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A G U I D E F O R S Y R A C U S E U N I V E R S I T Y FA C U L T Y
Using Copyrighted Works
in Teaching
Dr. K. Matthew Dames
Interim Dean of Libraries and University Librarian
Director, Copyright and Information Policy Office
Syracuse University Libraries
http://copyright.syr.edu/guide/
December 2013
Cover: Photographs courtesy of Photo and Imaging Center, Syracuse University
Table of Contents
1.Copyright Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.Detailed Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
(a) Books. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
(b) Journal Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
(c) Music and Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
(d) Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
(e) Images and Visual Art. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
(f) Using Blackboard and Other LMS Packages. . . . . . . . . . 17
4.Legal Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
(a) Unlimited Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
(b) Allowable Uses: Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
(c) Allowable Uses: Statutory Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
(d) Fair Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
(e) Infringing Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.Key Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
http://dx.doi.org/10.14305/00-00.rt.2013.1
Copyright © 2013 Syracuse University
Provost’s Message
Every day, members of the Syracuse University community create and use various forms
of intellectual property. As creators of intellectual property, we expect others to abide by
certain laws, regulations, and customs so that our work is used appropriately. As intellectual property users, we have a legal duty to abide by those same laws, regulations, and
customs so that we use and share protected works appropriately.
Copyright is the most prevalent form of intellectual property affecting the Syracuse
University community. Each time we write a paper, check out a book from the Libraries,
exchange and share information over the University’s computer network, or watch a movie
during a class, copyright plays a role. In recent years, litigation over copyright issues has
become more common, complex, and costly. As a result, a failure to comply with applicable legal requirements may subject both the University and individual users to liability,
in addition to public criticism and adverse publicity.
While copyright is complex, this Guide provides recommendations that will help faculty members, teaching assistants, and online course administrators legally use a variety of
protected works for curricular purposes. All University employees are expected to comply
with these recommendations when using protected works for curricular purposes. This
Guide is available online and in print and will be updated from time to time to reflect
new modes of instruction and changes in the law. Any changes to the online version of the
Guide will supersede previous print versions in circulation.
I am grateful for the efforts of an ad hoc committee on copyright, chaired by College
of Law Professor Lisa Dolak, which worked from 2010 through 2012 to help frame these
complex issues and determine how best to provide guidance to our faculty. Thanks also
to the several Senate committees that reviewed an earlier draft for their helpful comments
and suggestions, which helped to improve this document. This will remain a living document, so I encourage anyone with recommendations for improving its clarity and utility
to contact the Director of the University’s Copyright and Information Policy Office, K.
Matthew Dames.
Thank you in advance for your anticipated cooperation. If you have questions regarding the content of this Guide, please contact the Director of the Copyright and Information Policy Office, K. Matthew Dames, at 443-5533 or [email protected] For legal interpretations or advice regarding copyright law, please contact Senior Vice President and General
Counsel Dickens Mathieu, Esq. at 443-9732 or [email protected]
Eric F. Spina, Ph.D.
Vice Chancellor and Provost
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1.
Copyright Basics
» Assume everything you use is protected by copyright law—even if there is no
copyright notice.
» Copyright owners receive certain rights as soon as the work is created.
» Copyright owners usually determine how and when the public may use their works.
» Copyright limitations allow faculty to use portions of protected works without requiring permission, and sometimes without requiring a license.
» Provide full attribution for all materials in a form satisfactory to scholars in the field
for each work included or excerpted.
According to the U.S. Copyright Office, copyright is a form of intellectual property given
to an author who creates “original works of authorship” that are “fixed in a tangible medium of expression.” Examples of protectable works include literary works, dramatic works,
musical works, motion pictures, pictorial works, and sound recordings.
Copyright protection occurs automatically upon creation, whether or not the author registers the work with the Copyright Office. The protection typically lasts for the author’s
life, plus an additional 70 years.
