a universal graphic character writer

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A U n i v e r s a l Graphic Character W r i t e r
by
Shou-Chuan Yang & C h a r l o t t e W. Y a n g
U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , Madison, W i s c o n s i n
'
ABSTRACT
A major harrier to the human communication is attributed to
the fact that there is no compatible typewriter, as in the Western
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World, for any non-alphabetic language outside of the Western
World.
This p a p e r ~ 1 1
describe how a plotter can be used through
programming, a s a u n i v e r s a l
graphic character writer
alphabetic as well as alphabetic
writer.
for all
languages in place of the type-
This is economically feasible
since the plotter
e x p e n s i v e and can be d r i v e n by a s m a l l c o m p u t e r o n - l l n e ,
line using a plotter
non-
is not
or o f f -
and t a p e u n i t .
Each character is treated as a single independent graph and
decomposed into line segments within a 16 x 16 grid for nonalphabetic languages, and a 5 x 8 grid for alphabetic languages.
Therefore, the graphic character can be represented by the coordinates which indicate the beginning and the ending points of the
line segments.
To take the most c.omplicated Chinese language as an example,
the character for "BRAVE" (
) can be represented by twenty-three
pairs of coordinates and packed into four 48-bit computer words.
Taking this as a basis for estimation, the overwhelmingly numerous
I0,000 Chinese characters can be decomposed and packed into 40K
*This study was supported in part by the University of Wisconsin.
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of memory.
Thus, a computer with 65K memory will be able to keep
them in core for direct access and processing.
On the other hand, an English letter "I~' can be represented by
five pairs of coordinates and packed into one 48-bit computer word.
In other words, the whole set of the English alphabet, including
upper and lower cases, will need only II0 words of memory.
The output on the plotter is itself a good hard copy to keep,
and certainly it can be used as an original for further dupllcating, photographing and photoengraving.
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I.
INTRODUCTION
This paper describes a system which simulates the f u n c t i o n of a
typewriter for all languages because of its unique nature in the
c ~ I n E and displaying of the graphic characters.
Characters,
Ineludlng alphabets, of all languages are encoded on a grid.
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How-
ever, for the internal representation in the memory, only the X-Y
coordinates of each straight llne segment are recorded, which will
provide sufficient information to reconstruct this character.
The test program for thl8 system is written in CDC 3600 FORTRAN (a
variation of FORTRAN IV) which will generate a plot tape to be used
on a Calcump plotter for producing these characters.
with suweminor modifications,
Actually,
this program can be run on any
cumputer and output on any plotter available.
The advantage in
using the plotter is that it produces directly a clear, hard copy
at a very reasonable cost.
Natural languages which have been tested
in the program are Chinese and English.
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French, German, Hindi,
Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean~ Russian, and Spanish are to be
tested in the near future.
II.
CHAEACTERREPRESENTATION
Different sizes of grids may be used to define the coordinates
representing each character.
For non-alphabetic
languages, a 16 x
16 grid is proved to be sufficient for a good recoding of the
character.
For alphabetic languages, a 5 x 8 grid will be adequate
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to accommodate all the letters of the languages.
in the
grid
position
is assigned a pair
in the grid,
that
rows o f t h e g r i d p o i n t s
is,
of values according to its
the coordinates
to right,
coordinate.
is
The c h a r a c t e r
all
of the grid point.
f r o m 0 t o 15 o r 4 a s t h e X
to be fitted
the starting
points,
i n t o t h e g r i d w i t h one
turning points,
and
ending points
o f a l i n e o r i i n e s e g m e n t h a v e t o be on one o f t h e
grid points.
The c o o r d i n a t e s
of these grid points
and to be stored in the memory for later
are recorded
retrieval.
A curve o f
a stroke is treated as many short straight line segments.
A llne
is defined here with only one starting point and one ending point,
and may or may not have one or more turning points between them.
Coordinates of a line should always be recorded in the sequence
as the starting point, the turning point or points, and the ending
point.
However, the sequence of coordinate groups of lines are
immaterial for the character representation.
The character representation method used by Hayashl, Duncan
and Kuno of Harvard University is not .quite the same as described
above.
The
The c o l u m n s o f t h e g r i d p o i n t s
are numbered from the left
that
relative
a r e numbered from t h e bottom up, from 0
t o 15 o r 7 a s t h e Y c o o r d i n a t e ,
restriction
Each grid point
Instead of recording the starting point, 'turning point and
ending point of a continuous llne, they virtually recorded the
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starting point and ending point of every line segment.
That is,
the turning point in a continuous line is used twice both as the
ending point of the previous line segment and the starting point
of the follewing line segment.
This method does simplify the
programming task for generating the character, but it also increases
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the number of coordinates to be recorded and stored for retrieval,
resulting in inefficient character generation.
of a Chinese character for "BRAVE" (~),
Taking their example
thirty-two pairs of coordi-
nates are required to be stored for character generation.
