLH16
52DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
130
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
396
425
451
458
466
485
488
524
552
583
588
621
629
635
674
719
725
730
807
830
929
193
227
283
264
227
321
260
295
403
357
333
451
397
370
538
482
452
423
613
544
696
31
32
31
33
31
32
36
37
35
38
41
38
41
45
39
46
48
52
46
53
54
198
218
236
287
305
334
373
387
416
446
453
455
479
518
545
562
582
614
627
666
711
716
722
780
797
820
915
918
96
106
115
139
179
196
213
187
220
277
258
219
314
289
393
370
325
440
362
526
471
442
413
594
599
532
674
680
18
19
21
25
23
26
27
31
32
31
33
31
32
37
35
37
41
38
45
41
46
48
52
47
48
53
54
56
212
229
301
330
369
407
448
474
512
539
556
575
607
611
620
659
703
708
112
120
175
191
209
212
253
307
282
385
362
318
431
405
354
514
460
432
18
20
23
26
28
32
33
32
38
34
37
41
38
40
45
41
46
49
88' LENGTH
89' LENGTH
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
89' LENGTH (Cont.)
52DLH17
72DLH18
68DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
48LH13
52DLH12
48LH14
60DLH13
56DLH13
52DLH13
60DLH14
52DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
64DLH16
60DLH16
52DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
72DLH18
68DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
48LH13
52DLH12
48LH14
60DLH13
52DLH13
48LH15
64DLH14
60DLH14
52DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
64DLH16
60DLH16
52DLH16
60DLH17
72DLH18
67DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
48LH13
52DLH12
56DLH12
48LH14
60DLH13
52DLH13
Joist
Weight
714
771
788
811
905
908
404
581
586
520
659
665
52
47
48
53
54
55
208
225
298
327
338
365
399
422
436
443
468
507
533
550
600
604
614
651
695
763
780
802
894
898
108
117
171
187
175
204
206
282
265
247
300
276
376
354
421
396
346
503
450
568
573
508
644
650
18
20
24
26
29
29
32
30
31
34
32
38
34
37
39
40
45
40
46
46
48
53
54
55
204
220
291
320
332
357
390
417
433
448
460
463
497
527
544
593
598
601
687
754
771
793
885
888
105
113
165
181
170
197
199
276
239
228
313
293
266
368
346
412
387
335
440
555
560
497
630
636
18
20
24
26
29
29
32
30
33
36
32
34
38
35
37
39
42
45
46
46
48
53
54
55
200
216
285
313
325
349
352
383
412
424
102
110
159
174
164
191
209
193
270
231
18
20
24
26
29
29
27
32
30
33
90' LENGTH
91' LENGTH
92' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Joist
Weight
92' LENGTH (Cont.)
56DLH13
48LH15
60DLH14
52DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
52DLH15
56DLH15
60DLH16
56DLH16
60DLH17
72DLH18
68DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
48LH13
52DLH12
56DLH12
48LH14
52DLH13
48LH15
60DLH14
52DLH14
56DLH14
60DLH15
52DLH15
56DLH15
68DLH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
64DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
68DLH18
64DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
48LH13
52DLH12
56DLH12
48LH14
52DLH13
48LH15
60DLH14
52DLH14
52DLH14
60DLH15
56DLH15
68DLH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
72DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
427
439
458
486
521
538
545
551
591
595
680
746
763
784
878
253
221
287
258
360
339
291
319
379
355
431
543
548
486
622
93' LENGTH
32
36
34
38
35
38
42
41
42
45
46
46
48
53
55
196
212
279
306
318
342
349
375
414
430
453
476
477
532
533
545
578
585
588
669
672
678
754
773
776
869
99
106
154
169
159
185
204
187
224
214
281
249
277
332
282
312
417
371
348
448
421
395
536
507
476
609
18
20
23
26
29
29
27
32
33
36
34
38
37
38
42
41
38
42
45
46
49
51
48
53
56
54
192
208
273
299
312
334
345
367
406
422
448
466
472
526
539
572
579
582
623
665
670
730
768
856
859
96
103
150
164
154
179
200
181
216
208
275
242
271
325
306
408
363
340
461
412
387
520
466
590
596
18
20
23
26
29
29
27
32
33
36
34
37
37
38
41
38
41
45
42
49
51
47
55
55
58
94' LENGTH
Joist
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
56DLH12
48LH14
52DLH13
60DLH13
48LH15
60DLH14
52DLH14
56DLH14
68DLH15
60DLH15
56DLH15
68DLH16
64DLH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
72DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
48LH10
48LH11
52DLH10
52DLH11
48LH13
52DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH12
48LH14
52DLH13
60DLH13
48LH15
64DLH14
60DLH14
52DLH14
56DLH14
60DLH15
48LH17
64DLH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH17
56DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH12
52DLH13
60DLH13
60DLH14
52DLH14
56DLH14
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
95' LENGTH
Joist
Weight
188
204
267
293
327
341
360
397
399
413
444
457
467
477
521
533
566
568
573
576
617
658
663
723
760
847
850
93
100
145
158
173
196
176
209
253
201
269
234
265
340
318
299
400
378
355
333
451
404
379
509
456
578
583
18
20
23
26
29
27
32
33
31
36
34
37
37
34
38
41
38
41
44
45
42
48
51
48
56
55
60
185
200
261
287
300
320
325
338
353
389
395
405
436
439
447
462
515
525
562
567
570
610
648
651
656
715
748
752
838
841
90
91
140
153
145
168
205
192
171
203
248
195
281
264
227
260
311
252
370
348
326
442
421
395
371
499
476
447
566
571
18
20
24
26
29
29
27
29
32
33
32
36
32
34
38
38
38
47
41
44
45
42
46
49
51
48
53
57
55
60
256
281
314
322
334
381
391
434
438
457
136
149
163
201
188
197
243
258
220
254
24
26
29
27
28
33
32
34
38
38
96' LENGTH
97' LENGTH
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
97' LENGTH (Cont.)
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
64DLH16
60DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
56DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH12
52DLH13
60DLH13
56DLH13
60DLH14
56DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
64DLH16
60DLH16
56DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
56DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH12
52DLH13
60DLH13
56DLH13
60DLH14
56DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
64DLH16
60DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
56DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH12
131
494
510
537
557
561
604
641
650
708
741
744
830
833
324
305
380
362
341
433
412
363
488
466
437
554
559
37
40
38
42
44
42
46
51
48
53
59
55
60
251
275
307
318
331
373
387
401
430
453
489
505
531
551
555
559
598
635
643
700
733
736
821
824
132
144
158
197
184
191
238
223
253
249
317
298
373
355
334
313
424
404
356
478
456
428
543
548
24
26
29
27
30
33
32
34
34
38
37
40
39
42
44
46
43
46
51
48
53
59
55
60
246
270
301
315
324
366
383
394
426
444
484
500
545
549
592
628
630
693
726
729
813
816
128
140
153
193
178
185
233
216
248
242
311
292
348
327
415
395
345
469
447
420
532
537
24
26
29
27
29
33
33
33
34
38
37
40
42
44
43
46
51
48
53
59
58
61
241
264
295
312
318
124
135
149
189
173
24
26
29
27
29
98' LENGTH
99' LENGTH
100' LENGTH
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
100' LENGTH (Cont.)
52DLH13
60DLH13
56DLH13
52DLH14
60DLH14
56DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
60DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
56DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH12
52DLH13
60DLH13
56DLH13
52DLH14
60DLH14
56DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH15
60DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
56DLH12
52DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH13
52DLH14
60DLH14
56DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH15
60DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH17
72DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
358
379
386
413
421
435
480
495
521
544
586
622
686
718
721
805
808
180
228
209
201
243
234
304
287
358
320
407
388
459
438
411
521
526
33
32
33
37
35
38
37
41
39
45
44
49
48
55
59
58
61
236
259
289
309
312
351
375
379
405
417
427
449
475
490
538
580
616
619
679
711
714
797
800
120
132
144
185
168
174
224
204
194
238
228
301
298
281
314
399
380
357
450
430
403
511
516
23
26
29
27
29
33
32
33
37
35
37
35
39
41
46
44
49
52
51
56
59
60
61
231
254
284
306
344
358
372
397
413
419
445
470
485
533
574
610
613
673
707
789
792
116
128
140
163
170
232
219
189
233
221
295
292
275
308
391
372
350
442
395
501
506
23
26
29
29
33
31
34
37
35
38
35
39
41
46
45
49
52
51
59
60
61
227
249
278
114
124
135
24
26
29
101' LENGTH
102' LENGTH
103' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
103' LENGTH (Cont.)
60DLH12
52DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH13
52DLH14
64DLH14
60DLH14
56DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH15
68DLH16
60DLH16
72DLH17
68DLH17
60DLH17
64DLH18
60DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
52DLH10
52DLH11
52DLH12
56DLH12
60DLH12
52DLH13
64DLH13
56DLH13
60DLH13
52DLH14
64DLH14
60DLH14
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH16
60DLH16
72DLH17
68DLH17
60DLH17
72DLH18
68DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
56DLH11
56DLH12
60DLH12
64DLH13
56DLH13
60DLH13
64DLH14
60DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH16
60DLH16
68DLH17
60DLH17
68DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
56DLH11
303
338
355
368
390
406
409
411
440
466
480
522
528
569
588
607
697
700
781
784
178
164
228
215
184
244
229
214
289
287
270
340
302
384
386
343
413
388
491
496
104' LENGTH
28
33
32
34
38
34
37
38
35
39
41
41
46
45
47
52
56
59
60
61
223
244
273
295
300
331
351
358
365
382
402
405
461
476
501
517
523
563
583
601
660
674
694
777
110
120
132
153
175
159
224
186
211
178
239
224
281
265
331
333
296
376
379
337
425
428
380
486
24
26
29
30
29
33
32
34
34
38
34
37
39
43
40
41
46
45
46
52
53
53
59
61
253
289
297
348
351
361
398
401
432
457
471
496
512
518
577
595
668
687
769
136
150
171
219
181
207
235
220
278
276
260
324
327
290
372
330
420
373
477
26
29
29
32
34
34
34
37
37
40
43
40
42
45
46
52
53
59
61
248
133
26
105' LENGTH
106' LENGTH
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
Joist
Type
106' LENGTH (Cont.)
56DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH13
60DLH13
64DLH14
60DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
64DLH16
60DLH16
68DLH17
60DLH17
68DLH18
60DLH18
68DLH19
56DLH11
56DLH12
60DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
64DLH16
72DLH17
68DLH17
60DLH17
64DLH17
68DLH18
60DLH18
64DLH18
68DLH19
56DLH11
56DLH12
60DLH12
60DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH15
72DLH16
64DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
56DLH11
56DLH12
60DLH12
56DLH13
60DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
64DLH15
284
295
344
358
395
398
428
452
467
491
509
513
572
590
662
681
762
145
168
175
203
230
216
273
271
255
318
303
285
365
324
412
366
468
29
29
34
34
34
37
37
40
43
41
45
46
46
52
53
59
60
244
278
289
351
391
424
448
458
487
504
548
566
579
581
655
668
671
755
129
141
163
197
226
268
266
248
312
298
355
358
315
338
405
357
383
459
36
29
29
34
34
38
40
43
41
46
46
49
52
52
53
59
59
61
239
273
284
345
383
387
417
420
444
450
482
500
542
569
576
656
665
745
748
125
137
158
191
205
222
260
263
261
242
307
292
349
306
332
346
376
447
451
26
29
29
34
37
36
36
38
40
43
41
46
46
52
52
59
59
61
61
107' LENGTH
108' LENGTH
109' LENGTH
235
268
279
325
339
376
384
413
416
440
122
133
154
161
187
199
218
255
258
256
26
29
29
33
34
37
37
36
38
41
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
109' LENGTH (Cont.)
60DLH15
72DLH16
64DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
56DLH11
60DLH12
60DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
60DLH15
64DLH15
72DLH16
60DLH16
64DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH18
68DLH18
64DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
56DLH11
56DLH12
60DLH12
64DLH12
56DLH13
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
56DLH16
64DLH16
72DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH17
72DLH18
60DLH18
64DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
56DLH11
56DLH12
60DLH12
64DLH12
56DLH13
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
64DLH16
132
442
478
495
537
558
571
644
659
738
741
235
301
287
342
298
326
337
369
439
443
43
41
46
47
52
52
59
59
61
67
231
274
333
370
380
409
412
434
436
473
476
491
533
548
551
565
632
637
653
731
734
118
150
181
193
214
251
254
228
251
295
255
281
336
290
338
320
327
383
362
431
434
26
29
34
37
37
36
38
43
41
41
46
46
47
52
49
52
59
56
59
61
67
227
259
270
271
314
327
329
363
377
408
432
436
486
528
546
560
618
621
647
725
727
115
126
146
161
152
176
196
189
210
249
247
214
276
330
332
314
373
319
356
423
427
26
30
29
28
34
34
33
37
37
38
41
46
46
47
49
52
53
59
59
61
67
223
254
265
269
308
322
326
356
373
405
428
482
113
123
142
159
149
171
193
183
206
245
242
271
26
29
29
29
33
34
34
37
37
38
41
46
110' LENGTH
111' LENGTH
112' LENGTH
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
112' LENGTH (Cont.)
72DLH17
64DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
60DLH12
64DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH16
72DLH17
60DLH17
64DLH17
72DLH18
64DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
60DLH12
64DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH15
60DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH16
64DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
60DLH12
64DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH15
60DLH15
64DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH18
72DLH18
64DLH18
68DLH19
60DLH12
523
555
613
641
718
721
324
309
366
349
415
419
47
52
53
59
61
67
261
266
316
323
350
370
401
424
451
461
476
518
519
550
607
636
712
714
138
156
167
189
178
203
240
238
235
280
282
318
267
303
360
343
408
412
29
29
34
34
37
37
39
41
46
43
45
47
52
52
53
59
62
67
256
264
311
321
344
367
398
405
421
444
457
472
474
514
546
589
630
706
708
134
153
163
186
173
199
236
205
234
228
275
277
262
313
298
394
337
401
404
29
29
34
34
37
37
39
43
43
46
43
46
46
50
52
59
59
64
67
252
259
306
315
338
360
394
398
414
453
467
509
536
578
597
619
702
131
150
158
181
170
193
232
200
228
270
272
307
290
286
347
328
397
29
29
34
34
37
37
39
43
43
43
46
50
52
59
54
59
66
248
128
29
113' LENGTH
114' LENGTH
115' LENGTH
116' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
116' LENGTH (Cont.)
64DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH15
60DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH16
68DLH16
60DLH17
72DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
68DLH19
60DLH12
64DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH16
64DLH16
68DLH16
60DLH17
72DLH17
64DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
60DLH12
64DLH12
60DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
68DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
60DLH12
64DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
255
301
310
332
354
391
392
407
428
463
493
505
527
568
608
696
146
154
176
165
189
228
194
223
217
268
247
302
283
279
320
391
117' LENGTH
29
34
34
37
37
39
43
43
46
46
52
50
52
59
59
66
244
251
296
305
327
349
385
387
400
421
450
459
484
501
518
559
598
599
687
690
124
142
151
171
161
184
222
224
217
211
242
263
241
297
275
272
311
388
381
384
29
29
34
34
37
37
38
41
43
46
46
46
52
50
52
59
59
60
67
67
240
247
291
321
343
382
384
394
414
441
456
496
509
513
549
587
594
682
684
121
138
147
156
179
218
220
211
206
257
259
292
268
294
266
304
333
374
377
29
29
34
37
37
38
41
43
46
45
46
50
52
53
59
59
60
67
67
236
243
286
295
316
337
340
378
381
118
135
143
163
152
174
193
214
217
29
29
34
34
37
37
38
38
40
118' LENGTH
119' LENGTH
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
Joist
Type
119' LENGTH (Cont.)
64DLH15
60DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
68DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
60DLH12
64DLH12
60DLH13
64DLH13
60DLH14
64DLH14
68DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
64DLH15
60DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH16
72DLH17
64DLH17
68DLH17
60DLH18
64DLH18
68DLH18
68DLH19
64DLH12
64DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH16
72DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
68DLH19
64DLH12
64DLH13
68DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
72DLH15
68DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH16
64DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH19
64DLH12
387
407
437
452
492
501
509
540
578
589
676
678
206
201
252
254
287
262
289
259
296
327
368
371
120' LENGTH
43
46
45
46
49
52
53
59
59
60
67
67
232
239
282
291
310
332
337
375
378
381
400
434
448
488
492
505
531
568
584
673
115
132
139
159
149
171
190
211
213
201
196
248
250
282
255
284
252
288
321
365
29
29
34
34
37
37
38
38
40
43
46
45
46
49
52
53
59
59
60
67
235
286
326
334
372
375
430
444
484
501
559
579
667
129
155
166
187
207
209
244
246
278
280
282
316
359
29
34
37
38
40
40
45
49
49
53
59
60
67
121' LENGTH
122' LENGTH
231
281
288
321
332
369
372
427
441
476
497
549
575
659
662
125
152
171
162
185
204
206
240
242
243
275
274
311
350
353
29
34
35
37
38
40
42
45
49
52
53
59
60
67
67
228
122
29
123' LENGTH
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
123ʼ LENGTH (Cont.)
64DLH13
68DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH16
64DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH19
64DLH12
64DLH13
68DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
64DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH16
64DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH19
64DLH12
64DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
64DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH16
64DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH19
64DLH12
64DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
72DLH15
64DLH16
72DLH16
64DLH17
68DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH18
72DLH19
64DLH12
64DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
133
277
284
316
327
365
366
423
433
468
489
540
566
654
148
168
158
179
201
200
236
236
237
268
267
304
344
34
35
37
38
42
41
45
49
52
53
59
60
67
224
273
279
311
322
360
363
401
420
427
461
481
532
557
649
119
144
164
154
175
196
197
203
232
230
231
262
261
297
339
29
34
35
37
38
42
41
46
47
49
52
53
59
60
68
124' LENGTH
125' LENGTH
221
269
306
317
354
360
394
416
420
454
474
523
549
643
216
141
151
171
191
194
198
229
225
226
256
255
289
333
29
34
37
38
41
41
46
47
49
52
53
59
60
67
218
264
301
312
357
388
413
446
467
515
540
544
638
114
131
147
167
191
193
225
220
249
249
283
289
328
29
34
37
38
41
46
47
52
53
59
60
59
67
214
260
296
308
309
343
111
134
143
163
168
182
29
34
37
38
37
41
126' LENGTH
127' LENGTH
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
127' LENGTH (Cont.)
72DLH15
64DLH16
72DLH16
64DLH17
72DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH18
72DLH19
64DLH12
64DLH13
64DLH14
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
64DLH16
72DLH16
64DLH17
68DLH17
72DLH17
64DLH18
68DLH18
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH17
72DLH17
68DLH18
72DLH18
72DLH19
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH17
72DLH17
68DLH18
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
72DLH16
68DLH17
72DLH17
68DLH18
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
354
382
410
439
461
507
532
540
633
188
189
221
215
252
243
276
284
323
41
46
47
52
53
59
60
59
67
211
257
292
303
307
337
352
376
407
432
453
457
499
524
536
601
628
109
131
140
159
166
178
185
185
218
210
238
248
237
269
280
305
318
29
34
37
38
37
41
41
46
47
52
53
53
59
60
59
67
67
259
299
305
349
403
446
454
516
532
623
145
155
163
182
215
232
244
263
276
313
35
38
38
41
49
53
53
60
59
67
255
294
303
347
401
439
451
508
528
583
619
142
152
171
191
225
228
256
257
289
291
328
35
38
38
41
49
55
56
60
59
67
70
252
290
298
322
342
395
433
445
501
520
574
609
138
148
167
166
187
219
222
250
251
283
285
321
35
38
38
41
43
49
53
53
59
59
67
70
128' LENGTH
129' LENGTH
130' LENGTH
131' LENGTH
ECONOMICAL JOIST GUIDE
Combined K, VS, LH & DLH Series Load Table
Joist
Type
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
68DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH17
72DLH17
68DLH18
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
68DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH17
72DLH17
68DLH18
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
68DLH16
72DLH16
72DLH17
68DLH18
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
68DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH17
72DLH17
68DLH18
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
68DLH13
68DLH14
72DLH14
68DLH15
72DLH15
68DLH16
72DLH16
68DLH17
72DLH17
68DLH18
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
132' LENGTH
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
248
286
294
317
336
376
390
427
438
493
512
565
600
135
145
163
162
183
190
214
217
245
246
276
278
313
35
38
38
41
43
49
49
53
56
59
59
67
70
244
281
290
312
331
371
384
420
432
486
505
557
591
133
141
159
158
178
186
209
212
239
240
270
272
306
35
38
38
41
41
49
49
53
56
59
59
67
70
241
277
285
308
326
365
378
426
479
497
548
582
130
138
155
155
174
182
205
233
234
265
266
300
35
38
38
41
41
49
49
53
60
59
67
70
237
273
281
303
322
360
373
408
420
472
490
540
573
127
135
152
152
171
178
200
203
228
230
258
260
293
35
38
38
42
42
49
49
53
53
60
59
67
70
133' LENGTH
134' LENGTH
135' LENGTH
136' LENGTH
234
269
277
299
317
354
368
403
414
465
124
133
149
148
167
174
196
198
224
225
35
38
38
41
42
49
49
53
56
60
Joist
Type
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
Joist
Type
136' LENGTH (Cont.)