Given these facts, you can safely assume that virtually every work you encounter as a
member of the Syracuse University community—notes, articles, books, magazines, CDs,
DVDs, MP3 files, Web pages, computer code—is protected by copyright, and that some
person or entity owns that copyright.
Federal law gives the copyright owner a bundle of exclusive rights that he alone can exercise. These exclusive rights include the right to reproduce, adapt, or distribute all kinds of
works, and the right to perform publicly or display publicly certain types of works.
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Copyright owners have the right to grant permission for others to use their protected
works. In certain cases, however, members of the public may use protected works in spite
of an owner’s rights. Copyright limitations (also called exceptions) restrict an owner’s exclusive rights and allow non-owners to use portions of a work for public interest purposes,
sometimes without requiring the owner’s permission or without requiring payment of a
permission fee. Common copyright limitations that apply in higher education are the
classroom and online teaching exceptions, the first sale doctrine, and fair use. This Guide
reviews additional legal principles in Chapter 4.
Copyright is different than plagiarism. Copyright is a legal concept whose goal is to protect original works of authorship as a means of encouraging production of those works.
Plagiarism is an ethical concept that occurs when one uses another author’s language,
ideas, information, or original material without acknowledging the source. Plagiarism is
considered academic dishonesty at Syracuse University.
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2.
Overview
The chart on the following two pages provides a decision-making framework for permissible uses of copyrighted works within the context of teaching and instruction. More detailed information is included in the sections that follow. Contact the University’s Copyright and Information Policy Adviser to get answers to any recommendations, use, or
permissions questions.
Key summary points
» Faculty members may use portions of copyrighted works for curricular purposes.
» Under limited circumstances, an entire work may be used for curricular purposes.
» Make extensive use of University-licensed resources, including full-text articles and
music, within the license’s terms and conditions.
» Fair use is determined by a four-factor, fact-specific test, not merely by intended
educational or scholarly use.
» These recommendations may change according to facts, law, or University policy.
» When planning courses, allow sufficient time for possible copyright consultation
and production.
» Check copyright.syr.edu for the most complete and updated information.
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RECOMMENDATIONS
» Link to full-text, where
available
» Copy 10% or 1,000 words
» Link to full-text, where
available
» Copy 10% or 1,000 words
» Link to or stream online
audio, where available
» Limit song lyrics, sheet
music, and music video
to 10% or 30-second
maximum
MATERIAL
Books and Monographs
Articles
Audio
» Play audio in class
» Play online audio segments
» Place essential resources
on Libraries course reserves
» Link from Blackboard to
full-text of Libraries-licensed
e-resources
» Place essential resources
on Libraries course reserves
» Provide multiple hard
copies to students for
classroom use
» Place essential resources
on Libraries course reserves
WHAT YOU MAY DO
SUMMARY: Using copyrighted works in teaching for Syracuse University faculty
» Coordinate audio segment
creation with OLS or VPU
» Use may also be covered
by University performance
rights licenses
» Alternatives include buying
the audio
» Libraries offer many
academic resources in
online and print versions
» Avoid posting scanned
copies, either on or outside
Blackboard
» Order coursepacks from
SU Bookstore, if necessary
» Avoid posting scanned
copies, either on or outside
Blackboard
» Rotate & update assignment materials regularly
» Alternatives include buying
the book or licensing the
e-book
NOTES
» Show images in class
where connected to
curricular purpose
» Place essential resources
on Libraries course reserves
» Include links to online
versions of curricular
material
» Post copies of copyrighted
material only in limited
portions, for limited duration
» Five copies of artistic or
photographic images
» 10% of the collection or
15 total images from a published image collection
» Use links to online material
instead of uploading copies
» Make resources available
only to enrolled students,
for the semester
» Don’t remove or interfere
with copy protections or
copyright notices
» Don’t use the same work
repeatedly
Images
Using Blackboard
» Show video in class where
connected to curricular
purpose
» Show online video
segments where connected
to curricular purpose
» Place essential resources
on Libraries course reserves
» Link to or stream online
video where available
» Use three minutes or
10% of the total work,
whichever is less
Video
» Images created from
photography and scanning
may qualify as fair use
» Using images outside
Blackboard or for
publication may not be
a curricular use
» Images created from
photography and scanning
may qualify as fair use
» Using images outside
Blackboard or for
publication may not be
a curricular use
» Coordinate video segment
creation with OLS or VPU
» Non-curricular use (including student clubs) requires
a performance license
» DMCA exemptions
may apply
» Alternatives include
renting or buying the
video
CONTACTS for assistance in implementing these recommendations:
» General copyright questions:
K. Matthew Dames, Director, Copyright & Information Policy Office
Amy Vanderlyke Dygert, Copyright Librarian
[email protected]; 443-5530
» Using Blackboard:
Michael Morrison, Online Learning Services
[email protected]; 443-2677
» Coursepacks, permissions:
Kathleen Bradley, Bookstore
[email protected]; 443-9900
» Video and transfer conversion:
Donal Little, Video Production Unit
[email protected]; 443-5644
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3.