For the
method described in the previous paragraph, only twenty-three
coordinate pairs are necessary to accomplish the same task.
If
the English letter '~' is taken as an example, eight coordinate
pairs are required for the Harvard method, of which, only five
coordinate pairs are necessary to reconstruct the character
excluding the three repeated coordinate pairs.
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1S
•
•
14
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
....
I::.
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O.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11.1213~1.: 15
Figure I. The Chinese character £c¢ "BRAVE" on
a 16 x 16 grid with tWenty-three pairs of
coordinates:
4 2,14),
(6,13),
( 3, 6),
( 3 , 9),
( 3 , 7),
(8,11),
4 1, 5),
(12,14),
( 9,11);
( 3,11);
(13, 9);
413, 7);
( 8, 7),
414, 5),
( 8,12);
(13,il),
(i3, 6);
( 7, 4),
(13, 2),
4 5, 2),
411, 0),
( 1, 0 ) ;
(9,2)•
o
0123
F i g u r e 2. The E n g l i s h l e t t e r ' ~ ' on I a 5 x 8 g r i d w l t h
f i v e p a i r s of c o o r d i n a t e s :
( O, 0 ) ,
( O, 7),
( 2, 3 ) ,
( 4, 7),
4 4, 0)•
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There are other methods to represent a character.
uses a 256 x 256 or some other size cell grid.
One method
Each cell is one
bit in size to record the presence of the character strokes, lines
or dots as the one bit, and the non-presence of them as the zero bit.
Then~ by resembling these bits into a pattern, it is used for the
recognition or generation of a character.
This method is employed
for almost all commercial character recognition machines to identify
English letters, symbols and numerals most often in printed form.
However, this is not practical for the non-alphabetic languages
because it requires a huge memory to store all these character
cell-patterns.
For example, one commercial machine actually uses
a 2,048 x 2,048 cell grid to recognize an English letter with good
precision.
In addition, this method is not used for character
generation because of the foreseeable programming complications
and the time-consuming computer operations.
Another method is to choose some special codes for identifying
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the characters.
An arbitrary code system can be used for this
purpose, such as the telegraphic code of Chinese characters.
They
are four decimal-digit codes ranging from 0000 to 9999 for representing the I0,000 Chinese characters in use.
They are rather
arbitrarily assigned except that characters with certain stroke
patterns are grouped together and the sequence arranged is closely
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a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the sequence appearing in most Chinese d i c t i o n a r i e s .
A n o t h e r good example i s t h e B i n a r y Coded Decimal u s e d i n c o m p u t e r s
to specify the individual English letters,
An a l t e r n a t i v e
n u m e r a l s and s y m b o l s .
i s t o a s s i g n a code a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n p a t t e r n
o r t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e s t r o k e s s u c h a s t h e method used by t h e
IBM S i n o w r i t e r w h i c h was r e v i s e d l a t e r
renamed a s t h e C h i c o d e r .
first
two d i g i t s
by I t e k C o r p o r a t i o n and
It also uses four digit
codes b u t t h e
a r e a l p h a n u m e r i c s and t h e l a s t two d i g i t s
n m n e r a l s r a n g i n g o n l y from one t o f i v e .
method i s t h a t i t
are
The a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s
e a s e s t h e memory r e t e n t i o n
o f codes by t h e
operator.
These two code a s s i E m a e n t methods can a l s o be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r
languages as well.
directly
However, i f c h a r a c t e r s a r e t o be g e n e r a t e d
from t h o s e i d e n t i f y i n g
characters
is actually
m a c r o s and i t
codes t h e n t h e c o d i n g o f t h o s e
i n some s o r t machine l a n g u a g e f o r s y s t e m
c o u l d be v e r y t e d i o u s and c o m p l i c a t e d .
Therefore,
t h e s e two methods a r e n o t recommended f o r g e n e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r s
but only for identifying
ITT.
characters
durlng retrleval
phase.
CHARACTERGENERATION
The codes f o r i d e n t i f y i n g
languages are just different
illustrations
of letters,
different
characters
forms o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
in various
such a s t h e
n u m e r a l s and s p e c i a l symbols on t h e keys
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of every t y p e ~ i t e r
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keyboard.
Once t h e code i s r e c o g n i z e d e i t h e r
t h r o u g h t h e i n p u t media or t h r o u g h some i n t e r n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,
the coordinate group associated with this particular code will be
retrieved for character generation.
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Character generation through programming is basically a procedure of initiating proper subroutine calls to plot a straight
llne between two pairs of coordinates at a specified position.
The difference between character generation through CRT beam d i s playing and through plott'er pen drawing is a matter of different
subroutine calls for activating different hardware output devices.