72DLH18
68DLH19
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
72DLH18
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
72DLH18
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
72DLH18
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
72DLH18
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
72DLH18
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
72DLH18
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
72DLH18
72DLH19
72DLH14
72DLH15
72DLH16
72DLH17
483
532
565
252
254
286
59
67
70
274
312
363
408
479
557
146
163
191
218
247
280
38
41
49
53
59
70
270
308
358
402
470
549
143
160
188
213
242
274
38
42
49
53
59
70
266
303
353
397
463
541
139
156
183
209
236
541
38
41
49
53
59
70
262
299
348
391
457
533
136
152
179
205
231
263
38
41
49
53
59
70
259
295
343
386
450
526
133
150
175
200
227
257
38
42
49
53
59
70
255
291
338
381
444
518
131
147
171
196
222
251
38
42
49
53
59
70
252
286
334
376
438
511
128
143
169
191
217
247
38
41
49
53
59
70
248
282
329
371
125
140
165
188
38
41
49
53
137' LENGTH
138' LENGTH
139' LENGTH
140' LENGTH
141' LENGTH
142' LENGTH
143' LENGTH
144' LENGTH
Allowable
Loads (PLF)
Total
Live
Joist
Weight
(lbs./ft.)
144' LENGTH (Cont.)
72DLH18
72DLH19
134
432
504
212
241
59
70
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR
STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
Adopted by the Steel Joist Institute April 7, 1931
Revised to May 1, 2000 - Effective May 03, 2005
shown for the individual placement of the steel joists, Joist
Girders and accessories along with sections that describe the
end bearing conditions and minimum attachment required so
that material is placed in the proper location in the field.
SECTION 1.
GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.4 DESIGN
In the absence of ordinances or specifications to the contrary,
all designs prepared by the specifying professional shall be
in accordance with the Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption.
The practices and customs set forth herein are in accordance
with good engineering practice, tend to ensure safety in steel
joist and Joist Girder construction, and are standard within
the industry. There shall be no conflict between this code and
any legal building regulation. This code shall only supplement and amplify such laws. Unless specific provisions to
the contrary are made in a contract for the purchase of steel
joists or Joist Girders, this code is understood to govern the
interpretation of such a contract.
1.5 RESPONSIBILITY FOR DESIGN AND ERECTION
When Material requirements are specified, the Seller shall assume no responsibility other than to furnish the items listed in
Section 5.2 (a). When Material requirements are not specified,
the Seller shall furnish the items listed in Section 5.2 (a) in accordance with Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications Load
Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption, and this code. Pertinent design information shall be provided to the Seller as stipulated in Section 6.1. The Seller shall identify material by
showing size and type. In no case shall the Seller assume any
responsibility for the erection of the item furnished.
1.2 APPLICATION
This Code of Standard Practice is to govern as a standard
unless otherwise covered in the architects’ and engineers’
plans and specifications.
1.3 DEFINITIONS
Material. Steel joists, Joist Girders, and accessories as provided by the seller.
1.6 PERFORMANCE TEST FOR K-SERIES STEEL
JOIST CONSTRUCTION
Seller. A company certified by the Steel Joist Institute engaged in the manufacture and distribution of steel joists, Joist
Girders, and accessories.
When performance tests on a structure are required, joists in
the test panel shall have bridging and top deck applied as
used. In addition to the full dead load, the test panel shall
sustain for one hour a test load of 1.65 times the nominal live
load. After this test load has been removed for a minimum of
30 minutes, the remaining deflection shall not exceed 20%
of the deflection caused by the test load. The weight of the
test panel itself shall constitute the dead load of the construction and shall include the weight of the joists, bridging, top
deck, slab, ceiling materials, etc. The nominal live load shall
be the live load specified and in no case shall it be more than
the published joist capacity less the dead load. The cost of
such tests shall be borne by the purchaser.
Buyer. The entity that has agreed to purchase Material from
the manufacturer and has also agreed to the terms of sale.
Owner. The entity that is identified as such in the Contract
Documents.
Erector. The entity that is responsible for the safe and proper
erection of the Materials in accordance with all applicable
codes and regulations.
Specifying Professional. The licensed professional who is
responsible for sealing the building Contract Documents, which
indicates that he or she has performed or supervised the analysis, design and document preparation for the structure and has
knowledge of the load-carrying structural system.
SECTION 2.
Structural Drawings. The graphic or pictorial portions of the
Contract Documents showing the design, location and dimensions of the work. These documents generally include plans,
elevations, sections, details, connections, all loads, schedules, diagrams and notes.
JOISTS AND
ACCESSORIES
2.1 STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
Steel joists and Joist Girders shall carry the designations and
meet the requirements of the Steel Joist Institute Standard
Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption.
Placement Plans. Drawings that are prepared depicting the
interpretation of the Contract Documents requirements for the
Material to be supplied by the Seller. These floor and/or roof
plans are approved by the Specifying Professional, Buyer
or owner for conformance with the design requirements. The
Seller uses the information contained on these drawings for
final Material design. A unique piece mark number is typically
K-Series joists are furnished with parallel chords only, and with
minimum standard end bearing depth of 2 1/2 inches (64 mm).
LH- and DLH-Series joists are furnished either underslung or
square ended, with top chords either parallel, pitched one
way or pitched two ways. Underslung types are furnished
with standard end bearing depth of 5 inches (127 mm) for
135
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
LH-Series. DLH-Series are furnished with standard end
bearing depths of 5 inches (127 mm) for section numbers thru
17 and 7 1/2 inches (191 mm) for section numbers 18 and
19. The standard pitch is 1/8 inch in 12 inches (1:96). The
nominal depth of a pitched Longspan Joist is taken at the
center of the span.
Where partitions occur parallel to joists, there shall be at least
one joist provided under each such partition, and more than
one such joist shall be provided if necessary to safely support
the weight of such partition and the adjacent floor, less the
live load, on a strip of floor one foot (305 mm) in width. When
partitions occur perpendicular to the joists, they shall be
treated as concentrated loads, and joists shall be investigated
as indicated in Section 6.1.
Joist Girders are furnished either underslung or square ended
with top chords either parallel, pitched one way or pitched two
ways. Underslung types are furnished with a standard end
bearing depth of 7 1/2 inches (191 mm). The standard pitch is
1/8 inch in 12 inches (1:96). The nominal depth of a pitched
Joist Girder is taken at the center of the span.
2.3 SLOPED END BEARINGS
Because LH- and DLH-Series joists may have exceptionally
high end reactions, it is recommended that the supporting
structure be designed to provide a nominal minimum unit
bearing pressure of 750 pounds per square inch (5171 kilo
Pascal).
Where steel joists or Joist Girders are sloped, beveled ends
or sloped end bearings may be provided where the slope exceeds 1/4 inch in 12 inches (1:48). When sloped end bearings are required, the seat depths shall be adjusted to
maintain the standard height at the shallow end of the sloped
bearing. For Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series, bearing ends
will not be beveled for slopes of 1/4 inch or less in 12 inches
(1:48).
The maximum joist spacing shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications
Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption.
Steel joist extended ends shall be in accordance with Manufacturer’s Standard and shall meet the requirements of —
See page 37.
Where sidewalls, wall beams or tie beams are capable of
supporting the floor slab or roof deck, the first adjacent joists
may be placed one full space from these members. Joists
are provided with camber and may have a significant difference in elevation with respect to the adjacent structure because of this camber. This difference in elevation should be
given consideration when locating the first joist adjacent to a
side wall, wall beam or tie beam.
Ceiling extensions shall be furnished to support ceilings
which are to be attached to the bottom of the joists. They are
not furnished for the support of suspended ceilings. The ceiling extension shall be either an extended bottom chord element or a loose unit, whichever is standard with the
manufacturer, and shall be of sufficient strength to properly support the ceiling.
2.4 EXTENDED ENDS
2.2 JOIST LOCATION AND SPACING
2.5 CEILING EXTENSIONS
Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series, should be placed no closer
than 6 inches (152 mm) to supporting walls or members.
TABLE 2.6-1a
K-SERIES JOISTS
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
SECTION
NUMBER*
Round Rod
1/2" round
(13 mm)
r = 0.13"
(3.30 mm)
**BRIDGING MATERIAL SIZE
Equal Leg Angles
1 x 7/64
1-1/4 x 7/64
1-1/2 x 7/64
1-3/4 x 7/64
2 x 1/8
2-1/2 x 5/32
(25 mm x 3 mm) (32 mm x 3 mm) (38 mm x 3 mm) (45 mm x 3 mm) (52 mm x 3 mm) (64 mm x 4 mm)
r = 0.20"
r = 0.25"
r = 0.30"
r = 0.35"
r = 0.40"
r = 0.50"
(5.08 mm)
(6.35 mm)
(7.62 mm)
(8.89 mm)
(10.16 mm)
(12.70 mm)
1–9
3'- 3"
(991 mm)
5'- 0"
(1524 mm)
6'- 3"
(1905 mm)
7'- 6"
(2286 mm)
8'- 7"
(2616 mm)
10'- 0"
(3048 mm)
12'- 6"
(3810 mm)
10
3'- 0"
(914 mm)
4'- 8"
(1422 mm)
6'- 3"
(1905 mm)
7'- 6"
(2286 mm)
8'- 7"
(2616 mm)
10'- 0"
(3048 mm)
12'- 6"
(3810 mm)
11–12
2'- 7"
(787 mm)
4'- 0"
(1219 mm)
5'- 8"
(1727 mm)
7'- 6"
(2286 mm)
8'- 7"
(2616 mm)
10'- 0"
(3048 mm)
12'- 6"
(3810 mm)
* Refer to last digit(s) of Joist Designation
* * Connection to Joist must resist a nominal unfactored 700 pound force (3114 N)
136
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
TABLE 2.6-1b
LH-SERIES JOISTS
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
SPANS OVER 60 ft. (18.3 m) REQUIRE BOLTED DIAGONAL BRIDGING
SECTION
1 x 7/64
NUMBER* (25 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.20"
(5.08 mm)
**BRIDGING ANGLE SIZE – (EQUAL LEG ANGLE)
1-1/4 x 7/64
(32 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.25"
(6.35 mm)
1-1/2 x 7/64
(38 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.30"
(7.62 mm)
1-3/4 x 7/64
(45 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.35"
(8.89 mm)
2 x 1/8
(52 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.40"
(10.16 mm)
2-1/2 x 5/32
(64 mm x 4 mm)
r = 0.50"
(12.70 mm)
02, 03, 04
4' – 7"
(1397 mm)
6' – 3"
(1905 mm)
7' – 6"
(2286 mm)
8' – 9"
(2667 mm)
10' – 0"
(3048 mm)
12' – 4"
(3759 mm)
05 – 06
4' – 1"
(1245 mm)
5' – 9"
(1753 mm)
7' – 6"
(2286 mm)
8' – 9"
(2667 mm)
10' – 0"
(3048 mm)
12' – 4"
(3759 mm)
07 – 08
3' – 9"
(1143 mm)
5' – 1"
(1549 mm)
6' – 8"
(2032 mm)
8' – 6"
(2590 mm)
10' – 0"
(3048 mm)
12' – 4"
(3759 mm)
09 – 10
4' – 6"
(1372 mm)
6' – 0"
(1829 mm)
7' – 8"
(2337 mm)
10' – 0"
(3048 mm)
12' – 4"
(3759 mm)
11 – 12
4' – 1"
(1245 mm)
5' – 5"
(1651 mm)
6' – 10"
(2083 mm)
8' – 11"
(2718 mm)
12' – 4"
(3759 mm)
13 – 14
3' – 9"
(1143 mm)
4' – 11"
(1499 mm)
6' – 3"
(1905 mm)
8' – 2"
(2489 mm)
12' – 4"
(3759 mm)
15 – 16
4' – 3"
(1295 mm)
5' – 5"
(1651 mm)
7' – 1"
(2159 mm)
11' – 0"
(3353 mm)
17
4' – 0"
(1219 mm)
5' – 1"
(1549 mm)
6' – 8"
(2032 mm)
10' – 5"
(3175 mm)
* Refer to last two digits of Joist Designation
** Connection to Joist must resist force listed in Table 104.5-1
2.6 BRIDGING AND BRIDGING ANCHORS
Refer to page 150 for OSHA steel joist erection stability
requirements.
