POWER ELECTRONICS: Converters, Applications, and Design

advertisement

POWER ELECTRONICS:

Converters, Applications, and Design

NED MOHAN

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis, Minnesota

TORE M. UNDELAND

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Norwegian Institute of Technology

Trondheim, Norway

WILLIAM P. ROBBINS

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis, Minnesota

WILEY

JOHN WILEY & SONS

New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore

CONTENTS

PART 1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 Power Electronic Systems

1 -1 Introduction

1-2 Scope and Applications of Power Electronics

1-3 Classification of Power Electronic Converters

1 -4 About the Text

Chapter 2 Overview of Power Semiconductor Switches

2-1 Introduction

2-2 Diodes

2-3 Thyristors

2-4 Desired Characteristics in Controllable Switches

2-5 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) and Monolithic Darlingtons (MDs)

2-6 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

2- 7 Gate-Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs)

2-8 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs)

2-9 Comparison of Controllable Switches

2-10 Drive and Snubber Circuits

2-11 Justification for Using Idealized Device Characteristics

2-12 Summary

2-13 References

17

19

19

20

20

21

22

7

8

9

11

15

16

XI

X l l CONTENTS

PART 2 GENERIC POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS

Chapter 3 Line-Frequency Diode Rectifiers: 60 Hz ac -> Uncontrolled de

3-1 Introduction

3-2 Basic Rectifier Concepts

3-3 Single-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers

3-4 Voltage Doubler (Single-Phase) Rectifiers

3-5 Three-Phase Full-Bridge Rectifiers

3-6 Comparison of Single-Phase and Three-Phase Rectifiers

3-7 Inrush Current and Overvoltages at T u r n - O n

3-8 Concerns and Remedies for Input-Current Harmonics a n d Poor Power Factor

3-9 S u m m a r y

3-10 References

25

26

27

33

33

38

38

39

39

40

Chapter 4 Line-Frequency Phase-Controlied Rectifiers and Inverters:

60 Hz ac «• Controlled de

4-1 Introduction

4-2 Control of Line-Frequency Controlled Rectifiers a n d Inverters

4-3 Three-Phase Converter Analysis with L

s

= 0

4-4 Effect of AC-Side Inductance L

s

4-5 Effect of Discontinuous Current

4-6 Inverter Operation

4-7 AC-Side Waveforms

4-8 O t h e r Three-Phase Converters

4-9 Summary

4-10 References

Chapter 5 DC-to-DC Switch-Mode Converters

5-1

5-2

5-3

5-4

5-5

5-6

5-7

5-8

5-9

5-10

Introduction

Control of dc-dc Converters

Step-Down (Bück) Converter

Step-Up (Boost) Converter

Buck-Boost Converter

Cük dc-dc Converter

Full-Bridge dc-dc Converter

D C - D C Converter Comparison

Summary

References

Chapter 6 Switch-Mode DC-to-AC Inv

6-1 Introduction

6-2 Basic Concepts of Switch-Mode Inverters

63

64

66

75

81

87

91

98

100

101

41

42

45

47

51

51

55

61

61

62

102

104

CONTENTS

6-3 Single-Phase Inverters

6-4 Three-Phase Inverters

6-5 Effect of Blanking Time on O u t p u t Voltage in P W M Inverters

6-6 Other Inverter Switching Schemes

6-7 Rectifier Mode of Operation

6-8 Summary

6-9 References

Chapter 7 Resonant Converters: Zero-Voltage a n d / o r Zero-Current Switchings

7-1 Introduction

7-2 Classification of Resonant Converters

7-3 Basic Resonant Circuit Concepts

7-4 Load-Resonant Converters

7-5 Resonant-Switch Converters

7-6 Zero-Voltage-Switching, Clamped-Voltage (ZVS-CV) Topologies

7-7 Resonant DC-Link Inverters with Zero-Voltage Switchings

7-8 High Frequency Link Integral-Half-Cycle Converters

7-9 Summary

7-10 References

154

156

158

163

179

186

193

195

197

200

Xlll

114

129

141

144

148

150

152

PART 3 POWER SUPPLY APPLICATIONS

Chapter 8 Switching DC Power Supplies

8-1 Introduction

8-2 Linear Power Supplies

8-3 Overview of Switching Power Supplies

8-4 D C - D C Converters with Electrical Isolation

8-5 Control of Switch-Mode D C Power Supplies

8-6 Power Supply Protection

8-7 Electrical Isolation in the Feedback Loop

8-8 Designing to Meet the Power Supply Specifications

8-9 S u m m a r y

8-10 References

Chapter 9 Power Conditioners and Uninterruptible Power Supplies

9-1 Introduction

9-2 Power Line Disturbances

9-3 Power Conditioners

9-4 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

9-5 Summary

9-6 References

207

207

209

211

229

249

252

255

257

260

262

262

265

266

271

272

XIV CONTENTS

PART 4 MOTOR DRIVE APPLICATIONS

Chapter 10 Introduction to Motor Drives

10-1 Introduction

10-2 Criteria for Selecting Drive Components

10-3 Summary

10-4 References

275

277

284

285

Chapter 11 DC-Motor Drives

11-1 Introduction

11-2 Equivalent Circuit of D C Motors

11-3 Permanent-Magnet D C Motors

11 -4 D C Motors with a Separately Excited Field Winding

11-5 Effect of Armature Current Wavef orm

11-6 D C Servo Drives

11-7 Adjustable-Speed D C Drives

11-8 Summary

11-9 References

Chapter 12 Induction Motor Drives

12-1 Introduction

12-2 Basic Principles of Induction Motor Operation

12-3 Induction Motor Characteristics at Rated (Line) Frequency and Rated Voltage

12-4 Speed Control By Varying Stator Frequency and Voltage

12-5 I m p a c t of Nonsinusoidal Excitation on Induction Motors

12-6 Variable-Frequency Converter Classifications

12-7 Variable-Frequency P W M - V S I Drives

12-8 Variable-Frequency Square-Wave-VSI Drives

12-9 Variable-Frequency Current-Source Inverter (CSI) Drives

12-10 Comparison of Variable Frequency Drives

12-11 Line-Frequency Variable-Voltage Drives

12-12 Reduced Voltage Starting ("Soft Start") of Induction Motors

12-13 Speed Control by Static Slip-Power Recovery

12-14 S u m m a r y

12-15 References

286

286

289

290

292

292

301

306

308

309

310

315

317

326

329

330

336

338

339

339

342

342

343

346

Chapter 13 Synchronous-Motor Drives

13-1 Introduction

13-2 Basic Principles of Synchronous Motor Operation

13-3 Synchronous Servomotor Drives with Sinusoidal Waveforms

13-4 Synchronous Motor Drives with Trapezoidal Waveforms

347

347

351

353

CONTENTS

13-5 Load-Commutated-Inverter (LCI) Drives

13-6 Cycloconverters

13-7 Summary

13-8 References

Chapter 14 Step-Motor Drives

14-1 Introduction

14-2 Variable-Reluctance Step Motors

14-3 Permanent-Magnet Step-Motors

14-4 Hybrid Step-Motors

14-5 Modes of Excitation in Step-Motors

14-6 Drive Circuits for Step-Motors

14-7 Open-Loop Operation of Step-Motors

14-8 Closed-Loop Control of Step-Motors

14-9 Switched-Reluctance Motor Drives

14-10 Summary

14-11 References

XV

354

358

358

359

PART 5 OTHER APPLICATIONS

Chapter 15 Residential and Industrial Applications

15-1 Introduction

15-2 Residential Applications

15-3 Industrial Applications

15-4 S u m m a r y

15-5 References

377

377

381

385

385

Chapter 16 Electric Utility Applications

16-1 Introduction

16-2 High-Voltage D C ( H V D C ) Transmission

16-3 Static V a r Control (SVC)