The character generation method employed in the test program
is elaborated to the extent that once the plotter p e n is lowered
for drawing, it is maintained at that position untll the drawing
of the current continuous line is completed and then it is lifted
and set ready for the movement of the pen to the starting point Of
the next continuous line.
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In the case of a CRT display, once the
beam is turned on for displaying a line, it will not be turned off
until the end of this continuous llne is reached.
Thus, the coordi-
nate greup of a continuous line is treated as a unit for the
generating purpose.
The first pair of coordinates in a coordinate
group~ i.e., the coordinate pair of the starting point of a line,
initiates the pen or beam to be moved to the position specified
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by t h i s
pair of coordinates,
at that position.
and t h e n t o be lmre~ed o r t u r n e d on
The s e c o n d p a i r and a l l
the suceeding pairs
o f c o o r d i n a t e s up t o t h e s e c o n d t o t h e l a s t p a i ~ , i . e . ,
nate pairs
of the turning points, will
o f t h e p e n o r beam t o t h e s p e c i f i e d
a straight
each a c t i v a t e
i.e.,
the c~dinate
t h e pen o r t u r n
coordinates:
o f f t h e beam a t t h a t p O s i t i o n .
in l
~
~
a g e n e r a t i n g u n i t c o n t a i n s o n l y two p a i r s
the first
l i n e , and t h e n e x t ,
0
coordinate position
The H a r v a r d method i s s i m p l e r and e a s i e r
the sense that
The l a s t p a i r
pair of the ending point,
w i l l move t h e pen o r beam t o t h e s p e c i f i e d
and t h e n l i f t
one movement
coordinate pOsition forming
l l n e segment o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s l i n e .
of coordinates,
the coordi-
pair as the starting
or the last,
in
of
p o i n t of a s t r a i g h t
p a i r a s t h e e n d i n g p o i n t , w h i c h work
t h e same way a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t e s t
progz-am.
However, s i n c e t h e r e
i s n o t u r n i n g p o i n t s i n v o l v e d , a n O n - s t r a i g h t l i n e must be b r o k e n
i n t o many s h o r t m ~ h t
lines with repeated coordinates to indi-
c a t e b o t h t h e e n d i n g o f t h e p r e v i o u s l i n e segment and t h e s t a r t i n g
of the following line segment.
straight
Thtm a n o n - s t r a i g h t
line with N
l i n e s e g m e n t s w i l l h a v e t o he drawn o r d i s p 1 ~ y e d N t i m e s
with the plotter
pen moved, l o e e r e d , moved a g a i n , and l i f t e d
every
t i m e , o r w i t h t h e CRT beam moved, t u r n e d on, moved a g a i n , and t u r n e d
off every time.
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IV.
FORMAT CONTROLS
In order to have the characters to form a meaningful text and
to be arranged in different forms, certain forest controls are not
only desired but also of necessity:
I. " Language Selection
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The user is allowed to choose from all available languages
in the system one or more desired languages to be written on the
plotter paper.
The first language selected also indicates
the mode of input codes.
Thus if more than one language
selection is specified, the other languages selected will be
written in parallel, in an equivalent word-for-word translation
of the first language selected.
A multlple-language machine
dictionary is utilized for this purpose.
2.
Vertical or Horizontal Writing
The writing direction of characters may be either vertical
or horizontal.
Non-alphabetic languages are usually written
vertically from top downward for characters and from right to
left for columms.
Alphabetic languages are always written from
left to right for characters and from top downward for rows.
It is reecumended that for multiple-language writing including
both alphabetic and non-alphabetic languages~ the horizontal
writing mode is more suitable since non-alphabetlc languages
will still be readable vertically while in the other case
to read alphabetic languages in vertical fashion will be much
more difficult in a continuous text.
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3.
Character Size and I~ter-character Spacing
The number of characters to be accommodated on a standard
size 8-1/2 x II inch page is determined by the character size
specified which will also in turn allot the spacing between
characters r c ~ i s e
and column-wise.
The character size is
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specified in terms of step size, that is,the smallest distance
between two specifiable pen positions, or the number of points
to be positioned within the distance of One inch.
The step
size is to be treated as the unit distance between two grid
points in the 16 x 16 and the 5 x 8 grids.
Step sizes con-
sidered appropriate for character writing for various visual
effects are: 0o~I, 0.015, 0.02, 0.025, and 0.04 inches.
For
examples, step size of 0.025 will yield 320 Chinese characters
written horizontally, 0.02 inches for 500 characters, and 0.01
for 2,000 characters.
4.
Blank Character
This is used for all kinds of spacing needs in terms of one
character size of blank spaces.
Some typical uses are these
of centered titles with blank characters filled on both left
and right or top and bottom, indention at the beginning of
rows or columns, blank filled endings of rows or columns~ blank
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spaces between words and sentences in alphabetic languages~ etc.