(a) Bridging standard with the manufacturer and complying
with the Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications
Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption shall be
used for bridging all joists furnished by the manufacturer.
Positive anchorage shall be provided at the ends of each
bridging row at both top and bottom chords.
Horizontal bridging shall consist of continuous horizontal
steel members. The l/r ratio for horizontal bridging shall
not exceed 300. The material sizes shown in Tables 2.61a and 2.6-1b meet the criteria.
(b) For K- and LH-Series Joists horizontal bridging is recommended for spans up to and including 60 feet (18.3 m) except where the Steel Joist Institute Standard
Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables require bolted
diagonal bridging for erection stability.
(c) Diagonal cross bridging consisting of angles or other
shapes connected to the top and bottom chords, of K-,
LH- and DLH-Series Joists shall be used when required
by the applicable Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption.
LH- and DLH-Series Joists exceeding 60 feet (18.3 m) in
length shall have bolted diagonal bridging for all rows.
Diagonal bridging, when used, shall have an l/r ratio not
exceeding 200.
Refer to Section 6 in the K-Series Specifications and
Section 105 in the LH- and DLH-Series Specifications
for erection stability requirements.
When the bridging members are connected at their point
of intersection, the material sizes listed in Table 2.6-2 will
meet the above specification.
137
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
(d) When bolted diagonal erection bridging is required, the
following shall apply:
1. The bridging shall be indicated on the joist placement
plan.
4. When two pieces of bridging are attached to the steel
joist by a common bolt, the nut that secures the first
piece of bridging shall not be removed from the bolt
for the attachment of the second piece.
2. The joist placement plan shall be the exclusive indicator for the proper placement of this bridging.
5. Bridging attachments shall not protrude above the top
chord of the steel joists.
3. Shop installed bridging clips, or functional equivalents, shall be provided where the bridging bolts to
the steel joist.
TABLE 2.6-2
K, LH AND DLH SERIES JOISTS
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR DIAGONAL BRIDGING
**BRIDGING ANGLE SIZE – (EQUAL LEG ANGLE)
JOIST DEPTH
1 x 7/64
1-1/4 x 7/64
(25 mm x 3 mm)
(32 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.20" (5.08 mm) r = 0.25" (6.35 mm)
1-1/2 x 7/64
(38 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.30" (7.62 mm)
1-3/4 x 7/64
2 x 1/8
(45 mm x 3 mm)
(50 mm x 3 mm)
r = 0.35" (8.89 mm) r = 0.40" (10.16 mm)
12"
6' – 6" (1981 mm)
9' – 11" (3022 mm)
11' – 7" (3530 mm)
(305 mm)
8' – 3" (2514 mm)
14"
(356 mm)
6' – 6" (1981 mm)
8' – 3" (2514 mm)
9' – 11" (3022 mm)
11' – 7" (3530 mm)
16"
(406 mm)
6' – 6" (1981 mm)
8' – 2" (2489 mm)
9' – 10" (2997 mm)
11' – 6" (3505 mm)
18"
(457 mm)
6' – 6" (1981 mm)
8' – 2" (2489 mm)
9' – 10" (2997 mm)
11' – 6" (3505 mm)
20"
(508 mm)
6' – 5" (1955 mm)
8' – 2" (2489 mm)
9' – 10" (2997 mm)
11' – 6" (3505 mm)
22"
(559 mm)
6' – 4" (1930 mm)
8' – 1" (2463 mm)
9' – 10" (2997 mm)
11' – 6" (3505 mm)
24"
(610 mm)
6' – 4" (1930 mm)
8' – 1" (2463 mm)
9' – 9"
11' – 5" (3479 mm)
(2971 mm)
26"
(660 mm)
6' – 3" (1905 mm)
8' – 0" (2438 mm)
9' – 9"
(2971 mm)
11' – 5" (3479 mm)
28"
(711 mm)
6' – 2" (1879 mm)
8' – 0" (2438 mm)
9' – 8"
(2946 mm)
11' – 5" (3479 mm)
30"
(762 mm)
6' – 2" (1879 mm)
7' – 11" (2413 mm)
9' – 8"
(2946 mm)
11' – 4" (3454 mm)
32"
(813 mm)
6' – 1" (1854 mm)
7' – 10" (2387 mm)
9' – 7"
(2921 mm)
11' – 4" (3454 mm) 13' – 0"
36"
(914 mm)
7' – 9" (2362 mm)
9' – 6"
(2895 mm)
11' – 3" (3429 mm) 12' – 11" (3973 mm)
(3962 mm)
40" (1016 mm)
7' – 7" (2311 mm)
9' – 5"
(2870 mm)
11' – 2" (3403 mm) 12' – 10" (3911 mm)
44" (1118 mm)
7' – 5" (2260 mm)
9' – 3"
(2819 mm)
11' – 0" (3352 mm) 12' – 9"
(3886 mm)
48" (1219 mm)
7' – 3" (2209 mm)
9' – 2"
(2794 mm)
10' – 11" (3327 mm) 12' – 8"
(3860 mm)
52" (1321 mm)
9' – 0"
(2743 mm)
10' – 9" (3276 mm) 12' – 7"
(3835 mm)
56" (1422 mm)
8' – 10" (2692 mm)
10' – 8" (3251 mm) 12' – 5"
(3784 mm)
60" (1524 mm)
8' – 7"
(2616 mm)
10' – 6" (3200 mm) 12' – 4"
(3759 mm)
64" (1626 mm)
8' – 5"
(2565 mm)
10' – 4" (3149 mm) 12' – 2"
(3708 mm)
68" (1727 mm)
8' – 2"
(2489 mm)
10' – 2" (3098 mm) 12' – 0"
(3657 mm)
72" (1829 mm)
8' – 0"
(2438 mm)
10' – 0" (3048 mm) 11' – 10" (3606 mm)
MINIMUM A307 BOLT REQUIRED FOR CONNECTION
SERIES
*SECTION NUMBER
BOLT DIAMETER
K
LH, DLH
LH, DLH
DLH
ALL
3/8”
2 - 12
3/8”
13 - 17
1/2”
18 and 19
5/8”
*Refer to last digit(s) of Joist Designation
138
(10 mm)
(10 mm)
(13 mm)
(16 mm)
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
2.7 HEADERS
Headers for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series as outlined and
defined in Section 5.2 (a) shall be furnished by the Seller. Such
headers shall be any type standard with the manufacturer.
Conditions involving headers shall be investigated and, if necessary, provisions made to provide a safe condition. Headers
are not provided for Longspan Steel Joists, LH-Series, and
Deep Longspan Steel Joists, DLH-Series.
SECTION 4.
INSPECTION
Institute Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight
Tables Section 5.12 for K-Series, Section 104.13 for LHand DLH-Series, and Section 1004.10 for Joist Girders.
2.8 BOTTOM CHORD LATERAL BRACING FOR
JOIST GIRDERS
SECTION 5.
Bottom chord lateral bracing may be furnished to prevent lateral
movement of the bottom chord of the Joist Girder and to prevent the ratio of chord length to chord radius of gyration from exceeding that specified in the Steel Joist Institute Standard
Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption.
The lateral bracing shall be that which is standard with the manufacturer, and shall be sufficient to properly brace the bottom
chord of the Joist Girder.
ESTIMATING
5.1 PLANS FOR BIDDING
Plans to serve as the basis for bids shall show the character
of the work with sufficient clarity to permit making an accurate
estimate and shall show the following:
Designation and location of Materials (See Section 5.2 [a]),
including any special design or configuration requirements.
SECTION 3.
MATERIALS
Locations and elevations of all steel and concrete
supporting members and bearing walls.
3.1 STEEL
Location and length of joist extended ends.
Location and size of all openings in floors and roofs.
The steel used in the manufacture of joists and Joist Girders
shall comply with the Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption.
Location of all partitions.
3.2 PAINT
Loads and their locations as defined in Section 6.1.
Construction and thickness of floor slabs, roof deck,
ceilings and partitions.
(a) Standard Shop Paint - The shop coat of paint, when specified, shall comply with the Steel Joist Institute Standard
Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest
adoption.
Joists or Joist Girders requiring extended bottom chords.
5.2 SCOPE OF ESTIMATE
Paint, if other than manufacturer’s standard.
(b) Disclaimer - The typical shop applied paint that is used to
coat steel joists and Joist Girders is a dip applied, air dried
paint. The paint is intended to be an impermanent and provisional coating which will protect the steel for only a short
period of exposure in ordinary atmospheric conditions.
(a) Unless otherwise specified, the following items shall be
included in the estimate, and requirements shall be determined as outlined in Section 6.1.
Steel Joists.
Since most steel joists and Joist Girders are painted using
a standard dip coating, the coating may not be uniform
and may include drips, runs, and sags. Compatibility of
any coating including fire protective coatings applied over
a standard shop paint shall be the responsibility of the
specifier and/or painting contractor.
Joist Girders.
Joist Substitutes.
Joist Extended Ends.
Ceiling Extensions.
The shop applied paint may require field touch-up/repair
as a result of, but not limited to, the following:
1. Abrasions from: Bundling, banding, loading and unloading, chains, dunnage during shipping, cables and chains
during erection, bridging, installation, and other handling
at the jobsite.
NOTE: Rusting should be expected at any abrasion.
2. Dirt.
3. Diesel smoke.
4. Road salt.
5. Weather conditions during storage.
The joist manufacturer shall not be responsible for the condition
of the paint if it is not properly protected after delivery.
Inspections shall be made in accordance with the Steel Joist
Extended bottom chord used as strut.
Bridging and bridging anchors.
Joist Girder bottom chord bracing.
Headers which are defined as members supported by
and carrying Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series.
