Introducing Communication Theory - e

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Marquette University
[email protected]
Books by Marquette University Faculty
2013
Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and
Application (2013 Ed.)
Richard West
Emerson College
Lynn H. Turner
Marquette University, [email protected]
Follow this and additional works at: http://epublications.marquette.edu/marq_fac-book
Part of the Communication Commons
Recommended Citation
West, Richard and Turner, Lynn H., "Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application (2013 Ed.)" (2013). Books by
Marquette University Faculty. Book 215.
http://epublications.marquette.edu/marq_fac-book/215
FIFTH EDITION
Introducing
Communication Theory
ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION
Richard West
Emerson College
Lynn H. Turner
Marquette University
Contents
Preface
XVI1
AboLit th e Authors
PART ONE
XXVII
Setting the Stage
1
COMMUNICATION, THEORY, AND RESEARCH
Chapter 1
Thinking About Communication: Definitions, Models,
and Ethics
3
Defining Communication
4
The Intentionality Debate: Did You Mean That?
9
Models of Understanding: Communication as Action, Interaction,
and Transaction
11
Communication as Action: The Linear Model
11
Communication as Interaction: The Interactional Model
12
Communication as Transaction: The Transactional Model
14
Ethics and Communication
16
Business and Industr y
18
18
Religion and Faith
Entertainment
19
Higher Education
19
Medicine
20
Politics
21
Technology 21
Some Fina l Thoughts
22
The Value of Understanding Communication Theory 23
Understanding Commu nication Theory Cultivates Critical Thinking Skills
23
Und erstanding Communication Theory Helps You to Recognize the Breadth
and Depth of Research
23
Understanding Communication Theory Helps to Make Sense of Personal
Life Experiences
24
Communication Theory Fosters Self-Awareness
Conclusion
25
Discussion Starters 25
Online Learning emter
Chapter 2
24
25
Thinking About the Field: Traditions and Contexts
Seven Traditions in the Communication Field
26
27
The Rhetorical Tradition
28
The Semiotic Tradition
29
"
The Phenomenologica l Tradition
29
The Cybernetic Tradi tion 30
The Socio-Psychologica l Tradition
30
The Socio-Cultural Trad ition
3'i
The Critica l Trad ition
31
Putting it All Together
32
Seven Contexts in the Communication Field
Intraperso nal Communi ca ti o n
32
Interperso nal Communica ti o n
34
Small Gro up Communica ti on
35
Organi za tional Communica ti on
37
Public/Rh etori cal Commun icati on
38
Mass/Media Communica ti o n
40
C ultural Commun ica tion
4 "1
Collating the Contexts
Conclusion
43
Discussion Starters
44
On line Leaming Center
Chapter 3
32
42
44
45
Thinking About Theory and Research
Defining Theory: What's in a Name?
Components
47
47
Goals 49
Approaches to Knowing: How Do You Sec (and Talk About ) the World?
The Pos iti vistic, o r Em pirica l, Approach
The interpreti ve Approach
50
The Critical Approach
50
Approaches to Knowing: What Questions Do You Ask About the World?
Approaches to Knowing: How Do You Go About Theory Building?
53
Covering Law Approach
55
55
Ru les Approach
Systems Approach
57
Evaluating Theory 59
The Research Process 62
Conclusion 67
Discussion Starters 67
Online Leamillg Cellter 68
PART TWO
Understanding the Dialogue
69
THE SELF AND MESSAGES
Chapter 4
Symbolic Interaction Theory
72
History of Symbolic Interaction Theory
74
T hemes and Assumptions of Symbolic Interaction Theory
The Impo rtance o f Mea ning fo r Huma n Beha vior
The Importance of the Self-Co ncept
vi
Contents
77
49
49
76
75
51
Indi viduals Develop Self-Conce pts Through Interactio ns
with Others
78
The Relationship Between the Indi vidual a nd Society
79
Key Concepts
81
81
Mind
Self
82
Society 84
Integration, Critique, and Closing
Scope
85
Utility 85
Testa bility
86
Discussion Starters
86
Online Leaming Center
Chapter 5
84
87
Coordinated Management of Meaning
All the World's a Stage
88
89
Assumptions of Coordinated Management of Meaning
The Hierarchy of Organized Meaning
Content
95
Speech Act
95
Episodes
95
Relationship
96
97
Life Scripts
Cultural Patterns
97
Charmed and Strange Loops 98
90
93
The Coordination of Meaning: Making Sense
of the Sequence
tOO
Influences on the Coordination Process
Rules and Unwanted Repetitive Patterns
Integration, Critique, and Closing
101