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5.
Line and Page Controls
In contrast to the above user-specified controls, the line
and page controls are automatic system controls which can only
be influenced through the character size selection and the
language selection.
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The program will calculate the total number
of characters to be written on a 8-1/2 x 11 inch page according
to the selected character size and language (alphabetic or
non-alphabetic).
or coltmm) w i l l
Then the number of characters per line (row
be c a l c u l a t e d
line is reached,
first
character
accordingly.
the next characterwill
position
When t h e end of a
be w r i t t e n
of the next line.
And, i f
o f a p a g e i s r e a c h e d a t t h e same t i m e , t h e p l o t t e r
on t h e
t h e end
paper will
be a d v a n c e d to the next standard size page with the next character
to b e w r i t t e n on the first character position of the first line.
Special control characters denoted by seldomly used special
symbols are provided in the system to signify the end of a line
and the end of a page for the automatic skipping of the rest of
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t h e Line or page.
V.
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CHA~ACTERSTORAGEANDKETKXEVAL
1.
IdentificatiOn
Code
A u n i q u e code i s a s s i g n e d f o r e a c h c h a r a c t e r
appearing in
any one of the languages involved in the system for identification
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purpose.
The n t ~ e r i c a l
code in decimal digits
under Character Representation
method and can be readily
alphabetic
~ g e s ,
actunl
coding work.
is a'mJmple and arbitrary
applied
to any language.
to associate
codes with the alphabet
as discussed
requires
t h e two d e c i m a l - d i g i t
only a couple of hours of
For non-alphabetic
languages, as in the
w o r s t e x a m p l e o f IO,O00 C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s ,
the first
no p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e t e l e g r a p h i c
but with sufficient
the Suuner of 1964with
book.
t h e a i d o f a c ode r e f e r e n c e
codes with
Since this
l e s s t h a n 2~ o f r e f e r e n c e
commmications,
t h e r e m u s t be some v e r y e f f i c i e n t
handbook.
c o u l d be r e a d d i r e c t l y
method has been p r a c t i c e d
years in telegraphic
telegraphic
c ode s y s t e m
t h e F o u r Books, i n
s w m ~ r o f 1964, t h e C h i n e s e t e x t
in telegraphic
~uthor with
background in the Chinese language, did the
complete coding of the Chinese classics,
By ] a t e
For
t o t h e code
i n C h i n a f o r many
the authors believe
training
method f o r t h i s
coding •system.
The p r e v i o u s l y
discussed Chicodes for Chinese character
e n c o d i n g on t h e C h i c o d e r w a s e x p e r i m e n t e d f o r o p e r a t o r
i n 1965 a t I t e k C o r p o r a t i o n .
secretary
hut with
that
The r e s u l t
was t h a t
training
for an American
w i t h no p r e v i o u s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e ,
the aid of an instructional
mmlua~, f o u r months o f
traiD/ng will yield a typing speed of forty characters per
minute including error corrections.
However, the development
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w
of this kind of coding system will demand detailed analysis
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of stroke patterns for the particular language and the organization of characters in terms of these stroke patterns.
Thus
it is not readily available and too costly a technique to
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implement for other less complicated languages.
Both o f t h e code a s s i g n m e n t me t hod may be u s e d i n t h e
system to index the stored coordinate
e a c h o f them.
When t h e w r i t i n g
reaches the associated
groups associated
request
of a c e r t a i n
and t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s e q u e n c e of p l o t t e r
2.
the character
on t h e p l o t t e r
are
calculated
subroutine
calls
paper.
Accompanying I n f o r m a t i o n
The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
associated
c ode may a l s o be u s e d t o i n d e x i n f o r m a t i o n
with the specific
and operations.
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character
coordinate group, the coordinates
c o p i e d i n t o a b u f f e r a r e a and a r e b e i n g a n a l y z e d ,
for writing
with
character
for additional
references
If this system is to serve both as an automatic
writing device and an automatic dictionary for two or more
languages~ then all the information in a selected dictionary
may be included in the system, such as the pronouneiation guide,
parts of speech a n d other syntactic information, the meaning
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(translation) and other semantic information~ the associated
phrases and idioms, and examples of usage.
3.
Data Compression
Since the largest coordinate used in the two suggested
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grids is the decimal number fifteen~ only four bits are needed
to record one coordinate.
Therefore, the coordinates m a y b e
packed into a four-bit segment of a computer word.
This may
not be necessary for the alphabetic languages because their
character sets are very small in size~ usually not more than
sixty-four characters each set in binary coded decimal.
How-
ever, for the non-alphabetic languages such as the Chinese
with a 10,000-character set, the need for data compression is
rather apparent if all of their coordinate groups are going
to be stored in the core memory for the most efficient processing.