Detailed Recommendations
» Faculty members may use limited portions of copyrighted works for curricular purposes, as summarized in the Overview.
» Under limited circumstances, faculty may use an entire work for curricular purposes.
» You are encouraged to make extensive use of works the University has licensed
for the University community, including scholarly articles and music, within the
license’s terms and conditions.
As a general rule, you may use limited portions of lawfully acquired copyrighted works for teaching purposes when using those works to support curriculum-based instructional activities.
In contrast, you may use an entire work when the work is in the public domain; the work
is not eligible for copyright protection, or where you own the rights in the work.
You are encouraged to use works the Libraries have licensed already. The Libraries spend
millions of dollars annually so members of the University community can safely and legally access and use a wide range of scholarly journals, electronic books, and music. Use of
licensed works—including works accessed through the Libraries’ database collection and
Creative Commons-licensed materials—are subject to the terms and conditions of the
resource’s license agreement. The terms in these agreements typically override copyright
considerations, and may be more or less restrictive than what copyright allows.
The recommendations in this chapter provide endorsed principles for commonly used
types of media. The use principles will vary widely based upon medium.
The recommendations presume you are:
» Using copyrighted materials for teaching and curricular purposes, not for scholarly
research, scholarly publication, or commercial purposes;
» Teaching for Syracuse University, whether in a non-tenured or tenure-track status;
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» Using the University’s courseware management system for students to access
course materials, whether the course meets exclusively in person, partially in person and partially online, or exclusively online;
» Using legally purchased or legally obtained materials; and
» At all times abiding by the University’s rules, regulations and policies, and appli-
cable state and federal law.
(a) Books
1.What Is Included
» Books
» Reports
» Dissertations and theses
2.Use Recommendations
The standard for books is to use 10% of the text or 1,000 words, whichever is less,
depending upon the book’s content and subject matter. This typically will equate to a
single book chapter.
3.Special Circumstances
» Poems: You may use an entire poem of fewer than 250 words. For multiple poems
by a single author, use three poems or less. For multiple poems in an anthology, use
five poems or less.
» Rotation principle: Be sure to rotate use of book chapters, both in class and on any
University course management system. If you are using the same book chapter for
a single academic year, you should arrange to pay a permission fee for use during
the next academic semester and use another resource.
» Digitizing books: Digitizing portions or chapters of books requires a format shift
from the paper-based book to a digital document format (usually an Adobe Acrobat, or PDF file), and doing so may constitute copyright infringement. Consult
the Copyright and Information Policy Office at [email protected] prior to posting or
distributing digitized content online.
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» If posting digitized material online, you are responsible for removing the article
from the University’s courseware system at the end of the semester, when grades
are due to the Registrar.