One shop coat of paint, when specified, shall be in accordance with Section 3.2.
(b) The following items shall not be included in the estimate
but may be quoted and identified by the joist manufacturer as separate items:
Headers for Longspan Steel Joists, LH-Series.
139
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
Headers for Deep Longspan Steel Joists, DLH-Series.
GIRDER LOADS. This includes all special loads (drift
loads, mechanical units, net uplift, axial loads, moments, structural bracing loads, or other applied loads)
which are to be incorporated into the joist or Joist
Girder design. For Joist Girders, reactions from supported members shall be clearly denoted as point loads
on the Joist Girder. When necessary to clearly convey
the information, a Load Diagram or Load Schedule
shall be provided.
Reinforcement in slabs over joists.
Centering material, decking, and attachments.
Miscellaneous framing between joists for openings at
ducts, dumbwaiters, ventilators, skylights, etc.
Loose individual or continuous bearing plates and bolts
or anchors for such plates.
The specifying professional shall give due consideration to the following loads and load effects:
Erection bolts for joist and Joist Girder end anchorage.
Horizontal bracing in the plane of the top and bottom
chords from joist to joist or joist to structural framing and
walls.
1. Ponded rain water.
2. Accumulation of snow in the vicinity of obstructions
such as penthouses, signs, parapets, adjacent buildings, etc.
Wood nailers.
Moment plates.
3. Wind.
Special joist configuration or bridging layouts for ductwork or sprinkler systems.
4. Type and magnitude of end moments and/or axial
forces at the joist and Joist Girder end supports shall
be shown on the structural drawings. For moment
resisting joists or Joist Girders framing near the end
of a column, due consideration shall be given to extend the column length to allow a plate type connection between the top of the joist or Joist Girder top
chord and the column.
Shear Studs.
SECTION 6.
PLANS AND
SPECIFICATIONS
Avoid resolving joist or Joist Girder end moments
and axial forces through the bearing seat connection.
6.1 PLANS FURNISHED BY BUYER
A note shall be provided on the structural drawings
stating that all moment resisting joists shall have all
dead loads applied to the joist before the bottom chord
struts are welded to the supporting connection whenever the moments provided do not include dead load.
The Buyer shall furnish the Seller plans and specifications
as prepared by the specifying professional showing all
Material requirements and steel joist and/or steel Joist
Girder designations, the layout of walls, columns, beams,
girders and other supports, as well as floor and roof openings and partitions correctly dimensioned. The live loads to
be used, the wind uplift if any, the weights of partitions and
the location and amount of any special loads, such as monorails, fans, blowers, tanks, etc., shall be indicated. The elevation of finished floors, roofs, and bearings shall be shown
with due consideration taken for the effects of dead load
deflections.
The top and bottom chord moment connection details
shall be designed by the specifying professional.
The joist designer shall furnish the specifying professional with the joist detail information if requested.
The nominal loads, as determined by the specifying
professional, shall not be less than that specified in the
applicable building codes.
(a) Loads -
Where concentrated loads occur, the magnitude and
location of these concentrated loads shall be shown on
the structural drawings when, in the opinion of the
specifying professional, they may require consideration by the joist manufacturer.
The Steel Joist Institute does not presume to establish the
loading requirements for which structures are designed.
The specifying professional shall use one of the following options that allows the:
The Steel Joist Institute Load Tables are based on uniform loading conditions and are valid for use in selecting
joist sizes for gravity loads that can be expressed in
terms of “pounds per linear foot” (kiloNewtons per Meter)
of joist. The Steel Joist Institute Joist Girder Weight
Tables are based on uniformly spaced panel point loading conditions and are valid for use in selecting Joist
Girder sizes for gravity conditions that can be expressed
in kips (kiloNewtons) per panel point on the Joist Girder.
- Estimator to price the joists.
- Joist manufacturer to design the joists properly.
Option 1: Select a Standard Steel Joist Institute joist
for the uniform design loading and provide the load and
location of any additional loads on the structural plan
with a note “Joist manufacturer shall design joists for
additional loads as shown”. This option works well for a
few added loads per joist with known locations.
- Owner to obtain the most economical joists.
The specifying professional shall provide the nominal
loads and load combinations as stipulated by the applicable code under which the structure is designed and
shall provide the design basis (ASD or LRFD).
The specifying professional shall calculate and provide
the magnitude and location of ALL JOIST and JOIST
140
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
LRFD EXAMPLE:
Option 2: Select a KCS joist using moment and end
reaction. This option works well for concentrated loads
for which exact locations are not known or for multiple
loading. See examples and limitations on the pages
accompanying the KCS Joist Load Tables.
U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS AND (METRIC UNITS)
Factored Load diagram per ASCE 7 2.3.2(3) 1.2D + 1.6S
600 lbs (2.67 kN) 360 lbs (1.60 kN)
(1.2 x 500 lbs)
(1.2 x 300 lbs)
8'-0"
(2.44 m)
a) Determine the maximum moment
b) Determine the maximum end reaction (shear)
6'-0"
(1.83 m)
256 lb/ft (3.74 kN/m)
(1.6 x 160 plf)
c) Select the required KCS joist that provides the required moment and end reaction (shear).
Option 3: Specify a SPECIAL joist with load diagrams.
This option is preferred when the joist includes loading
that cannot clearly be denoted on the structural drawings.
SNOW LOAD – 288 lb/ft (4.21 kN/m) (1.6 x 180 plf)
DEAD LOAD – 72 lb/ft (1.06 kN/m) (1.2 x 60 plf)
18"
(457 mm)
a) Provide a load diagram to clearly define ALL loads
b) Place the designation ( i.e. 18K SP or 18LH SP )
under the load diagram with the following note:
“Joist manufacturer to design joist to support loads
as shown above”.
7'-0"
(2.13 m)
RR
(b) Connections -
Minimum End Anchorage for simple span gravity loading
shall be in accordance with Steel Joist Institute Standard
Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables Section 5.6
for K-Series, Section 104.4 for LH- and DLH-Series, and
Section 1004.6 for Joist Girders. The specifying professional is responsible for the design of the joist and
Joist Girder connection when it is subject to any loads
other than simple span gravity loading including uplift
and lateral loads. The specifying professional is also
responsible for bridging termination connections. The
contract documents must clearly illustrate these connections.
SPECIAL LOADING : Please note the load combinations
shown are for referenced examples only and it is not to
be presumed that the joist designer is responsible for
the applicable building code load combinations. If the
loading criteria are too complex to adequately communicate in a simple load diagram, then the specifying professional shall provide a load schedule showing the
specified design loads, load categories, and required
load combinations with applicable load factors.
(c) Special Considerations
The specifying professional shall indicate on the construction documents special considerations including:
a) Profiles for non-standard joist and Joist Girder configurations (Standard joist and Joist Girder configurations
are as indicated in the Steel Joist Institute Standard
Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest
adoption).
U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS AND (METRIC UNITS)
Load diagram per ASCE 7 2.4.1(3)
30'-0" (9.14 m)
960 lbs (4.27 kN)
(1.2 x 800 lbs)
18K SP
Joist manufacturer to design joist to support factored loads as shown.
RL
CAUTION: The specifying professional shall compare the equivalent uniform loads derived from the maximum moment and shear to the uniform loads tabulated
in the K-Series Load Table. An equivalent unfactored
uniform load in excess of 550 plf (8020 N/m) or a maximum unfactored end reaction exceeding 9200 lbs (40.9
kN) indicates that the specifying professional shall
consider using additional joists to reduce the loading or
use an LH-Series Joist and make provisions for 5 inch
(127 mm) deep bearing seats.
ASD EXAMPLE:
3'-0"
(0.91 m)
D+S
b) Oversized or other non-standard web openings
c) Extended ends
d) Deflection criteria for live and total loads for non-SJI
standard joists
6.2 PLANS FURNISHED BY SELLER
e) Non-SJI standard bridging
The Seller shall furnish the Buyer with steel joist placement
plans to show the Material as specified on the construction
documents and are to be utilized for field installation in accordance with specific project requirements as stated in Section
6.1. Steel placement plans shall include, at a minimum, the
following:
1. Listing of all applicable loads as stated in Section 6.1
and used in the design of the steel joists and Joist
Girders as specified in the construction documents.
141
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
the plans used as the basis of the bid, the cost of such changes
and/or extra Material shall be paid by the Buyer at a price to be
agreed upon between Buyer and Seller.
2. Profiles for non-standard joist and Joist Girder configurations (Standard joist and Joist Girder configurations are as indicated in the Steel Joist Institute
Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables
of latest adoption).
6.6 CALCULATIONS
The seller shall design the steel joists and/or steel Joist Girders in accordance with the current Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables to support
the load requirements of Section 6.1. The specifying professional may require submission of the steel joist and Joist
Girder calculations as prepared by a registered design professional responsible for the product design. If requested by
the specifying professional, the steel joist manufacturer
shall submit design calculations with a cover letter bearing
the seal and signature of the joist manufacturer’s registered
design professional. In addition to standard calculations
under this seal and signature, submittal of the following shall
be included:
3. Connection requirements for:
a) Joists supports
b) Joist Girder supports
c) Field splices
d) Bridging attachments
4. Deflection criteria for live load and total loads for nonSJI standard joists.
5. Size, location, and connections for all bridging
6. Joists headers
All Material shall be identified with its mark which also appears on the bill of material. The shop paint shall be as noted
on the joist placement plans. Steel joist placement plans
do not require the seal and signature of the joist manufacturerʼs registered design professional.
1. Non-SJI standard bridging details (e.g. for cantilevered
conditions, net uplift, etc.)
2. Connection details for:
6.3 DISCREPANCIES
a) Non-SJI standard connections (e.g. flush framed
or framed connections)
b) Field splices
The specifying professional’s bid plans and specifications will
be assumed to be correct in the absence of written notice
from the Buyer to the contrary. When plans are furnished by
the Buyer which do not agree with the Architect’s bid plans,
such detailed plans shall be considered as a written notice of
change of plans. However, it shall be the Buyer’s responsibility to advise the Seller of those changes which affect the
joists or Joist Girders.
c) Joist headers
SECTION 7.*
HANDLING AND
ERECTION
6.4 APPROVAL
The current OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS FOR STEEL
ERECTION, 29 CFR PART 1926, SUBPART R- STEEL
ERECTION, refers to certain joists at or near columns to be
designed with sufficient strength to allow one employee to release the hoisting cable without the need for erection bridging. This STANDARD shall not be interpreted that any
joist at or near a column line is safe to support an employee without bridging installed. Many limitations exist
that prevent these joists from being designed to safely allow
an employee on an un-bridged joist. Because of these limitations these joists must be erected by incorporating erection
methods ensuring joist stability and either:
When joist placement plans are furnished by the Seller, prints
thereof are submitted to the Buyer and owner for examination
and approval. The Seller allows a maximum of fourteen (14)
calendar days in their schedule for the return of placement
plans noted with the owner’s and customer’s approval, or approval subject to corrections as noted. The Seller makes the
corrections, furnishes corrected prints for field use to the
owner/customer and is released by the owner/customer to
start joist manufacture.