102
105
Scope 105
Parsimony
106
Utiliry 106
Heurism
107
Discussion Starters
107
Online Leaming Center 108
Chapter 6
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
109
Assumptions of Cognitive Dissonance Theory
113
Concepts and Processes of Cognitive Dissonance
114
Ma gnitude o f Dissonance
114
Coping with Dissonance
11 5
Cogniti ve Di ssonance and Perceptio n
11 6
Minimal Justification
11 7
Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Persuasion
118
Contents
vii
Integration, Critiq ue, and Closing
Utility
121
Testability
123
Discussion Starters
124
Online Leanring Cen ter
124
Chapter 7
120
Expectancy Violations Theory
125
Space Relations
12 7
Proxemic Zones
128
129
Territor ia lity
Assump tions of Ex pectancy Violatio ns T heory
Aro usal
133
134
T hreat T hreshold
135
Violation Valence
136
Communicato r Reward Valence
136
integrati o n, Critique, and Closing
Scope
137
Utility
138
Testabili ty
138
Heurism
138
Discussion Starters 139
Online Leanring Center
139
RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 8
13 1
141
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
143
Assumptions of Uncerta inty Reducti o n Theory
146
Axioms of Uncertainty Red uction T heory
148
Expansions of Uncertainty Red uction T heory
151
'l SI
Additiona l Axioms
Antecedent Conditions
152
Strategies
152
154
Developed Rel ati onships
Social M edia
156
157
Context
integration, Critique, and Closing 159
Utility
159
Heurism
161
Discussion Starters
162
Ollline Leamillg Ce/tter
163
Chapter 9
Social Exchange Theory
164
Assumptio ns of Social Exchange T heory
Evaluatin g a Relationship
170
Exchange Patterns: SET in Action
172
Exchange Structu res
174
viii
Con ten tJ
167
Integration, Critique, and Closing
Scope
176
177
Utili ty
Testabil ity 177
H eurism
178
Discussion Starters
178
Online Learning Cellter
Chapter 10
175
179
Social Penetration Theory
180
Assumptions of Social Penetration Theory
182
"Tearing Up" the Relationship: The Onion Analogy
185
187
A Social Exchange: Relational Costs and Rewards
Stages of the Social Penetration Process
189
Orientation: Reveal ing Bit by Bit
190
19 1
Exploratory Affecrive Exchange: The Self Emerges
Affective Exchange: Commitment and Comfortability 192
Stable Exchange: Raw Honesty and Intimacy
193
Integration, Critique, and Closing
194
Scope
195
Heurism
195
Discussion Starters
196
Onii"e Learning Ce"ter
Chapter 11
197
Relational Dialectics Theory
198
Assumptions of Relational Dialectics T heory
202
Core Elements of Dialectics
Basic Relational Dialectics
203
Autonomy and Connectio n
203
Openness and Protect io n
205
Novelty and Predictab ility
206
Contextual Dialectics
206
Beyond Basic Dialectics
208
Responses to Dialectics
210
Integratio n, Critique, and Clo sing
211
Parsimony
212
212
Utili ty
Heurism
213
Discussion Starters 214
On/i"e Learning Center
214
Chapter 12
201
Communication Privacy Management Theory
Evolution of Communication Privacy Management Theory
Assumptions of CPM
2 18
Key Terms and Principles of CPM
219
Principle 1: Pri va te Info rmation Ownership
220
Principle 2: Private Information Control
220
215
217
Contents
ix
Principle 3: Pri vate [nformation Rules
222_
Principle 4 : Pri vate Info rmati on Co-ownersh ip and Guardianship
Principle 5: Private Information Boundary Turbulence
226
Integra tio n, Critique, and Closing
226
Logical Consistency
227
Uti lity 228
228
H eu rism
DiscusS;Oll Starters
228
Oll/ille Learning Center 229
Chapter 13
230
Social Information Processing Theory
Theoretical Turbulence: T he Cues Filtered O ut
233
Assumptions of Social Informati o n Processing Theory
235
Hyperpersonal Perspective: "I Like What I Read
238
and I Want More"
Sender: Selective Self-Presentation
239
Receiver: Idea lization of the Sender
240
Chan nel Management
241
Feedback
241
242
Warranting: Gain ing Confidence Onl ine
Integration, Critique, and Closing
244
Scope
244
245
Utility
245
Testability
Discussion Starters 246
Online Learning Center 247
GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Chapter 14
Groupthlnk
249
251
Assumptions of Gro upthink
254
What Comes Before: Antecedent Conditions of Groupthink
Group Cohesiveness
257
Structura l Factors
258
Group Stress
259
Symptoms of Groupthink
260
Overestimation of the Group
260
Closed-M inded ness
261
Press ures Toward Uniformity
262
263
(Group )Think About It: It's All Around U.S.