It is estimated that an average complexity Chinese character
can be packed into four 48-bit computer words and thus a computer
with 65K memory (e.g.~ CDC 3600) will be able to accov~nodate
the overwhelming i0,000 characters in 40K of memory and allow
the other 25K of memory for the executive system, the program,
and the input/output buffering operations.
Vl.
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
This system is aimed to provide a good universal writing device
for all languages, alphabetic and non-alphabetic
alike~ because
of its graphic nature in treating characters of various languages.
This is of particular advantage to the non-alphabetic languages
since no practical and efficient typing or~/riting device has been
created for their uses.
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The system uses the plotter as its output device for writing
characters directly on the paper to produce a clear and permanent
hard copy.
The alternative CRT display has a unique advantage of
on-llne monitoring or editing but is otherwise a more complex
e
process and hardware system to produce a final hard copy, and thus
inevitably too expensive for practical and efficient applications.
From numerous job runs of the test program on the CDC 3600 a plotter
page of standard 8-1/2 x 11 inch with 320 Chinese characters written
will cost about one dollar and twelve cents.
The estimate for the
test program.to be run on the Univac 1108 is approximately eighteen
cents per page.
It would be very interesting to know the cost
for on-line plotting with a PDP-8 and a plotter since they are among
the least expensive computing equipments available.
• The system is programmed in the Fortran language so that it
can be 8tilized through small or medium size computers with the
least effort Dfadaptatlon, A D y p l o t t ~ ; ~ w l t h : a ~ t e p
sise of 0.01 or
less is very satisfactory for output character writing.
The output
from this system is certainly suitable to be used as an original
for further duplicating, photographing, and photoengraving.
e
Multlple-
color writings may be accomplished through the change of plotter pens
or inks of various colors with the aid of in-line plotter controls,
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Finally, the system is oriented toward the user's convenience
in operating.
All the user's controls and selections are specified
in natural language vocabularies and punched on cards as the input
data to the computer.
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No progra~ning work is involved on the part
of the ultimate user to cause unnecessary complications or difficulties in utilizing this system.
The user's learning process
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requires only a few times of actual practice to achieve efficient
system utilization.
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REFERENCES
@
Dougherty, C. Y.; lamb, S. M.; and Martin, S. E. Chinese Character
Indexes. University of California Press, Berkeley, California,
1963.
Gruenberger, Fred, ed. Computer Graphics--utility/production/art.
Thompson, Washington, D.C. and Academic Press, London, 1967.
Hayashl, Hideyuki; Duncan, Sheila; and Kuno, Susumo. "Graphical
Input/Output of Nonstandard Characters," Communications of the
AC__~M, II (September, 1968), pp. 613-618.
Hays, David. Introduction to Computational Lin~ulstics.
Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1967.
Elsevier
Itek Corporation. Operational Instructions for the Modified
Sin cwriter (Chicoder). Itek Corporation, Lexington,
Massachusetts, 1964.
Kay, Martin. "Standards for Encoding Data in a Natural language,"
Computers and the Humanities, I (May, 1967), pp. 170-177.
Kovalevsky, V . A .
Character Readers and Pattern Recognition I
translated by A. M. Karpovich and A. M. Leavitt. Spartan,
New York, 1968.
Lee, T. C.; Wang, H. T.; and Yang, S. C. '~n Experimental Model
for Chinese to English Machine Translation." Paper presented
at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Machine Translation and Computational Linguistics, San Francisco, California,
1966.
@
Lee, T. C.; Wang, H. T.; Yang, S. C.; and Farmer, E. Linguistic
Studies for Chinese to English Machine Translation. Itek
Corporation, Lexington , Massachusetts, 1965.
Reifler, Erwin. "The Solution of M~ Linguistic Problems Through
Lexicography," Prpceedin~s of the National Symposium on Machine
Translation, edited by H.P. Edmundon. Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1961, pp. 310-316.
-20-
See, Richard. ' ~ a c h i n e - k i d e d TransLation and I n f o r m a t i o n R e t r i e v a l , "
E l e c t r o n i c I Handling of I n f o r m a t i o n : T e s t i n s & E v a l u a t i o n , e d i t e d
by A l l e n Kent; Orrin E. Taulbee; Jack B e l z e r ; and Gordon D.
G o l d s t e i n . Thompson, Washington, D.C., and Academic P r e s s ,
London, 1967, pp. 89-108.
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Siders, R. A. and others° Computer Graphics: A Revolution in Design.
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O
Uhr, Leonard; and Vossler, Charles. "A Pattern-Recognition Program
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a Simple Chinese Parser," Thqu~ht and Word , 6 (January, 1969),
pp. 324-331.