16-4 Interconnection of Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage

16-5 S u m m a r y

16-6 References

Chapter 17 Optimizing the Utility Interface with Power Electronic System

17-1 Introduction

17-2 Generation of Current Harmonics

17-3 Current Harmonics and Power Factor

17-4 H a r m o n i e Standards and Recommend Practices

409

410

411

411

386

386

397

402

406

407

361

361

363

364

366

370

372

373

373

373

374

xvi

CONTENTS

17-5

17-6

Need for Improved Utility Interface

Improved Single-Phase Utility Interface

17-7

17-8

17-9

Improved Three-Phase Utility Interface

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

S u m m a r y

17-10 References

414

414

425

427

429

430

PART 6 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND CONVERTER DESIGN

Chapter 18 Basic Semiconductor Physics

18-1 Introduction

18-2 Conduction Processes in Semiconductors

18-3 P N J u n c t i o n s

18-4 Charge Control Description of PN Junction Operation

18-5 I m p a c t Ionization

18-6 S u m m a r y

18-7 References

435

436

442

446

448

449

450

Chapter 19 Power Diodes

19-1 Introduction

19-2 Basic Structure and I-V Characteristics

19-3 Breakdown Voltage Considerations

19-4 On-State Losses

19-5 Switching Characteristics

19-6 Schottky Diodes

19-7 Diode Snubbers

19-8 Summary

19-9 References

Chapter 20 BJTs with Drive and Snubber Circuits

20-1 Introduction

20-2 Vertical Power Transistor Structures

20-3 I-V Characteristics

20-4 Physics of B J T Operation

20-5 Switching Characteristics

20-6 Breakdown Voltages

20-7 Second Breakdown

20-8 On-State Losses

20-9 Safe Operating Areas

20-10 Design of Drive Circuits for BJTs

20-11 Snubber Circuits for BJTs and Darlingtons

20-12 Summary

20-13 References

451

451

453

459

462

467

470

478

479

480

480

482

484

490

497

498

500

501

503

520

532

534

CONTENTS

Chapter 21 Power MOSFETs

21-1

21-2

21-3

21-4

21-5

21-6

21-7

21-8

Introduction

Basic Structure

I-V Characteristics

Physics of Device Operation

Switching Characteristics

Operating Limitations and Safe Operating Areas

Design of Gate Drive Circuits

Snubber Circuits

21-9

21-10

Summary

References

Chapter 22 Thyristors

22-1

22-2

22-3

22-4

22-5

22-6

22-7

22-8

22-9

Introduction

Basic Structure

I-V Characteristics

Physics of Device Operation

Switching Characteristics

Methods of Improving dl/dt and dV /dt Ratings

Thyristor Gating Circuits

Snubber Circuits for Thyristors

Summary

22-10 References

Chapter 23 Gate Turn-Off Thyristors

23-1 Introduction

23-2 Basic Structure and I-V Characteristics

23-3 Physics of Turn-Off Operation

23-4 GTO Switching Characteristics

23-5 Snubber Circuits

23-6 Overcurrent Protection of GTOs

23-7 Summary

23-8 References

Chapter 24 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors

24-1

24-2

24-3

24-4

24-5

Introduction

Basic Structure

I-V Characteristics

Physics of Device Operation

L a t c h u p in IGBTs

24-6

24-7

Switching Characteristics

Device Limits and Safe Operating Areas

24-8

24-9

24-10

Drive and Snubber Circuits

Summary

References

593

593

595

597

603

604

605

606

568

568

570

571

575

581

583

587

590

592

607

607

610

610

613

615

618

619

620

621

XV11

535

535

538

540

545

550

559

565

566

567

XV111 CONTENTS

Chapter 25 Emerging Devices and Circuits

25-1

25-2

25-3

25-4

25-5

25-6

25-7

25-8

25-9

Introduction

Power Junction Field Effect Transistors

Field-Controlled Thyristor

JFET-Based Devices Versus Other Power Devices

MOS-Controlled Thyristors

High Voltage Integrated Circuits

New Semiconductor Materials

Summary

References

622

622

627

630

630

632

636

637

638

Chapter 26 Passive Components and Practical Con

Design Considerations

26-1

26-2

26-3

26-4

Introduction

Design of Inductors

Transformer Design

Selection of Capacitors

26-5

26-6

26-7

Resistors

Current Measurements

Heat sinking

26-8

26-9

Circuit Layout

Summary

26-10 References

Index

639

639

646

650

651

651

653

654

655

656

657

Download