(b) Journal Articles
1.What Is Included
» Single articles from journals or multivolume serials
» Magazine articles
» News articles
2.Use Recommendations
The standards for using articles and serial material are:
» The entire work IF
•
a hyperlink to the article is provided through Blackboard to a Universitylicensed resource
OR
•
the article is assigned in a syllabus AND students do their own research to
find the article;
» Otherwise, 10% of the text or 1,000 words, whichever is less.
Using links instead of posting electronic versions of articles (i.e. an Adobe Acrobat or Microsoft Word document) into the courseware system avoids potentially infringing electronic
copying and distribution. Alternatively, allowing students to find the work on their own
reinforces needed research skills. Further, linking to the resource from Blackboard limits authorized access to students who are enrolled in the class, avoids having to remove
posted articles at the end of each semester, controls the financial and paper costs that may
arise through the production of coursepacks, and optimizes the use of resources for which
the Libraries spend millions of dollars annually.
If you need help in locating appropriate scholarly articles or journals for your class, please
contact your school or college’s subject specialist. A list of subject specialists is available
online at http://library.syr.edu/research/askus/subject-specialists.php.
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3. Special Circumstances
» Coursepacks: Coursepacks are copies of compiled articles or book chapters that
are printed and reproduced for curricular and educational use. Without exception,
coursepacks require payment of permission or reproduction fees, and often both.
Contact the SU Bookstore at http://bookstore.syr.edu/ for more details.
» Harvard Business Review articles: All Harvard Business Review (HBR) articles
are covered by a license that specifically prohibits using persistent links within a
courseware management system (such as Blackboard) to a specific HBR article.
Instead, have students perform research to find and read the article, or use and
link to an alternative article.
» Harvard Business Review (HBR) case studies: Use of HBR case studies must
be licensed as they are not covered by the Libraries’ database license agreements.
Contact the SU Bookstore at http://bookstore.syr.edu/ for more details.
» Database coverage: On occasion, the Libraries’ license agreements may exclude
a resource or exclude the time frame in which a particular article was published.
In these instances, you have several options. First, research whether a Web-based
surrogate exists. Second, request the article through the Libraries’ Interlibrary
Loan (ILL) service. These articles may be posted to the University’s courseware
system. You are responsible for removing the ILL article at the end of the semester,
when grades are due to the Registrar.
» Articles that are unavailable through licensed resources: Please contact the Libraries’ subject specialist assigned to your school for information on how to access
or make available materials that are not available through the Libraries’ electronic
resources collection. A list of subject specialists is available at http://library.syr.
edu/research/askus/subject-specialists.php
» Posting links through Blackboard: For help with posting article links through the
University’s courseware system, please review instructions for Adding Academic
Content to Blackboard at http://library.syr.edu/find/reserves/faculty/blackboard.
php, or contact Online Learning Services at http://ols.syr.edu/contact-us/.
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(c) Music and Audio
1. What Is Included
» Non-music audio recordings (all analog and digital formats)
» Sound recordings (all analog and digital formats)
» Song lyrics
» Sheet music and scores
» Music video
2. Use Recommendations
The standard for using music or audio is to:
»
stream sound recordings and non-music audio recordings;
AND
»
limit song lyrics, sheet music and music video to 10% or a 30-second maximum.
The University maintains performance rights licenses that allow a wide range of musical
performances on campus, including through the University’s courseware management
system. These licenses allow faculty to use sound recordings, the main audio category, for
curricular purposes. Instructors are responsible, however, for preparing audio files for use
in the University’s courseware management system.
3. Special Circumstances
» Format shifting: Although the University’s performance rights licenses allows you
to stream sound recordings through Blackboard or other University-owned and
authorized courseware management systems, they do not allow the sound recording to be copied or digitized for the purpose of transferring a physical format (i.e.
album, compact disc) to a digital format. Please consult with the Director of the
Copyright and Information Policy Office before adding format shifted—or “ripped”
—music to the University’s course management system.
13
» iTunes and other digitally licensed copies: Most legally licensed digital music
files are bound by a contract that says they can be used for personal purposes only.