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1 I
14 1
-I
~ G L I .......R E S U C U ] L
14
713
7777
113
1313
7777
413
Z12
2 8
7777
I~
41G
7777----5~3-----51~Z.......9.~ 2 " ~ - - 7 7 7 7
511
811
9
81G
610
7777
1012
1212
12 8
7777
1911
1211
71
1 6
1 ~
14 8
13 6
7777
5 1
5 7
9 7
9 1
77
5 3
9 3
7777
1 1
14 1
-I
,~FO~J ON L I Q U I D S
13
613__7777
011_
0 1
5 1
611
011
7777
2i3
5
7777
1 3
5 3
7777
713
911
914
7777
1114
i!
1411
7777
911
i0 8
iiii
7777
8'8
12 8
7777
4
14 4
7777
I0 8
13 4
7 0
7777
i0 4
13 O
-I
14
7
-i
,14
ql
i-~-
:6
OVERBEARING
KANQ
13
ii.0
7777
PERSON
7 9
5 ~-- 1 O
SHER
WHAT
~ 7
7777
3 9
REN
~ 7
77/(
DZN£
0 7
7777
-1
HUMANE
~ 9
ALONE
3 9
7777
6 6
9 1
14 O
-1
3 1
7777
5 8
13 8
7777
91#
3 1
7777
5 9
ii
9
7777
43
3 1
7777
412
1312
7777
912
9 0
-I
i3 3
-i
9 O
7 1 ,:-I
0090
TEEH
1 0
3 6
3i3
--0o91
-~J ....
414
0 7
7777
uo92
CHOUR
414
0 7
7777
9 6
I0 0
~3 0
0093
JIN
0 5
714
14 5
0094
JIEH
0 7
714
14 7
0095
RENG
., 1 7 - 7 0
7
7777
(7
713
5 1
U096
IO~D--414
0 7
7777
OBLIQUE TONE
iii3
7777
7il
7 6
4 0
7777
~-~D-STRATE
3 9
3 1
7777
814
8 0
7777
ENMITY
3 9
3 I
7777
714
7 8
5 2
14 2
-i
NOW
~ 6
9
8 7
7777
4 5
i0 5
LIE BETWEEN
7777
5 9
5 5
4 0
7777
9 9
STILL
- - ' - ~ - - 3 " - 1 - - - 7 7 7 7 ..... 5 i 3 ~ 1 2 1 ~ - - g - ' 9
-i
SERVANT
3 9
3 1 777"7
4 1
5 7
513
b V
15 ~
[tll
b b 13 b
Ill7
91~
9 1 -I
0097
LAC
MAN
-4I'4----~777"
3 9
3" 1
7777
611
1211
77?7
8
7777
1312
4 3
7777
8 6
8 1
Ii 1
13 2
---aL
. . . . . . TZYY
MINUTELY
-414
0 7
7777
3 9
3 1 7777
613
1213
910
14 7 -i
0099
SHYH
AN O F F I C I A L
° 414U-7
7777
3 9
3 1
7777
4 8
14""8" 7 7 7 7
12 2
-I
OI~DD
TA
HE/SHE
414
0 7
7777
5 9
3 1
7777
5 8
1311
12 6
712
7 2 13 1 14 3 - I
DISPLAY
. . . . CHI NE~EE
HORI ZONL
U.D25 "
TELE
TELE
0001 0002 0003 0004 0 ~ - 6
0007 0008 0009 0010 0011
0017 0018 0019 0020 0021 0022 0023 0324 0025 0026 0027
0033-,U0340035
00360037
0038 0039 0 0 4 0 0041 0042 0 0 4 3
0 0 4 9 0 0 5 0 0051 0052 0 0 5 3 0 0 5 4 0055 0 0 5 6 0057 0058 0 0 5 9
006~0-66
0(Y67 00-68 0 0 6 9 0 0 7 0
0071 0072 0 0 7 3 0 0 7 4 00-75
0081 0082 0083 0084 0085 0086 0087 0 0 8 8 0 0 8 9 0 0 9 0 00'91
U O ~ 7 0098 O 0 9 9 0100 - I O 0
CHINESE ENGLISH
- ~:{0
r~ ~ E O N L
.
.
.
.
.
325
----~
. . . . . . . TELE
0001 0002 0002 0004 0 0 0 5
U U I 7 '0018 0 0 1 9 0020 00El
0 0 3 3 0 0 3 4 0035 0096 0 0 3 7
0049 0050 oo51 0052 0 0 5 3
00~-5 0066 0067 0068 0069
-~1
:0-08-~0083~084
0085
OO~f 0098 0099 0100 - I O 0
LHINh~L
HORIZONL
,
'
TELE
77001~J-0~2-O~3
0001 0002 0 0 0 3
UOOl UO02 0003
0001 00O2 0003
00040005
0004 0005
0004 0 0 0 5
O0O4 0005
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7 6
i0
i
13 O
-1
610
i0 6
14 4
-i
3 O
.7777
510
iii0
7 0
-I
9 0
-i
i3 9
14 5
12 1
I0 2
1313
13 1
Ii 2
7777
q
8 - q - 4 8--7 ~
7777
8 4
12 4
914
-i
9 1
7 2
7777
4 7
" 914 .......
g 2
7777
6-2--
7777
I014
0012
0028
0044
0060
0076
0092
.
