Frank Lloyd Wright was born in June 8 1867 and died in April 9, 1959. The remarkable buildings designed by Frank Lloyd Wright established him as one of the most well known and important architects of the 20th century. Wright was also excellent in writing, educating and designing the interior of his buildings. His achievements and influence can be measured to be the same as Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe. His buildings are inspired by joining together: nature, humanity and architecture. PERFORMANCES FOUND FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT NATURE, HUMANITY AND ARCHITECTURE 1889 HOME AND STUDIO OAK PARK, ILL. 1905 UNITY TEMPLE OAK PARK, ILL. 1909 1 2 3 X 5 6 X ROBIE HOUSE CHICAGO, ILL. 1916 1 2 3 4 X 6 X IMPERIAL HOTEL TOKYO 1 2 3 4 X 6 X 1934 FALLING WATER BEAR RUN, PENN. 1 X 3 4 5 6 X Falling water, Bear run - Pennsylvania 1934 1936 JOHNSON WAX RACINE, WIS. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1937 TALIESIN WEST SCOTTSDALE, ARIZ. 1 2 X X X 6 X 1938 WINGSPREAD WIND POINT, WIS. 1956 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BK8040 M&A GUGGENHEIM NEW YORK, N.Y. 1 2 3 4 X 6 X X X X 4 X 6 X Frank Smit 4059387 Tunis Hoekstra 1312103 Marc Hubers 4034279 Martijn Aling 4061683 Ismail Oral 4021320 Taliesin West, Scottsdale - Arizona 1937 FACADE SECTION SECTION FIRST FLOOR SECOND FLOOR THIRD FLOOR Ching, Falling water FIRST FLOOR PERSPECTIVE Ching, Taliesin West ADJACENT PLANES ADJACENT SPACES 18-31 ADJACENT SPACES 1 2 3 4 5 LINEAR ORGANISATION 6 1 9 8 INTERLOCKING SPACES / PLANES 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 INTERLOCKING SPACES 7 4 5 3 2 1 4 17 15 2 1 3 16 14 5 13 6 12 10 CLUSTERED ORG. AXIAL CONDITION PARTI FALLING WATER Clark and Pause, Falling water CLUSTERED ORG. AXIAL CONDITIONS 11 PARTI TALIESIN WEST Clark and Pause, Taliesin West 45• 0• 90• STRUCTURE NATURAL LIGHT MASS - ADDITIVE SYMMETRY AND BALANCE GEOMETRY Steadman, Falling water PHOTOS STRUCTURE NATURAL LIGHT MASS - ADDITIVE SYMMETRY AND BALANCE GEOMETRY Steadman, Taliesin West FORM(m) OPERATION CREATE A COMPOSITION OUT OF PLANES AND SCREENS FALLING WATER LEGEND TALIESIN WEST LEGEND A.LIVING ROOM B.TERRACE C.KITCHEN D.STAFF ROOM E.STAIRS BASEMENT F.STAIRS G.DRESSING ROOM H.BATH ROOM I.CORRIDOR J.BED AREA K.STUDY ROOM A.ENTRANCE B.WORKSPACE C.KITCHEN D.DINING ROOM E.LOGGIA F.STAIRS G.DRESSING ROOM H.BATH ROOM I.CORRIDOR J.BED AREA K.STUDY ROOM L.GALLERY M.LOUNGE N.TERRACE O.OFFICE PERFORMANCE INTERIOR SPACE ENTRANCES, STAIRS, CORRIDORS COURTYARD DOORS INSIDE COURTYARD OUTSIDE OPERATION FORM(m) 1. ELIMINATE THE SENSE OF BEING LOCKED UP IN A ROOM OR SPACE CREATE A COMPOSITION OUT OF PLANES AND SCREENS (ELIMINATE THE BOX) HORIZONTAL PLANES CONNECT THE ROCKY HILLSIDE WITH THE RIVER 2. ANCHORING THE BUILDING IN ITS SURROUNDINGS FOLLOW THE LOCATIONS SPECIFIC FORMS BY THE USE OF HORIZONTAL PLANES LIFT THE STRUCTURE OUT OF THE RIVERBED BY THE USE OF CONCRETE SLABS TO CREATE A VIEW OVER THE RIVER 3. ESTABLISH A VISUAL CONNECTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT (ELIMINATE THE BOX) LET OPENINGS ARISE OUT OF THE COMPOSITION OF PLANES AND SCREENS 4. LET OPENINGS FORM ON A NATURAL WAY LIFT THE STRUCTURE BY THE USE OF A PLATFORM TO CREATE A VISTA OVER THE SURROUNDINGS LET OPENINGS ARISE OUT OF THE COMPOSITION OF PLANES AND SCREENS USE COMBINATIONS OF MATERIALS AND ORNAMENTS FROM THE SURROUNDINGS 5. RESPECT THE IDENTITY OF THE SITE USE COMBINATIONS OF MATERIALS AND ORNAMENTS FROM THE SURROUNDINGS THE SUNLIGHT REACHES THE BUILDING MAINLY FROM ABOVE 6. INCORPORATE CLIMATE CONTROL AND FURNITURE IN THE ARCHITECTURE