Approval by the owner/customer of the placement plans, sections, notes and joist schedule prepared by the Seller indicates that the Seller has correctly interpreted the contract
requirements, and is released by the owner/customer to start
joist manufacture. This approval constitutes the owner’s/customer’s acceptance of all responsibility for the design adequacy of any detail configuration of joist support conditions
shown by the Seller as part of the preparation of these placement plans.
1) Installing bridging or otherwise stabilizing the joist prior to
releasing the hoisting cable, or
2) Releasing the hoisting cable without having a worker on
the joist.
A steel joist or Joist Girder shall not be placed on any support
structure unless such structure is stabilized. When steel
joists or Joist Girders are landed on a structure, they shall be
secured to prevent unintentional displacement prior to installation.
Approval does not relieve the Seller of the responsibility for
accuracy of detail dimensions on the plans, nor the general
fit-up of joists to be placed in the field.
6.5 CHANGES
A bridging terminus point shall be established before joist
bridging is installed.
When any changes in plans are made by the buyer (or the buyers representative) either prior to or after approval of detailed
plans, or when any Material is required and was not shown on
Steel joist and Joist Girders shall not be used as anchorage
points for a fall arrest system unless written directions to do
so is obtained from a “qualified person”(1).
142
CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
No modification that affects the strength of a steel joist or
Joist Girder shall be made without the written approval of the
project engineer of record.
The Buyer and/or Erector shall check all materials on arrival
at job site and promptly report to Seller any discrepancies
and/or damages. The Buyer and/or Erector shall comply with
the requirements of the Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables of latest adoption in
the handling and erection of Material.
The Seller shall not be responsible for the condition of paint
finish on Material if it is not properly protected after delivery.
The Seller shall not be responsible for improper fit of Material
due to inaccurate construction work.
* For thorough coverage of this topic, refer to SJI Technical Digest #9, “Handling and Erection of Steel Joists
and Joist Girders”.
(1)
See page 150 for OSHA definition of a qualified person.
SECTION 8.
BUSINESS RELATIONS
8.1 PRESENTATION OF PROPOSALS
All proposals for furnishing Material shall be made on a Sales
Contract Form. After acceptance by the Buyer, these proposals must be approved or executed by a qualified official of
the Seller. Upon such approval the proposal becomes a contract.
8.2 ACCEPTANCE OF PROPOSALS
All proposals are intended for prompt acceptance and are
subject to change without notice.
8.3 BILLING
Contracts on a lump sum basis are to be billed proportionately as shipments are made.
8.4 PAYMENT
Payments shall be made in full on each invoice without retention.
8.5 ARBITRATION
All business controversies which cannot be settled by direct
negotiations between Buyer and Seller shall be submitted to
arbitration. Both parties shall sign a submission to arbitration
and if possible agree upon an arbitrator. If they are unable to
agree, each shall appoint an arbitrator and these two shall
appoint a third arbitrator. The expenses of the arbitration
shall be divided equally between the parties, unless otherwise provided for in the agreements to submit to arbitration.
The arbitrators shall pass final judgment upon all questions,
both of law and fact, and their findings shall be conclusive.
143
GLOSSARY
NOTES:
Buyer. The entity that has agreed to purchase material from
the manufacturer and has also agreed to the terms of sale.
Terms in Bold and their definitions come from the AISC AND
AISI STANDARD Standard Definitions for Use in the Design
of Steel Structures, 2004 Edition, First Printing April 2005.
Camber. An upward curvature of the chords of a joist or Joist
Girder induced during shop fabrication. Note this is in addition
to the pitch of the top chord.
* These terms are usually qualified by the type of load effect, e.g., nominal tensile strength, available compressive strength, design flexural strength.
Ceiling Extension. A bottom chord extension except that only
one angle of the joist bottom chord is extended from the first
bottom chord panel point towards the end of the joist.
** Term usually qualified by the type of component, e.g.
local web buckling, local flange buckling, etc.
Chords. The top and bottom members of a joist or Joist
Girder. When a chord is comprised of two angles there is
usually a gap between the members.
Accessories. Structural components related to the design,
fabrication and erection of joists and Joist Girders including,
but not limited to sloped end bearings, extended ends, ceiling
extensions, bridging and bridging anchors, headers and bottom chord lateral bracing for Joist Girders.
Clear Span. The actual clear distance or opening between
supports for a joist, that is the distance between walls or the
distance between the edges of flanges of beams.
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Member. Shape manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets, cut
lengths of coils or plates, or by roll forming cold- or hot-rolled
coils or sheets; both forming operations being performed at
ambient room temperature, that is, without manifest addition
of heat such as would be required for hot forming.
ASD (Allowable Strength Design). Method of proportioning
structural components such that the allowable strength
equals or exceeds the required strength of the component
under the action of the ASD load combinations.
ASD Load Combination. Load combination in the applicable building code intended for allowable strength design (allowable stress design).
Collateral Load. All additional dead loads other than the
weight of the building, such as sprinklers, pipes, ceilings, and
mechanical or electrical components.
Allowable Strength*. Nominal strength divided by the safety
factor, Rn /Ω
Ω.
Applicable Building Code. Building code under which the
structure is designed.
Connection. Combination of structural elements and joints
used to transmit forces between two or more members. See
also Splice.
Bay. The distance between the main structural frames or
walls of a building.
Deck. A floor or roof covering made out of gage metal attached by welding or mechanical means to joists, beams,
purlins, or other structural members and can be galvanized,
painted, or unpainted.
Available Strength*. Design strength or allowable strength
as appropriate.
Design Load. Applied load determined in accordance with
either LRFD load combinations or ASD load combinations,
whichever is applicable.
Bearing. The distance that the bearing shoe or seat of a joist
or Joist Girder extends over its masonry, concrete or steel
support.
Design Strength*. Resistance factor multiplied by the nominal strength, φRn.
Bearing Plate. The steel plate used for a joist or Joist Girder
to bear on when it is supported by masonry or concrete supports. The plate is designed by the Specifying Professional
to carry the joist reaction to the supporting structure.
Diagonal Bridging. Two angles or other structural shapes
connected from the top chord of one joist to the bottom chord
of the next joist to form an ‘X’ shape. These members are almost always connected at their point of intersection.
Bottom Chord Extension (BCX). The two angle extended
part of a joist bottom chord from the first bottom chord panel
point towards the end of the joist.
Diaphragm. Roof, floor or other membrane or bracing system that transfers in-plane forces to the lateral force resisting
system.
Bridging. In general, a member connected to a joist to brace
it from lateral movement. See also Diagonal Bridging and
Horizontal Bridging
Effective Length. Length of an otherwise identical column
with the same strength when analyzed with pin-ended boundary conditions.
Buckling. Limit state of sudden change in the geometry of a
structure or any of its elements under a critical loading condition.
Elastic Analysis. Structural analysis based on the assumption that the structure returns to its original geometry on removal of the load.
Buckling Strength. Nominal strength for buckling or instability
limit states.
144
GLOSSARY
Joist Substitute. A structural member who’s intended use is
for very short spans (10 feet or less) where open web steel
joists are impractical. They are usually used for short spans
in skewed bays, over corridors or for outriggers. It can be
made up of two or four angles to form channel sections or
box sections.
End Diagonal or Web. The first web member on either end
of a joist or Joist Girder which begins at the top chord at the
seat and ends at the first bottom chord panel point.
Erector. The entity that is responsible for the safe and proper
erection of the materials in accordance with all applicable
codes and regulations.
Lateral Buckling. Buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending.
Extended End. The extended part of a joist top chord with the
seat angles also being extended from the end of the joist extension back into the joist and maintaining the standard end
bearing depth over the entire length of the extension.
Lateral-Torsional Buckling. Buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending occurring simultaneously with twist about the shear center of the
cross section.
Factored Load. Product of a load factor and the nominal
load.
Limit State. Condition in which a structure or component
becomes unfit for service and is judged either to be no
longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit
state) or to have reached its ultimate load-carrying capacity
(strength limit state).
Filler. A rod, plate or angle welded between a two angle web
member or between a top or bottom chord panel to tie them
together, usually located at the middle of the member.
Flexural Buckling. Buckling mode in which a compression
member deflects laterally without twist or change in crosssectional shape.
Load. Force or other action that results from the weight of
building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, or restrained dimensional changes.
Flexural-Torsional Buckling. Buckling mode in which a
compression member bends and twists simultaneously without change in cross-sectional shape.
Load Effect. Forces, stresses, and deformations produced
in a structural component by the applied loads.
Girt. Horizontal structural member that supports wall panels
and is primarily subjected to bending under horizontal loads,
such as wind load.
Load Factor. Factor that accounts for deviations of the
nominal load from the actual load, for uncertainties in the
analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for
the probability that more than one extreme load will occur
simultaneously.
Gravity Load. Load, such as that produced by dead and live
loads, acting in the downward direction.
Header. A structural member located between two joists or
between a joist and a wall which carries another joist or joists.
It is usually made up of an angle, channel, or beam with saddle angle connections on each end for bearing.
Local Buckling**. Limit state of buckling of a compression
element within a cross section.
LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design). Method of
proportioning structural components such that the design
strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the LRFD load combinations.
Horizontal Bridging. A continuous angle or other structural
shape connected to the top and bottom chord of a joist.
LRFD Load Combination. Load combination in the applicable building code intended for strength design (Load and
Resistance Factor Design).
Inelastic Analysis. Structural analysis that takes into account
inelastic material behavior, including plastic analysis.
Instability. Limit state reached in the loading of a structural
component, frame or structure in which a slight disturbance
in the loads or geometry produces large displacements.
Joint. Area where two or more ends, surfaces or edges are
attached. Categorized by type of fastener or weld used and
the method of force transfer.
Material. Joists, Joist Girders and accessories as provided by
the Seller.
Joist. A structural load-carrying member with an open web
system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or
cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member.
Currently, the SJI has the following joist designations: K-Series including KCS, LH-Series and DLH-Series.
Nominal Load. Magnitude of the load specified by the applicable building code.
Nailers. Strips of lumber attached to the top chord of a joist
so plywood or other flooring can be nailed directly to the
joist.
Nominal Strength*. Strength of a structure or component
(without the resistance factor or safety factor applied) to resist
the load effects, as determined in accordance with these
Standard Specifications.
Joist Girder. A primary structural load-carrying member with
an open web system designed as a simple span supporting
equally spaced concentrated loads of a floor or roof system
acting at the panel points of the member and utilizing hotrolled or cold-formed steel.
Owner. The entity that is identified as such in the Contract
Documents.
145
GLOSSARY
Permanent Load. Load in which variations over time are rare
or of small magnitude. All other loads are variable loads.