.
.
0013
0029
0045
0061
0077
0093
.
.
.
.
i0 6
0014
0030
0046
0062
0078
0094
.
.
.
7777
0015
0031
0047
0065
0079
0095
0016
0032
0048
0064
0080
0096
.
. . . . . . . . .
0006 0007 0008 0009
0022--0-0~--O-0~+ 0025
0038 0039 0 0 4 0 0041
oo5~ 66~
o~6-60~
0070 0071 0072 0073
0086 0087 0088 0089
. . . . .
0 0 1 0 0011 0012 00!3 O 0 1 a 00!5 0016
0 0 2 6 - 0 0 2 7 0028 0 0 2 9 0 0 3 0 0031 0032
Q')~-2 0043 0 0 4 4 0045 0 0 4 6 0 0 4 7 006-8
665~; 5 6 5 ~ 0 g 6 - - 6 - 6 - ~ - i - - 5 ~ 6 ~ 0 0 6 ~ - 0 ~ . . ~ ,
0074 0075 0076 0977 0078 0079 0080
0090 6 0 9 i 009-2 0-59-3 6097J-OO -bO59g
0006
0006
00"~
0006
0 0 1 0 00ii
00!0 0011
O 0 1 0 00I!
0010 0011
0007
0007
0007
0007
OO08
0008
0008
0008
0009
0009
0009
0009
0012
00!2
00!2
00~2
0Qi300ih
001 ~ 0 0 1 4
00]3 O 0 ! a
0013 001~
00i5
0015
0015
0015
0016
0016
O0ie
001~
2.6
0"018 0019 0020 0021 0022 0023 0024 0025 0026 0027 00'28 0029 0030 0031 0032
0018
0018
0018
0019
0019
0019
0020
0020
0020
0021
0021
0021
0022
0022
0022
0023
0023
0023
0024
0024
0024
0034
0034
0034
0034
0035
0035
0035
0035
0036
0036
0036
0036
0037
0037
0037
0037
0038
0038
0038
0038
0039
0039
0039
0039
0050
0050
0050
0050
0066
0066
0066
0066
0051
0051
0051
0051
0067
0067
0067
0067
0052 0053
0052 0053
0052 0053
0052 0053
0068~069
0068 00-69
0068 0069
0068 0069
0084
0084
0084
0084
0082 0083
0082 0083
~0082 0083
0082 0083
0098 0099
0099 0099
U098 0099
0098 0099
ESE ENGLISH
ZONL
025
TELE
~U34 0 0 3 5
3007
3002
0976
006?
ESE
ZONL
025
0003
0003
0077
0003
0069
0085
0085
0085
0085
0026 0027
0026 0027
0026 0027
0028
0028
0028
0029
0029
0029
0030
0030
0030
0031
0031
0031
0032
003"2
0032
0040 0041
0040 0041
0040"0041
0040 0041
0042
0042
0042
0042
0044
0044
0044
0044
0045
0045
0045
0045
0046
0046
0046
0046
0047
0047
0047
0047
0048
0048
0048
0048
0054 0055
0054 0055
0054 0055
0054 0055
0070 0071
0070 0071
0070 0071
0070 0071
0056
0056
0056
0056
0072
0072
0072
0072
0057
0057
0057
0057
0073
0073
0073
0073
0058 0059 0060 0061 0062
0058 0059 0060 0061 0062
0058 0059 0060 0061 0062
0058 0059 0060 0061 0062
0074 0075 0076 0077 0078
0074 0075 0076 0077 0078
0074 0075 0076 0077 0078
0074 0075 0076 0077 0078
0063
0063
0063
0063
0079
0079
0079
0079
0064
,4
u~64
0064
0080
0080
0080
0080
0086
0086
0086
0086
0088
0088
0088
0088
0089
0089
0089
0089
0090
0090
0090
0090
0087
0087
0087
0087
0025
0025
0025
0043
0043
0043
0043
0091
0091
0091
0091
0092
0092
0092
0092
0093
0093
0093
0093
0094
0094
0094
0094
0095
0095
0095
0095
Uv96
0096
0096
0096
OO3~~Sq]-FTq'JU~8~O~OO~0~0~T0042
0043
0054 0055 0056 0057 0058 0059 0060 0061
0044 0045
0062 0 0 6 3
0046
0047
0048
0055 0056
0016 0 0 0 4 0017
0 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 0006
0078 0 0 7 9 . 0 0 8 0
0005
0070 0071 0072
0062
0001 0001
0012 0013
0086 0087
0013
0018
0014
0088
0002
0016
0016
0090
0100
0100
01~0
0100 -i00
0057
0005
0007
0081
0007
0073
0058
0006
0008
0082
0074
0059
0007
0060
0001
0061
0001
0083
0009
-i0
0084 0085
0011
0089
0015
TELE
TELE
O01R 0019 0020 0021 0022 0023 0024 0025 0026 0027 0028 0029 0030 0031 0032
0050
0055
0056
0057
0058
0055
0095
0004
0055
0055
0055
0056
0096
0017
0056
0056
0056
00.57
0097
0005
0057
0057
0057
0058 0059
0098 0099
0006 0007
0058 0059
0058 0059
0058 0059
0098
0053
0053
0099
0054
0094
0016
0954
0954
0054
0100
O00p
0034
0076
0303
0035
0077
0004
0036
0078
0005
0037
0079
0006
0038
0080
0007
0039
0081
0008
0040
0082
0092
0307
0052
0053
0093