Such a contract precludes faculty from using such files on the University network
for curricular purposes.
» In-class performances: You may play legally purchased or owned music within the
physical classroom for curricular and teaching purposes.
» Lyrics, sheet music and tablature: Use of scores, sheet music, tablature and lyric
books almost always require faculty and students to purchase such materials or
license them from an approved online repository.
» Special edits: If you alter or edit the work, be careful not to change the work’s
fundamental character.
» Historic sound recordings: Sound recordings that were made prior to February
15, 1972, fall into a special category outside the University’s performance rights
license. Please contact the Director of the Copyright and Information Policy Office at [email protected], or the Belfer Audio Archive at [email protected], if your class
requires access to such material.
» Bootleg copies: Under no circumstance should faculty members upload any boot-
leg, gray market, black market, or promotional audio, or clips from such sources, to
the University’s courseware management system.
» Streaming audio files through Blackboard: For help with streaming audio files
through the University’s courseware system, please contact Online Learning Services at http://ols.syr.edu/contact-us/.
(d) Video
1.What Is Included
» Film (any format)
» Video (any format)
2. Use Recommendations
The standard for using video is three minutes or 10% of the total work, whichever is less.
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Faculty should consult with the University’s Online Learning Services or Video Production Units for guidance on how to prepare video clips for curricular use on the University’s
courseware management system.
3. Special Circumstances
» Format shifting: Unlike with music, the University does not maintain a broad
performance rights license that covers video use. Additionally, federal laws do not
clearly allow individuals or University personnel to copy or digitize commercially
released videos, especially when those videos contain an encryption scheme. In
2010, however, the Librarian of Congress, upon recommendation from the Register of Copyright, concluded that consumers may bypass encryption on “lawfully
made and acquired . . . motion pictures on DVDs” in order to “incorporate short
portions . . . into new works for the purpose of criticism or comment,” when the
owner reasonably believes that doing so “is necessary to fulfill the purpose of the
use in . . . educational uses by college and university professors.” Please contact
Online Learning Services at http://ols.syr.edu/contact-us for further instructions
on implementing proper procedures for developing video snippets, and consult the
Copyright and Information Policy Adviser for updates on any changes to this policy.
» Full films: Should you require that students review an entire film for curricular pur-
poses, the options are: (a) show the film in class; (b) require students to purchase
the film; or (c) require students to rent the film.
» Libraries film collection: Films that the Libraries own may be checked out for in-
class viewing, but faculty should avoid using these films for the purposes of format
shifting or creating short film clips.
» Non-instructional video showings: You may play videos you have brought or own
within the classroom for curricular and teaching purposes. But showing video
or film for other purposes—including film festivals not connected to a regularly
scheduled class, student film night, or student club movie showings—likely requires payment of a separate performance license fee. For feature films, contact
Swank Motion Pictures at http://www.swank.com/college/contact.html or (800)
876-5577. For other films, contact the film distributor.
» Bootleg copies: Under no circumstance should you upload any bootleg, gray mar-
ket, black market, or promotional video, or clips from such sources, to the University’s courseware management system.
» Streaming video files through Blackboard: For help with streaming video files
through the University’s courseware system, please contact Online Learning Services at http://ols.syr.edu/contact-us/.
15
» Netflix, Amazon, and other online streaming services: Streaming services such
as Netflix, Amazon Instant Video, Hulu/HuluPlus, and others are governed by
contractual agreements between the streaming service and the subscriber. Those
agreements prohibit any use that does not constitute personal use of the streaming
services. This includes a prohibition of streaming these services in the classroom
and through BlackBoard. You should avoid using Netflix or other streaming video
subscription services for academic purposes. If frequent access to such streaming
video subscription services is necessary, you should consider requiring students to
subscribe to one of the services for the length of the course.