Span. The centerline-to-centerline distance between structural steel supports such as a beam, column or Joist Girder
or the clear span distance plus four inches onto a masonry or
concrete wall.
Placement Plans. Drawings that are prepared depicting the
interpretation of the Contract Documents requirements for the
material to be supplied by the Seller. These floor and/or roof
plans are approved by the Specifying Professional, Buyer or
Owner for conformance with the design requirements. The
Seller uses the information contained on these drawings for
final material design. A unique piece mark number is typically
shown for the individual placement of joists, Joist Girders and
accessories along with sections that describe the end bearing
conditions and minimum attachment required so that material
is placed in the proper location in the field.
Specified Minimum Yield Stress. Lower limit of yield stress
specified for a material as defined by ASTM.
Specifying Professional. The licensed professional who is responsible for sealing the building Contract Documents, which
indicates that he or she has performed or supervised the analysis, design and document preparation for the structure and has
knowledge of the load-carrying structural system.
Splice. Connection between two structural members joined
at their ends by either bolting or welding to form a single,
longer member.
Ponding. Retention of water at low or irregular areas on a
roof due solely to the deflection of flat roof framing.
Purlin. Horizontal structural member that supports roof deck
and is primarily subjected to bending under vertical loads
such as dead, snow or wind loads.
Stability. Condition reached in the loading of a structural component, frame or structure in which a slight disturbance in the
loads or geometry does not produce large displacements.
Stabilizer Plate. A steel plate at a column or wall inserted between the end of a bottom chord of a joist or Joist Girder.
Quality Assurance. System of shop and field activities and
controls implemented by the owner or his/her designated representative to provide confidence to the owner and the building authority that quality requirements are implemented.
Standard Specifications. Documents developed and maintained by the Steel Joist Institute for the design and manufacture of open web steel joists and Joist Girders. The term “SJI
Standard Specifications” encompass by reference the following:
Quality Control. System of shop and field controls implemented by the seller and erector to ensure that contract and
company fabrication and erection requirements are met.
Required Strength*. Forces, stress, and deformations produced in a structural component, determined by either structural
analysis, for the LRFD or ASD load combinations, as appropriate, or as specified by these Standard Specifications.
ANSI/SJI-K-1.1 Standard Specifications for Open Web Steel
Joists, K-Series; ANSI/SJI-LH/DLH-1.1 Standard Specifications for Longspan Steel Joists, LH-Series and Deep
Longspan Steel Joists, DLH-Series; and ANSI/SJI-JG-1.1
Standard Specifications for Joist Girders.
Resistance Factor, φ. Factor that accounts for unavoidable
deviations of the nominal strength from the actual strength
and for the manner and consequences of failure.
Strength Limit State. Limiting condition affecting the safety of
the structure, in which the ultimate load-carrying capacity is
reached.
Safety Factor, Ω. Factor that accounts for deviations of the
actual strength from the nominal strength, deviations of the
actual load from the nominal load, uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect and for the manner and consequences of failure.
Structural Analysis. Determination of load effects on members and connections based on principles of structural mechanics.
Structural Drawings. The graphic or pictorial portions of the
Contract Documents showing the design, location and dimensions of the work. These documents generally include plans,
elevations, sections, details, connections, all loads, schedules, diagrams and notes.
Seller. A company certified by the Joist Institute engaged in
the manufacture and distribution of joists, Joist Girders and
accessories.
Service Load. Load under which serviceability limit states
are evaluated.
Tagged End. The end of a joist or Joist Girder where an identification or piece mark is shown by a metal tag. The member
must be erected with this tagged end in the same position as
the tagged end noted on the placement plan.
Serviceability Limit State. Limiting condition affecting the ability of a structure to preserve its appearance, maintainability,
durability, or the comfort of its occupants or function of machinery, under normal usage.
Tensile Strength (of material). Maximum tensile stress that
a material is capable of sustaining as defined by ASTM.
Slenderness Ratio. The ratio of the effective length of a column to the radius of gyration of the column about the same
axis of bending.
Tie Joist. A joist that is bolted at a column.
146
GLOSSARY
Top Chord Extension (TCX). The extended part of a joist top
chord. This type of extension only has the two top chord angles extended past the joist seat.
Torsional Buckling. Buckling mode in which a compression
member twists about its shear center axis.
Unbraced Length. Distance between braced points of a
member, measured between the centers of gravity of the
bracing members.
Variable Load. Load not classified as permanent load.
Webs. The vertical or diagonal members joined at the top and
bottom chords of a joist or Joist Girder to form triangular patterns.
Yield Point. First stress in a material at which an increase in
strain occurs without an increase in stress as defined by
ASTM.
Yield Strength. Stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to
strain as defined by ASTM.
Yield Stress. Generic term to denote either yield point or
yield strength, as appropriate for the material.
147
OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS
FOR STEEL ERECTION
BAY LENGTH
DEFINITIONS
148
149
Structural steel means a steel member, or a member made of
a substitute material (such as, but not limited to, fiberglass,
aluminum or composite members). These members include,
but are not limited to, steel joists, joist girders, purlins,
columns, beams, trusses, splices, seats, metal decking, girts,
and all bridging, and cold formed metal framing which is integrated with the structural steel framing of a building.
§ 1926.751 DEFINITIONS
(Selected items only).
Anchored bridging means that the steel joist bridging is connected to a bridging terminus point.
Bolted diagonal bridging means diagonal bridging that is
bolted to a steel joist or joists.
§ 1926.757 OPEN WEB
STEEL JOISTS
Bridging clip means a device that is attached to the steel joist
to allow the bolting of the bridging to the steel joist.
Bridging terminus point means a wall, a beam, tandem joists
(with all bridging installed and a horizontal truss in the plane
of the top chord) or other element at an end or intermediate
point(s) of a line of bridging that provides an anchor point for
the steel joist bridging.
(a) General.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section,
where steel joists are used and columns are not framed in at
least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a
steel joist shall be field-bolted at the column to provide lateral
stability to the column during erection. For the installation of
this joist:
(i) A vertical stabilizer plate shall be provided on each
column for steel joists. The plate shall be a minimum of 6 inch by 6 inch (152 mm by 152 mm) and
shall extend at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the
bottom chord of the joist with a 13 /16 inch (21 mm)
hole to provide an attachment point for guying or
plumbing cables.
(ii) The bottom chords of steel joists at columns shall
be stabilized to prevent rotation during erection.
(iii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat
at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted, and
each end of the bottom chord is restrained by the
column stabilizer plate.
(2) Where constructibility does not allow a steel joist to be installed at the column:
(i) an alternate means of stabilizing joists shall be installed on both sides near the column and shall:
(A) provide stability equivalent to paragraph (a)(1)
of this section;
(B) be designed by a qualified person;
(C) be shop installed; and
(D) be included in the erection drawings.
(ii) hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat
at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted and the
joist is stabilized.
(3) Where steel joists at or near columns span 60 feet (18.3
m) or less, the joist shall be designed with sufficient strength
to allow one employee to release the hoisting cable without
the need for erection bridging.
Column means a load-carrying vertical member that is part of
the primary skeletal framing system. Columns do not include
posts.
Constructibility means the ability to erect structural steel
members in accordance with subpart R without having to
alter the over-all structural design.
Construction load (for joist erection) means any load other
than the weight of the employee(s), the joists and the bridging
bundle.
Erection bridging means the bolted diagonal bridging that is
required to be installed prior to releasing the hoisting cables
from the steel joists.
Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest
an employee in a fall from a working level. A personal fall arrest system consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body
harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combination of these. The use of a body belt
for fall arrest is prohibited.
Project structural engineer means the registered, licensed
professional responsible for the design of structural steel
framing and whose seal appears on the structural contract
documents.
Qualified person (also defined in § 1926.32) means one who,
by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and
experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to
solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the
work, or the project.
Steel joist means an open web, secondary load-carrying
member of 144 feet (43.9 m) or less, designed by the manufacturer, used for the support of floors and roofs. This does
not include structural steel trusses or cold-formed joists.
(4) Where steel joists at or near columns span more than 60 feet
(18.3 m), the joists shall be set in tandem with all bridging installed unless an alternative method of erection, which provides
equivalent stability to the steel joist, is designed by a qualified
person and is included in the site-specific erection plan.
Steel joist girder means an open web, primary load-carrying
member, designed by the manufacturer, used for the support
of floors and roofs. This does not include structural steel
trusses.
150
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(5) A steel joist or steel joist girder shall not be placed on any
support structure unless such structure is stabilized.
(6) When steel joist(s) are landed on a structure, they shall be
secured to prevent unintentional displacement prior to installation.
▲
(7) No modification that affects the strength of a steel joist or
steel joist girder shall be made without the approval of the
project structural engineer of record.
CONFORM WITH STEEL JOIST INSTITUTE
BOLTED DIAGONAL BRIDGING REQUIREMENTS. EDITED ITEMS ARE SHOWN WITH
A STRIKE THROUGH NOTATION. NEW
ITEMS ARE SHOWN IN RED
TABLE A. — ERECTION BRIDGING FOR
SHORT SPAN JOISTS
Joist
Span
8L1 8K1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
10K1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
12K1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23–0
12K3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
12K5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
14K1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27–0
14K3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
14K4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
14K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
16K2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29–0
16K3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30–0
16K4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–0
16K5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–0
16K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
16K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
16K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18K3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–0
18K4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–0
18K5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–0
18K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–0
18K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18K10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20K3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–0
20K4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34–0
20K5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34–0
20K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36–0
20K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
20K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
20K10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
22K4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34–0
22K5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–0
22K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36–0
22K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0
22K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0
22K10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0 NM
22K11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0 NM
24K4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36–0
24K5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38–0
24K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
24K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43–0
24K8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43–0
24K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–0
24K10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24K12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
26K5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38–0
26K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
(8) Field-bolted joists.
(i)
NOTE: TABLES “A” & “B” HAVE BEEN EDITED TO
Except for steel joists that have been pre-assembled into panels, connections of individual steel
joists to steel structures in bays of 40 feet (12.2 m)
or more shall be fabricated to allow for field bolting
during erection.
(ii) These connections shall be field-bolted unless
constructibility does not allow.
(9) Steel joists and steel joist girders shall not be used as anchorage points for a fall arrest system unless written approval
to do so is obtained from a qualified person.
(10) A bridging terminus point shall be established before
bridging is installed.
(b) Attachment of steel joists and steel joist girders.
(1) Each end of ‘‘K’’ series steel joists shall be attached to the
support structure with a minimum of two 1/8 -inch (3 mm) fillet
welds 1 inch (25 mm) long or with two 1/2 -inch (13 mm)
bolts, or the equivalent.
(2) Each end of ‘‘LH’’ and ‘‘DLH’’ series steel joists and steel
joist girders shall be attached to the support structure with a
minimum of two 1/4 -inch (6 mm) fillet welds 2 inches (51 mm)
long, or with two 3/4 -inch (19 mm) bolts, or the equivalent.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section,
each steel joist shall be attached to the support structure, at
least at one end on both sides of the seat, immediately upon
placement in the final erection position and before additional
joists are placed.
