# Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU Design ```CSE 675.02: Introduction to Computer Architecture
Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU
Design
Presentation F
Slides by Gojko Babi
32-bit ALU
ALU Control
A
32
32-bit
ALU
B
32
Result
Zero
Overflow
Carry out
32
• Our ALU should be able to perform functions:
– logical and function
– logical or function
– arithmetic subtract function
– arithmetic slt (set-less-then) function
– logical nor function
• ALU control lines define a function to be performed on A and B.
g. babic
Presentation F
2
1
Functioning of 32-bit ALU
ALU Control
ALU Control lines
Function
Ainvert
Binvert
and
0
0
00
or
0
0
01
0
0
10
subtract
0
1
10
slt
0
1
11
nor
1
1
00
4
Operation
A
32
32-bit
ALU
B
32
Result
Zero
Overflow
Carry out
32
• Result lines provide result of the chosen function applied to values of
A and B
• Since this ALU operates on 32-bit operands, it is called 32-bit ALU
• Zero output indicates if all Result lines have value 0
• Overflow indicates integer overflow of add and subtract functions;
for unsigned integers, this overflow indicator does not provide any useful
information
• Carry out indicates carry out and unsigned integer overflow
g. babic
Presentation F
3
Designing 32-bit ALU: Beginning
2. Let us now add or function
Operation
= 0 and
= 1 or
a0
b0
Result0
0
1
a1
b1
0
Result1
1
a2
b2
0
Result2
1
a31
b31
0
Result31
1
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4
2
Designing 32-bit ALU: Principles
Operation = 0 and
• A number of functions
are performed internally, but only one
a0
result is chosen for
b0
the output of ALU
= 1 or
and
or
a1
• 32-bit ALU is built
out of 32 identical
1-bit ALU’s
1
and
b1
or
a2
Result1
0
1
and
b2
or
a31
Result0
0
Result2
0
1
and
b31
or
Result31
0
1
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5
Input
b
Carry
In
Sum
Carry
Out
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
Figure B.5.2
From the truth
table and after
minimization, we
can have this
design for CarryOut
Figure B.5.5
g. babic
Output
a
Figure B.5.3
Presentation F
6
3
“0”
Cin
a0
sum0
+
b0
Cout
This is a ripple carry adder.
Cin
a1
sum1
+
b1
Cout
Cin
a2
sum2
+
b2
The key to speeding up addition
is determining carry out in the
higher order bits sooner.
Cout
Cin
a31
sum31
+
b31
Cout
Carry out
g. babic
Presentation F
7
32-bit ALU With 3 Functions
=0
1-bit ALU
Operation = 00 and
= 01 or
Figure B.5.6
Figure B.5.7
CarryOut
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Presentation F
+ carry out
8
4
32-bit Subtractor
“0”
“1”
Cin
a0
Result0
+
b0
=A+B+1
Cout
Cin
a1
Result1
+
b1
A – B = A + (–B)
Cout
Cin
a2
Result2
+
b2
Cout
Cin
a31
Result31
+
b31
Cout
CarryOut
g. babic
Presentation F
9
binvert
Cin
a0
b0
“0”
0
Result0
+
Cout
1
Cin
a1
b1
0
Result1
+
Cout
1
Cin
a2
b2
0
Result2
+
= 1 subtraction
Cout
1
Cin
a31
b31
0
1
g. babic
Result31
+
Cout
0
1
CarryOut
10
5
32-bit ALU With 4 Functions
1-bit ALU
B in ve rt
B in v e r t
O p e r a tio n
O pe ra tion
C a r r y In
a0
b0
a
C a rryI n
ALU0
R e s u l t0
0
C a rryO u t
1
0
b
R e s u lt
a1
b1
2
1
Figure B.5.8
a2
b2
Control lines
Binvert
(1 line)
Operation
(2 lines)
and
0
00
or
0
01
0
10
subtract
1
10
R e s u l t1
C a rryO u t
C a r ry O u t
Function
C a rryI n
ALU1
C a rryI n
ALU2
R e s u l t2
C a rryO u t
C a rr y In
a3 1
b3 1
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R e s u l t3 1
C a rryI n
A L U 31
Presentation F
0
Carry Out
1
11
2’s Complement Overflow
• 2’s complement overflow
happens:
– if a sum of two positive
numbers results in
a negative number
– if a sum of two negative
numbers results in
a positive number
B in v e r t
O p e r a tio n
C a r ry In
a
0
1
R e s u lt
b
0
+
2
1
L e ss
3
Carry Out
O v e r f lo w
d e te c tio n
O v e rflo w
1-bit ALU for the most significant bit
Other 1-bit ALUs, i.e. non-most significant bit ALUs, are not affected.
g. babic
Presentation F
12
6
32-bit ALU With 4 Functions and Overflow
B in v e r t
O p e r a tio n
a0
b0
C a rryI n
ALU0
R e s u l t0
C a rryO u t
Control lines
Binvert
(1 line)
Operation
(2 lines)
and
0
00
Function
or
0
01
0
10
subtract
1
10
a1
b1
C a rryI n
ALU1
R e s u l t1
C a rryO u t
a2
b2
C a rryI n
ALU2
R e s u l t2
C a rryO u t
C a rr y In
a3 1
b3 1
Missing: slt &amp; nor functions and Zero output
C a rryI n
A L U 31
R e s u l t3 1
O v e r flo w
Carry Out
g. babic
Presentation F
7
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