(e) Images and Visual Art
1. What Is Included
» Illustrations and drawings
» Paintings
» Photographs
» Slides
» Comic books
2. Use Recommendations
The standards for using visual art are
» The entire work, IF no more than five copies of artistic or photographic images are
used;
OR
» 10% of the collection, or 15 total images, whichever is less, IF the images are in a
published collection.
3. Special Circumstances
» None
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(f) Using Blackboard and Other LMS Packages
» Blackboard is the University’s primary learning management system (LMS).
» Faculty members, teaching assistants, and LMS administrators should use Blackboard extensively to manage access to curricular materials.
» Where possible, link to resources from an authorized LMS instead of posting resources on the LMS.
A learning management system (LMS) is a software application that manages, administers, and tracks content and events faculty use in online education context. An LMS
also integrates with other important university computer systems, such as registration,
and includes functionality that allows faculty to manage and limit content distribution to
enrolled students and other authorized parties.
Syracuse University has adopted Blackboard as its primary learning management system,
but other systems (such as Westlaw’s TWEN, which is available through the College of
Law) qualify as University-authorized LMS packages.
You are strongly encouraged to use a University-authorized LMS as much as possible to
link to, store, and manage distribution and use of copyrighted curricular materials.
» These recommendations focus on Blackboard, but apply equally to other LMS packages.
1. Link Instead of Post
Where possible, linking to resources from Blackboard via a URL always is better than posting
the content directly on Blackboard. This avoids unnecessary and problematic electronic copying and distribution. Further, linking to the resource from Blackboard limits access to students
who are enrolled in the class, avoids having to remove posted articles at the end of each semester, limits the financial and paper costs that may arise through the production of coursepacks,
and optimizes the use of resources on which the Libraries spends millions of dollars annually.
2.Post Only Allowable Portions of the Copyrighted Work
If posting is necessary, post only allowable portions. You may perform all or part of a nondramatic literary or musical work; perform reasonable and limited portions of other types
of works; or display any work “in an amount comparable to that which is typically displayed in the course of a live classroom session.” Please note that while you may show an
entire audiovisual work (such as a movie) in a face-to-face classroom setting, the TEACH
Act may only show reasonable and limited portions of that same audiovisual work to online students. The Recommendations provide options and alternatives.
17
3.Make the Work Available for a Limited Time
Under the TEACH Act, course administrators, whether they be faculty, teaching assistants,
or LMS administrators, must prevent copyrighted works from being retained for longer
than the class session. As a result, you may make a copyrighted work available as long as
is needed to complete either a single class session, or several class sessions if that work
continues to be “an integral part” of each of those class sessions. Blackboard allows course
administrators to define time availability options for different types of works, and you should
regularly implement these options. Under no circumstances should copyrighted material be
made available through Blackboard beyond the date when grades are due to the Registrar.
4.Prevent Dissemination of the Work
Course administrators must use technological measures that reasonably prevent enrolled
students and authorized personnel (including assigned teaching assistants and faculty)
from distributing protected works to unauthorized recipients who are not enrolled in or
officially affiliated with the course. For example, instructors should only post video clips
that are delivered as streaming media to prevent the clips from being downloaded by the
students. Additionally, instructors should include a warning that further copying or distributing the work may constitute a copyright infringement.
5.Make Works Available Only to Enrolled Students
Blackboard’s integration with the University’s registration system allows password-protected
access to enrolled students, select teaching assistants, and faculty. You should strictly enforce these access rules.
6. Do Not Interfere with Existing Copyright Protections
If a protected work uses digital rights management (DRM) or other technological measures to prevent retention or unauthorized further dissemination, the course administrator, teaching assistants, and faculty must not circumvent that protection or engage in
conduct that could interfere with those protections. This rule has a limited exception
with respect to movies snippets that are used for comment and criticism. For more details
about this exception, please see the video recommendations.