(4) Panels that have been pre-assembled from steel joists
with bridging shall be attached to the structure at each corner
before the hoisting cables are released.
(c) Erection of steel joists.
(1) Both sides of the seat of one end of each steel joist that
requires bridging under Tables A and B shall be attached to
the support structure before hoisting cables are released.
(2) For joists over 60 feet, both ends of the joist shall be attached as specified in paragraph (b) of this section and the
provisions of paragraph (d) of this section met before the
hoisting cables are released.
(3) On steel joists that do not require erection bridging under
Tables A and B, only one employee shall be allowed on the
joist until all bridging is installed and anchored.
NM = diagonal bolted bridging not mandatory
for joists under 40 feet.
151
▲
▲
TABLE A. — ERECTION BRIDGING FOR
SHORT SPAN JOISTS (continued)
Joist
Span
26K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43–0
26K8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–0
26K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–0 44-0
26K10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49–0
26K12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
28K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0
28K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43–0
28K8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–0
28K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–0
28K10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49–0
28K12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53–0
30K7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–0
30K8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–0
30K9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–0
30K10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50–0
30K11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52–0
30K12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54–0
10KCS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
10KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
10KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
12KCS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
12KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
12KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
14KCS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
14KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
14KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
16KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
16KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
16KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
16KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–0
18KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36–0
20KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
20KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
22KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36–0
22KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0
22KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
22KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
24KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–0
24KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
26KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
26KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–0
26KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
26KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
28KCS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0
28KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–0
28KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53–0
28KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53–0
30KC53 30KCS3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–0
30KCS4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54–0
30KCS5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54–0
NM = diagonal bolted bridging not mandatory
for joists under 40 feet.
TABLE B. — ERECTION BRIDGING FOR
LONG SPAN JOISTS
Joist
Span
18LH02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–0
18LH03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18LH04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18LH05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18LH06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18LH07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18LH08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
18LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20LH02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–0
20LH03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38–0
20LH04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20LH05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20LH06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20LH07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20LH08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
20LH10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24LH03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–0
24LH04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39–0
24LH05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–0
24LH06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–0
24LH07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24LH08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24LH10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
24LH11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
28LH05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–0
28LH06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–0 46-0
28LH07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM 54-0
28LH08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM 54-0
28LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
28LH10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
28LH11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
28LH12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
28LH13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM
32LH06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–0 through 60–0
32LH07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–0 through 60–0
32LH08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–0 through 60–0
32LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
32LH10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
32LH11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
32LH12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
32LH13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
32LH14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
32LH15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
36LH07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–0 through 60–0
36LH08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–0 through 60–0
36LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57–0 through 60–0
36LH10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
36LH11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
36LH12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
36LH13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
36LH14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
36LH15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM through 60–0
40LH08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-0 through 59–0
40LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-0 through 59–0
44LH09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-0 through 59–0
NM = diagonal bolted bridging not mandatory
for joists under 40 feet.
152
(4) Employees shall not be allowed on steel joists where the
span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than the span
shown in Tables A and B except in accordance with §
1926.757(d).
(6) When bolted diagonal erection bridging is required by this
section, the following shall apply:
(5) When permanent bridging terminus points cannot be used
during erection, additional temporary bridging terminus points
are required to provide stability.
(ii) The erection drawing shall be the exclusive indicator of the proper placement of this bridging;
(i) The bridging shall be indicated on the erection
drawing;
(iii) Shop-installed bridging clips, or functional equivalents, shall be used where the bridging bolts to the
steel joists;
(d) Erection bridging.
(iv) When two pieces of bridging are attached to the
steel joist by a common bolt, the nut that secures
the first piece of bridging shall not be removed
from the bolt for the attachment of the second; and
(1) Where the span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than
the span shown in Tables A and B, the following shall apply:
(i) A row of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall be
installed near the midspan of the steel joist;
(v) Bridging attachments shall not protrude above the
top chord of the steel joist.
(ii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this
bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and
anchored; and
(e) Landing and placing loads.
(iii) No more than one employee shall be allowed on
these spans until all other bridging is installed and
anchored.
(1) During the construction period, the employer placing a
load on steel joists shall ensure that the load is distributed so
as not to exceed the carrying capacity of any steel joist.
(2) Where the span of the steel joist is over 60 feet (18.3 m)
through 100 feet (30.5 m), the following shall apply:
(2) Except for paragraph (e)(4) of this section, no construction
loads are allowed on the steel joists until all bridging is installed and anchored and all joist-bearing ends are attached.
(i) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
(3) The weight of a bundle of joist bridging shall not exceed
a total of 1,000 pounds (454 kg). A bundle of joist bridging
shall be placed on a minimum of three steel joists that are
secured at one end. The edge of the bridging bundle shall be
positioned within 1 foot (.30 m) of the secured end.
(ii) Two rows of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall
be installed near the third points of the steel joist;
(iii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this
bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and
anchored; and
(4) No bundle of decking may be placed on steel joists until all
bridging has been installed and anchored and all joist bearing
ends attached, unless all of the following conditions are met:
(iv) No more than two employees shall be allowed on
these spans until all other bridging is installed and
anchored.
(i) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
(i) The employer has first determined from a qualified
person and documented in a site-specific erection
plan that the structure or portion of the structure is
capable of supporting the load;
(ii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until all bridging is installed and anchored; and
(ii) The bundle of decking is placed on a minimum of
three steel joists;
(iii) No more than two employees shall be allowed on
these spans until all bridging is installed and anchored.
(iii) The joists supporting the bundle of decking are attached at both ends;
(3) Where the span of the steel joist is over 100 feet (30.5 m)
through 144 feet (43.9 m), the following shall apply:
(iv) At least one row of bridging is installed and anchored;
(4) For steel members spanning over 144 feet (43.9 m), the
erection methods used shall be in accordance with §
1926.756.
(v) The total weight of the bundle of decking does not
exceed 4,000 pounds (1816 kg); and
(5) Where any steel joist specified in paragraphs (c)(2) and
(d)(1), (d)(2), and (d)(3) of this section is a bottom chord bearing joist, a row of bolted diagonal bridging shall be provided
near the support(s). This bridging shall be installed and anchored before the hoisting cable(s) is released.
(vi) Placement of the bundle of decking shall be in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section.
(5) The edge of the construction load shall be placed within
1 foot (.30 m) of the bearing surface of the joist end.
153
ILLUSTRATIONS OF OSHA
BRIDGING
TERMINUS POINTS
(NON-MANDATORY)
Guidelines for Complying with OSHA Steel Erection Standard, Paragraph §1926.757(a)(10) and §1926.757(c)(5).
154
155
156
PUBLICATIONS
Vulcraft (Refer to back cover for address and telephone number of division nearest you)
STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS 2003
VULCRAFT COMPOSITE AND NONCOMPOSITE FLOOR JOISTS 1996
DESIGNING WITH VULCRAFT JOIST, STEEL JOIST GIRDERS AND STEEL DECK, 2nd ed.
James Fisher, Ph.D., P.E., Michael West, P.E., AIA, Juius P. Van de Pas, P.E.
(A 168 page book provided to engineers and architects for help in designing with
steel joists, joist girders and steel deck)
STEEL DECK INSTITUTE - P.O. Box 25, Fox River Grove, IL 60021 Phone: (847) 458-4647 Fax (847) 458-4648
e-mail [email protected]
DESIGN MANUAL FOR COMPOSITE DECKS, FORM DECKS AND ROOF DECKS - NO. 30
ROOF DECK CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK - NO. RDCH1
DIAPHRAGM DESIGN MANUAL SECOND EDITION NO. DDMO2
COMPREHENSIVE STEEL DECK INSTITUTE BINDER - NO. BF
SDI MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION WITH STEEL DECK - NO. MOC1 (650KB)
COMPOSITE STEEL DECK DESIGN HANDBOOK. NO. CDD2
STANDARD PRACTICE DETAILS. - NO. SPD2
DECK DAMAGE & PENETRATIONS - NO. DDP
HOW TO UPDATE DIAPHRAGM TABLES - NO. HUDT
METAL DECK & CONCRETE QUANTITIES - NO. MDCQ
A RATIONAL APPROACH TO STEEL DECK CORROSION PROTECTION - NO. SDCP (278 KB)
Steel Joist Institute - 3127 Mr. Joe White Avenue, Myrtle Beach, SC 29577-6760
(843) 626-1995 Fax: 843-626-5565, e-mail: [email protected], web site: www.steeljoist.org
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, LOAD TABLES AND WEIGHT TABLES FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS
42ND Edition (2005)
75-YEAR MANUAL
TECHNICAL DIGEST #3 - Ponding (1971)
TECHNICAL DIGEST #5 - Vibration (1988)
TECHNICAL DIGEST #6 - Uplift Loading (1998)
TECHNICAL DIGEST #8 - Welding of Open Web Steel Joist (1983)
TECHNICAL DIGEST #9 - Handling and Erection (1987)
TECHNICAL DIGEST #11 - Design of Joist - Girder Frames (1999)
GUIDE FOR SPECIFYING STEEL JOISTS WITH LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (2002)
NEW LRFD GUIDE (2000)
COMPUTER VIBRATION PROGRAM Ver1.2 (Used in Conjunction with Technical Digest #5)
SJI VIDEO - Introduction to Steel Joists
VIDEO - SAFE ERECTION OF OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS (English & Spanish)
157
NOTES
158
VULCRAFT – GROUP
Manufacturing Locations
ALABAMA
INDIANA
7205 Gault Avenue N.
Fort Payne, AL 35967
P.O. Box 680169
Fort Payne, AL 35968
256-845-2460
Fax: 256-845-2823
6610 County Road 60
P.O. Box 1000
St. Joe, IN 46785
260-337-1800
Fax: 260-337-1801
NEBRASKA
SOUTH CAROLINA
1601 West Omaha Avenue
Norfolk, NE 68701
P.O. Box 59
Norfolk, NE 68702
402-644-8500
Fax: 402-644-8528
1501 West Darlington Street
P.O. Box 100520
Florence, SC 29501
843-662-0381
Fax: 843-662-3132
TEXAS
UTAH
287 North Main Extension
P.O. Box 186
Grapeland, TX 75844
936-687-4665
Fax: 936-687-4290
1875 West Highway 13 South
P.O. Box 637
Brigham City, UT 84302
435-734-9433
Fax: 435-723-5423
VULCRAFT OF NEW YORK, INC.
VULCRAFT - NATIONAL ACCOUNTS
1000 Hurricane Shoals Road
5362 Railroad Street
P.O. Box 280
Chemung, NY 14825
607-529-9000
Fax: 607-529-9001
Building A - Suite 150
Lawrenceville, GA 30043
770-338-0970
Fax: 770-295-0001
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