0033
0059
0009
0041
0083
0060
0061
0062
0063
[email protected] 0061
0100
0062
0063
0064
0062
0062
0062
0018
0064
0064
0064
0016
0061
0061
0061
0001
0063
0063
0063
0002
0060
0060
0060
0065
0065
0066
0066
0010
0042
0084
0011
0043
0085
0012 0013
0044 0045
0086 0087
0014
0046
0088
0015
0047
0089
0016
0048
0090
~_'~ &
9~
9~
99
I0~
OUTPIIE PAGE I: The first one=hundred Chinese
characters of the Chinese telegraphic code -horizontal wrlting~ Chinese characters at step
size 0.025 inch, code number at step size 0.01
inch.
0~
FObP,'~t'4
±
7F
UP
5
UOgLO
NO!
77
CL Oi,IN
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G~RNO
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lO~f
i
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glA55t¢!f~
9P
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ABUNDANT
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R PP'NT
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E
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,S '~ I k L
S fgYgN 1
pAN
P!NJ]£L~
RN OFF!f~)AL
I'~['/~P f.
OUTPUT PAGES 2 & 3: The same one-hundred Chinese
characters wlth their English Equivalents -horlzontalwrlting, Chinese characters at step
size 0,025 inch~ English letters at step size 0.01
inch,
3
a~
TS£
~T
~
b ITs ` S ££5_
~ £ ¢ -
• d' ~ q-~ .~. 9t~ @ ¢1~ -. ~,~
~ 9
j >4 f~ £ <-.
~, "F' 4
_
--
~. J1~ )~i,i:~
{_.t~_.,%
~
,: .:X© £ ~ "~ 4:-~_,~?~-.~,~ ~L ~ ~ ~ t~
......
l- L.._ i
.,.'At,
.~
.:mj - -
,.
TL_,
j
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-
-'-
-'-
-'-
--'-
--
-
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.
_A~
\
OUTPUT PAGES 4 & 5: C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s j a h o r l z o n t a l
w r i t i n g mode and a t s t e p s i z e 0.025 i n c h , a r r a n g e d
a t 320 C h a r a c t e r s p e r page f o r c o n t i n u o u s t e x t
writing.
r
_A__
~
_~__
/
L E+E'T DONNSTB~!C~
T~EBE~PO~
LON~ l l p ~
-T'-
lINT~ggOG. ON~T,i
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e[cc
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SFC~C.
d~
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OFF
10 C!vff
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22
ti~ I:J~k LY
CLOU~
F" ; L
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NOS~,/RFFqJB
MUT'j~L[ Y
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UP
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F
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roog~
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fNJO~
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IDISI~ICI
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OUTPUT PAGES 6 & 7: Chinese characters with
English equivalents arranged at 80 characters
per page with blank spaces and lines randomly
filled inside the text.
NRN[I
X
JO~N
3~
!8
~0
~1
:22
;~3
24
25
Z6
27
~B
29
30
5S
5E
51
58
S~
EO
El
E~'
E3
61
62
~.3
64
31
32
so
53
$4
SS
S~
S'~
5a
$9
~0
9J
94
95
9S
91
9.~
99
I00
54
S5
r~G
• .57
Sa
S9
e~O
{I
G2
e~3
G4
53
$4
5S
5~
$7
5a
59
~
El
E~
~
~'I
'~S
~
33
S~
55
S{~
S';
5a
S~
EO
~I
E~
~3
~4
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e,~
9"]
99
I00
34
2S
36
31
38
]9
40
4J
42
43
-14
:IS
4~
47
4B
7~
'~'I
7a
'19
a0
81
B2
83
B4
as
a~
a-i
88
gg
91}
gZ
5:?.
OI~PUT PAGE 8: Chinese characters with
identifying telegraphic codes arranged
at 320 characters per page with ~pace
and ~Ine c o n t r o l s .
Download