7.Do Not Use the Same Work Repeatedly
Both copyright law and recommendations warn against using protected works repeatedly
or systematically, whether every semester or every year. Using a work repeatedly means
faculty members have sufficient time to obtain the appropriate permissions, or to select
and use alternative materials. If your curriculum requires you to use the same material
repeatedly, and the University does not license that material (see “Journals Articles” and
“Music and Audio,” above), consider arranging with the Bookstore to create a coursepack.
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4.
Legal Principles
» Using copyrighted works through a license, limitation, or fair use all are allowed; using works beyond these categories is an infringement and against University policy.
» The exceptions that allow curricular use without copyright owner’s permission are
the classroom teaching limitation and the online teaching limitation.
» Fair use allows use of copyrighted works based upon a four-factor, fact-specific test.
Using protected works for teaching purposes falls into four basic categories: use through a
license, use through a statutory limitation, use through the fair use doctrine, and infringing use. Further, there is another category that allows use of a work essentially because
that work is not subject to copyright protection.
This section summarizes the basic legal principles that govern use under each of these
categories. All of these principles have been incorporated into the previous sections.
(a) Unlimited Uses
As a general rule, you may use works for teaching purposes without limitations in the following circumstances:
1. You own the copyright (not just physical possession of the work);
2. The work is in the public domain; or
3. The work does not qualify for copyright protection.
If any of these circumstances apply, you need not worry about any copyright issues.
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(b) Allowable Uses: Licenses
A license is a contract that allows access to information under certain terms and conditions. The license’s terms and conditions will govern who can access the information and
what authorized users can do with the information.
Today, license contracts govern access to and use of most electronic information, including journal articles and e-books. (License agreements also govern the creation of printed
coursepacks.) The Libraries negotiate and maintain licenses that allow the University
community to access and use journals, e-books, and special collections materials. Additionally, the University negotiates and maintains licenses that allow the University community to play music for educational purposes.
The rules for using licensed information for teaching purposes vary according to vendor,
medium, and type of information. By and large, however, faculty members can broadly
use licensed works for curricular purposes. Specific guidelines for using specific types of
media are provided in Chapter 3.
(c) Allowable Uses: Statutory Limitations
Statutory limitations are laws that allow members of the public to use limited portions of
a protected work without permission, and possibly without requiring payment of a license
fee. Limitations balance the copyright owner’s exclusive rights. A copyright owner generally has five exclusive rights, depending upon the type of work. Those exclusive rights are:
» The right to reproduce (or copy) a protected work;
» The right to create derivative works (or adaptations) based upon a protected work;
» The right to distribute a protected work;
» The right to display a protected work publicly; and
» The right to perform a protected work publicly.
Limitations are also called “exceptions” since they serve as exceptions to one or more of
these exclusive rights.
There are two limitations that govern use of protected works for curricular purposes: (a)
the performance and display limitation for classroom teaching; and (b) the performance
and display limitation for distance and online teaching. The remainder of this section
summarizes these limitations and how they affect your use of copyright works.
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1. Classroom Teaching Limitation
The classroom teaching limitation allows University faculty members and their students to
perform and display protected works in the course of face-to-face teaching within a classroom.
Examples of allowable performances and displays within the classroom setting include:
» Playing a film or video;
» Showing photographs or photographic slides;
» Reading passages aloud from a book or journal article;
» Projecting a journal article, photograph, or movie onto a screen or whiteboard;
» Playing recorded music in the classroom;
» Playing live music in the classroom.
You and your students may do any of these or similar activities under the following conditions:
» The activity must occur in a physical classroom, or other space that the University
uses regularly for teaching;
» The source material that is being performed or displayed is legally owned or obtained.
The classroom teaching limitation does not allow copying, adapting, or distribution of protected works. Those activities, however, may be allowable under a separate limitation or fair use.