Think Before You Act: Ways to Prevent Groupthink
Integratio n, Critique, and Closing
Scope
266
Testability 267
267
Heurism
Test of Time
268
Discussion Starters 268
Onlille Leamillg Cellter 269
x
Contents
266
264
257
224
Chapter 15
270
Structuration Theory
Assumptions of Structuration Theory
274
Central Concepts of Structuration Theory
Agency and ReAexivity 277
Duality of Structure 278
Social Integra ti o n
2 82
Application of Time and Space
Integration, Critique, and Closing
Sco pe
277
282
283
284
Parsimony
2 84
Discussion Starters
285
Online Leoming Center 286
Chapter 16
Organizational Culture Theory
287
The Cultural Metaphor: Of Spider Webs
and Organizations
290
Assumptions of Organizational Cultural Theory
291
294
Ethnographic Understanding: Laying It On Thick
The Communicative Performance
Ritual Perfo rm ances
Pass ion Perform ances
296
296
2 98
Socia l Perform ances 298
Poli tica l Perform ances
298
Enculturati o n Performances
2 99
Integration, Critique, and Closing
299
Logical Consistency
Utilit y 301
Heuri sm
300
3 01
Discussion Starters
301
Online Leoming Cmter 302
Chapter 17
Organizational Information Theory
The Only Constant Is Change (in Organizations)
306
Genera l Systems Th eory
Darwin's Th eory of Sociocul tural Evolution
303
306
307
Assumptions of Organizational Information
Theory
308
Key Concepts and Conceptualizing Information
310
Information Environment: The Sum Total
3 10
Rules: G uidelines to Anal yze 3 11
Cycles: Act, Res pond, Adjust
313
The Principles of Equivocality
314
Reducing Equivocality: Trying to Use the Information
Enactm ent: Assigning Message Impo rta nce
315
3 15
Selectio n: Interpreting the Inputs
316
Retentio n: Remember the Small Stuff 317
Contents
xi
Integration, Critiq ue, and Closing
Logical Consistency 3 1 8
Utility 3 19
Heur is m
3 19
Discussion Starters 320
Online Learning Center
THE PUBLIC
Chapter 18
317
320
321
The Rhetoric
322
The Rhetorical Tradition
324
325
Assumptions of the Rhetoric
Syllogisms: A Three-Tiered Argument 327
Canons of Rhetoric
328
In vention
329
330
Arrange ment
Style
331
Memory
33 1
Delivery
333
333
Types of Rhetoric
Integration, Critique, and Closing
336
Logical Consistency
336
Heurism
337
Test of Time
338
Discussion Starters 339
Online Learning Center
339
Chapter 19
Dramatism
340
Assumptions of Dramatism
342
Dramatism as New Rhetoric
344
Identificati on and Substa nce
344
The Process of Guilt and Redemption
The Pentad
347
Integration, Critique, and Closing
349
Scope 349
Pa rsimon y 350
Utility 350
Heurism
35 2
Discussion Starters 353
Online Leamillg Center
Chapter 20
353
The Narrative Paradigm
354
Assumptions of the Narrative Paradigm
Key Concepts in the Narrative Approach
N arra tion
36 1
Na rra tive Rationa lity 36 '1
xii
Contents
345
357
361
Integration, Critique, and Closing
365
Scope
366
Logica l C onsistency
366
Utility
366
Heurism
368
Discussion Starters 368
Online Learning Cell fer
369
THE MEDIA
Chapter 21
371
Agenda Setting Theory
373
History of Agenda Setting Research
374
Pretheoretical Conceptua lizing 375
Esta blishing the Theo ry of Agenda Setting
376
Expansions and Refinements to Agenda Setting
Theory
377
Assumptions of Agenda Setting Theory 378
379
Two Levels of Agenda Setting
Three-Part Process of Agenda Setting 380
Integration, Criciquc, and Closing
Scope
38 3
Utility
384
Heurism
385
Discltssion Starters
385
Online Learning Center
Chapter 22
382
386
Spiral of Silence Theory
387
The Cou rt of Public Opinion
390
Assumptions of Spiral of Silence T heory
The Media's Influence
395
The Train Test 397
The Hard Core 398
Integration, Critique, and Closing
Logical Consistency
Heurism
392
400
401
402
Discussion Starters 403
O,liine Learning Cellier 403
Chapter 23
Uses and Gratifications Theory
404
Assump tions of Uses and Gratifications Theory
406
409