THE CANVAS PARTIALLY REFLECT THE SUNLIGHT AND DISPERSE THE LIGHT EQUALLY OVER THE CEILING THE BUILDING BECOMES AN OPTICAL PART OF THE WATERFALL Conclusion The identity Frank Lloyd Wright achieves is: harmony between nature, people and architecture. The way in which this three elements are combined, and how they lead to the desired performances, is described below. People and architecture To connect the people and nature, and to avoid an imprisoned feeling when entering his buildings, Frank made use of an architectural principle invented by himself. ‘Breaking the box’ He wanted to eliminate the sense of being locked up in a room or space. (1) The designs of the buildings and the furniture made it possible to create comfortable climate conditions. And in addition: in this way people feel a sense of being home. (6) 7. CREATE A BUILDING THAT IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SENSE OF THE PLACE GENIUS LOCI PHOTOS THE STRUCTURE OF THE ROOF IS ALIGNED WITH THE SLOPES OF THE MOUNTAINS Comparison People and nature Providing a visual connection with the environment is a way of bringing people and nature together. (3) Architecture and nature To make the connection between his architecture and nature even stronger, Wright aspired to anchor the building in the surroundings. (2) Also the openings in the walls are composed in a natural way. The windows arise from the compositon of planes. No gaps were random cutted out of the planes. (4) A third useful tool to connect the architecture with nature is Frank Lloyd’s respect for the identity of the site. (5) The buildings are also made and situated in accordance with the sense of the place. (7) Nature At the location is searched for an element that serves as a basis for the design. This is the sense of the place. In the case of Falling Waters it are the falls, the river bed, the rocks and the trees. In the case of Taliesin West it is the slope of the surrounding mountains. People People can experience two elements in the design: inside and outside. Visiting Falling Waters, it is the view and ‘smell’ of the waterfall. It’s movement and sound. Inside the building it are the rocks and the material use. When visiting Taliesin West, changes can be seen in the desert. Storms, light and dark, cactuses and archaeological remainings. The slope of the mountain can be experienced by the shadow of the shading structure. Architecture The shape of both buildings emphasizes the elements in the environment. In the case of Falling Waters this is done with the planes. (Cantilevered concrete floors.) These planes consist of rooms and balconies stacked on top of each other over the height of three floors. In this way they resemble the waterfall. These planes are interlocked with a central element (local stone) around on all floors and connected on a rock. The walls on the horizontal layers are avoided where possible and provided with glazing and rock. The overall structure resembles the waterfall. In Taliesin West the environment is highlighted with a triangle. The top part of this triangle is the base for all the spaces. All spaces, either inside and outside are connected together, and fixed with rough rock. Parts of the building are executed with a pitched roof. This roof is made from wooden beams and canvas membrane, and is supported by concrete and stone. Identity Frank Lloyd Wright composed the building using a method which is an analogy to regulatory D-genes. This is emphasized by the use of geometry and natural materials from the context (environment) In this way he created the strong identity of the buildings.