2. Distance and Online Teaching Limitation
The online teaching limitation, which was codified in 2002 legislation commonly known
as the TEACH Act, allows educational use of protected works while preserving use restrictions that Congress established in 1998 in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
The TEACH Act allows faculty members to use portions of certain types of works for
online education. The acceptable uses are:
» Reading non-dramatic literary works such as books, journal articles, novels, or poems;
» Performing non-dramatic musical works;
» Performing limited and reasonable portions of other types of works, including lim-
ited portions of movies and screenplays; and
» Displaying works in an amount that is comparable to what would be used inside
the classroom.
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Faculty members and their students may use protected works in these ways under the
following conditions:
» The faculty member orders or supervises the performance or display;
» The faculty member moderates the performance or display;
» The faculty member limits the source material only to those students who are of-
ficially enrolled in the class, or teaching assistants;
» The performance or display is an integral part of the class session;
» The performance or display is directly related to the curricular content;
» The source material that is being performed or displayed is legally owned or obtained;
» The source material is not a textbook; and
» The source material is not a work that is produced primarily for use in online educa-
tion. (In such an instance, the license agreement would govern use of that work.)
Faculty members must meet all conditions to qualify for the online teaching limitation.
(d) Fair Use
The fair use doctrine is a set of criteria that indicate whether the actual or proposed use of
a copyrighted work is allowable without first receiving the copyright owner’s permission, or
without providing compensation to that copyright owner. While courts have considered and
ruled upon the fair use doctrine innumerable times, there is no concrete definition or calculation of what uses—in amount, type, or context—automatically constitute fair uses. Since
each fair use situation raises its own facts, no generally applicable definition is possible.
The fair use criteria are outlined in four standards, which Congress codified in Section
107 of the current Copyright Act. Those four standards are:
1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
2. The nature of the copyrighted work;
3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted
work as a whole; and
4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
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Although you may decide after assessing the four factors that your use is fair, only a judge,
jury, or arbitrator may make a binding determination regarding fair use if a copyright
owner decides to enforce his/her rights.
The fair use limitation is available to all faculty members for all types of works in any medium, even if their actual or prospective use of protected works does not qualify for either
of the teaching limitations that have been outlined above. The University’s Copyright and
Information Policy Adviser will provide additional information about the fair use doctrine
and assistance with making fair use determinations in training sessions and individual
advisory sessions beyond this Guide.
(e) Infringing Uses
Any use of a protected work that is outside the scope of a statutory limitation and has not
been licensed is a copyright infringement and a violation of University policy.
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5.
Key Contacts
Copyright and Information Policy Office
Dr. K. Matthew Dames, Esq.
Amy Vanderlyke Dygert, Esq.
Bird 219
http://copyright.syr.edu
[email protected]; 315-443-5530
Online Learning Services
Michael Morrison
001 Steele Hall
http://ols.syr.edu/contact-us/
[email protected]; (315) 443-2677
Syracuse University Bookstore
Kathleen Bradley
303 University Place
http://bookstore.syr.edu/
[email protected]; 315-443-9900
Video Production Unit
Donal Little
280 Newhouse II
http://vpu.syr.edu/
315- 443-5644
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6.
Conclusion
The information in this Guide is designed to guide members of the Syracuse University
community in their use of scholarly information and resources and constitutes the University’s position on the use for curricular purposes of works protected by copyright law.
As noted above, copyright law is complex; as a result, this Guide may not answer all questions or provide recommendations applicable to every situation that University faculty
members, teaching assistants, and online course administrators may encounter. For legal
interpretations or advice regarding copyright law, please contact Senior Vice President
and General Counsel Dickens Mathieu, Esq. at 443-9732 or [email protected]
University employees who comply in good faith with the recommendations in this Guide,
other applicable University policies, and any legal interpretation or advice rendered by
the University’s Office of General Counsel as described above, and who otherwise fulfill
the requirements of the University’s Employee Indemnification Policy (http://supolicies.
syr.edu/ethics/indem.htm), will be entitled to the protections described in the Employee
Indemnification Policy.
Your use of this Guide means you understand and agree to the terms stated above and
other University policies that govern its print or online publications.
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Syracuse, NY 13244-5040
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