# GEOM2, F2007. EXERCISES 8b. Exercises for Friday Mar 30 1 Let ξ

```GEOM2, F2007. EXERCISES 8b.
Exercises for Friday Mar 30
1 Let ξ denote the covector field
2xy dx + (x2 + y) dy
on R2 . Verify that ξ is closed, and find f ∈ C ∞ (R2 ) such that df = ξ.
P
∂ai
=
2 A covector field ξ = i ai dxi on Rn is said to be closed if ∂x
j
pairs of indices i, j. Consider the covector field
∂aj
∂xi
for all
(y 2 + 2xz + 2x)dx + (z 2 + 2xy + 2y)dy + (x2 + 2yz + 2z)dz
on R3 . Verify that it is closed, and find f ∈ C ∞ (R3 ) such that df = ξ.
3 Let M be an abstract manifold, and let f ∈ C ∞ (M ). Assume that df = 0.
Prove that each level set {p ∈ M | f (p) = c} is both closed and open. Conclude
that f is constant on each component of M , and show that the dimension of the
kernel of d in C ∞ (M ) is the number of components (which is either a finite number
or infinite).
4 Let M = R2 \ {(x, 0) | x ≤ 0}, and let (r, ϕ) denote the polar coordinates of
(x, y), that is, (x, y) = (r cos ϕ, r sin ϕ). Here ϕ ∈] − π, π[.
a) Determine dx and dy in terms of r, ϕ, dr and dϕ.
b) Determine dr and dϕ in terms of x, y, dx and dy.
c) Show that the covector field
ξ=
x
−y
dx
+
x2 + y 2
x2 + y 2
is closed on R2 \ {(0, 0)}, and that it is exact on M but not on R2 \ {(0, 0)}.
5 Let ξ be a covector field on an abstract manifold M . Prove that ξ is smooth
if ξ(Y ) ∈ C ∞ (M ) for all Y ∈ X(M ) (thus improving the ‘if’ of Lemma 8.2.1).
6 (if there is time) Prove Lemma 8.3.
```