Stages of Uses and Gratifications Research
Media Effects 411
Key Terms
413
Uses and Gratifications and the Internet, Social Media,
and Cell PhoDes 414
Contents
xii;
Integration, Critique, and Closi ng
Logical Consistency
4'18
Utili ty
418
Heurism
418
Discussion Starters
419
Online Learning Cen ter
Chapter 24
Cultivation Theory
416
419
420
Developing Cultivation Theory
422
Assum ptions of Cultivation Theory
424
Processes and Products of Cultivation T heory
426
The Four-Step Process
Mainstreaming and Resonance
426
The Mean World Index
42 8
429
Cultivation Theory as Critical T heory
Integration, Critique, and Closing
432
Logical Consistency
432
Utility 433
433
Heurism
Test of Time
434
Discussion Starters
435
On/jne Learning Center
436
Chapter 25
Cultural Studies
426
437
The Marxist Legacy: Power to the People
440
Assumptions of Cultu ra l Studies
441
444
Hegemon y: T he Influence on the Masses
Cou nter-Hegem ~n y: The Masses Start to Influence
the Dominant Forces
446
Audience Decoding 448
Integration, Critique, and Closing
449
Logical Consistency
450
Utility
450
Heurism 451
Discussion Starters
452
Online Learning Cen ter 452
Chapter 26
Media Ecology Theory
453
Ass umptions of Media Ecology T heory
456
459
Making Media History and Making "Sense"
The Tribal Era
459
The Literate Era
460
The Print Era
460
The Electronic Era
461
xiv
Contents
T he Medi um Is th e Message
46 1
Ga ugi ng th e Temperature: H ot and Cool Media
The Ci rcle Is Complete: T he Tetrad
464
Enhancement
462
4 64
Obsolescence
465
Retr ieva l 465
Reversal 4 66
Carryin g the McL uhan Banner: Postm an and Mcyrowitz
In tegra tion, Critiq ue, and C los ing
469
470
Testa bility
Heurism
471
Discussion Starters
472
Onfille Learnillg Cellter
CULTURE AND DIVERSITY
Chapter 27
467
472
473
Face-Negotiation Theory
475
Abo ut Face
477
Face and Politeness T heory
478
Facework
479
Ass umptions of Face-Negoti ati on T heory
480
Individualistic and Collecti vistic Cultures 482
Indiv idua lism and Collecti vism
484
Face Ma nagement and Cultu re
485
Ma nagi ng Confl ict Across C ultures
486
In tegratio n, Critiq ue, and C los in g
488
Logical Consistency
48 8
Heurism
4 89
Discussiofl Starters
490
Oll/ille Learning Celfter 491
Chapter 28
Communication Accommodation Theory
Social Psychology and Social Iden tity
494
Ass umptions of Commun ication Accommodati o n
T heory 496
Ways to Adapt
499
Converge nce: Merging Tho ughts Ahead
499
Di ve rge nce: Vive 10 Difference
503
Overaccommodarion: Miscommunicating with a Purpose
Integration, Critique, and Closing
506
Scope
507
Logical Consistency
507
Heurisln
508
Discussion Starters 508
O llli"e Leanlillg Center 509
492
504
Contents
xv
Chapter 29
Muted Group Theory
510
Origins of Muted Group Theory
512
Makeup of Muted Groups
514
Differentiating Between Sex a nd Gender
5 15
Assumptions of Muted Group Theory
515
516
Gend er-Based Differences in Pe rception
Ma le Dominance
5 17
Women's Translation Processes
51 9
The Process of Silencing
520
Ridicule
521
Ritual
521
Control
522
Hara ssmen t
522
Strategies of Resistance
523
Integration, Critique, and C losing
523
Utility
524
Test of Time
525
Discussion Starters 525
Online Learning Cellter 526
Chapter 30
Feminist Standpoint Theory
527
Historical Foundations of Feminist Standpoint Theory
529
Feminist Standpoint Theory's Critiq ue of Theory and Research
Assumptions of Feminist Srandpoint Theory
532
Relationship to Communication
535
Key Concepts of Standpoint Theory
536
Voice
536
Standpoint . 536
Situated Knowledges
537
Sexual Division of Labor
538
Integration, Critique, and C losing
538
Utility
53 9
Discussion Starters 541
Online Learning Center 542
Afterward-ConnectingQuestJ
GloJJary
G-I
References
R-I
Name Index
I-I
Subjectlndex
1-11
xvi
Contents
543
530
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