Chapter 4. Switch Realization SPST (single-pole single

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Chapter 4. Switch Realization
4.1. Switch applications
Single-, two-, and four-quadrant switches. Synchronous rectifiers
4.2. A brief survey of power semiconductor devices
Power diodes, MOSFETs, BJTs, IGBTs, and thyristors
4.3. Switching loss
Transistor switching with clamped inductive load. Diode
recovered charge. Stray capacitances and inductances, and
ringing. Efficiency vs. switching frequency.
4.4. Summary of key points
1
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
SPST (single-pole single-throw) switches
SPST switch, with
voltage and current
polarities defined
Buck converter
with SPDT switch:
L
1
+
i
iL(t)
+
1
2
+
–
Vg
C
R
V
–
v
–
with two SPST switches:
0
iA
L
A
iL(t)
+
+ vA –
All power semiconductor
devices function as SPST
switches.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
+
–
Vg
–
vB
B
C
R
iB
2
V
+
–
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Realization of SPDT switch using two SPST switches
G
G
G
G
A nontrivial step: two SPST switches are not exactly equivalent to one
SPDT switch
It is possible for both SPST switches to be simultaneously ON or OFF
Behavior of converter is then significantly modified
—discontinuous conduction modes (chapter 5)
Conducting state of SPST switch may depend on applied voltage or
current —for example: diode
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
3
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Quadrants of SPST switch operation
1
+
Switch
on state
current
i
A single-quadrant
switch example:
v
ON-state: i > 0
–
OFF-state: v > 0
0
Switch
off state voltage
4
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Some basic switch applications
switch
on-state
current
Singlequadrant
switch
Currentbidirectional
two-quadrant
switch
switch
off-state voltage
switch
on-state
current
Voltagebidirectional
two-quadrant
switch
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
switch
on-state
current
switch
off-state
voltage
switch
on-state
current
Fourquadrant
switch
switch
off-state
voltage
5
switch
off-state
voltage
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.1.1. Single-quadrant switches
1
+
i
Active switch: Switch state is controlled exclusively
by a third terminal (control terminal).
Passive switch: Switch state is controlled by the
applied current and/or voltage at terminals 1 and 2.
v
–
0
SCR: A special case — turn-on transition is active,
while turn-off transition is passive.
Single-quadrant switch: on-state i(t) and off-state v(t)
are unipolar.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
6
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The diode
• A passive switch
i
• Single-quadrant switch:
1
• can conduct positive onstate current
on
i
+
v
off
v
• can block negative offstate voltage
–
0
instantaneous i-v characteristic
Symbol
7
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
• provided that the intended
on-state and off-state
operating points lie on the
diode i-v characteristic,
then switch can be
realized using a diode
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) and the
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
1
i +
BJT
C
• An active switch, controlled
by terminal C
i
v
• Single-quadrant switch:
on
–
off
0
v
• can block positive off-state
voltage
1
i +
IGBT
C
v
–
0
• can conduct positive onstate current
instantaneous i-v characteristic
8
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
• provided that the intended
on-state and off-state
operating points lie on the
transistor i-v characteristic,
then switch can be realized
using a BJT or IGBT
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect
Transistor (MOSFET)
• An active switch, controlled by
terminal C
i
C
• Normally operated as singlequadrant switch:
on
1
i +
v
off
v
–
on
(reverse conduction)
0
• can conduct positive on-state
current (can also conduct
negative current in some
circumstances)
• can block positive off-state
voltage
Symbol
instantaneous i-v characteristic
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
9
• provided that the intended onstate and off-state operating
points lie on the MOSFET i-v
characteristic, then switch can
be realized using a MOSFET
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Realization of switch using
transistors and diodes
Buck converter example
L
A
iA
iL(t)
+
+ vA –
Vg
–
vB
+
–
B
+
SPST switch
operating points
C
R
V
Switch A: transistor
iB
–
Switch B: diode
iA
iB
Switch A
Switch B
on
iL
on
Switch A
off
Vg
iL
Switch B
off
vA
–Vg
Switch A
vB
Switch B
10
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Realization of buck converter
using single-quadrant switches
iA
+
vA
L
–
+
–
vB
+
+
–
Vg
iL(t)
vL(t)
–
iB
iA
Switch A
on
iB
Switch B
iL
on
Switch A
off
Vg
iL
Switch B
off
vA
–Vg
11
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
vB
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.1.2. Current-bidirectional
two-quadrant switches
• Usually an active switch,
controlled by terminal C
i
1
i
on
(transistor conducts)
+
C
–
0
BJT / anti-parallel
diode realization
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
v
off
v
on
(diode conducts)
instantaneous i-v
characteristic
12
• Normally operated as twoquadrant switch:
• can conduct positive or
negative on-state current
• can block positive off-state
voltage
• provided that the intended onstate and off-state operating
points lie on the composite i-v
characteristic, then switch can
be realized as shown
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Two quadrant switches
switch
on-state
current
i
on
1
+
(transistor conducts)
i
v
off
v
switch
off-state
voltage
–
on
0
(diode conducts)
13
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
MOSFET body diode
i
1
i
on
(transistor conducts)
+
off
v
C
v
–
on
(diode conducts)
0
Power MOSFET
characteristics
Power MOSFET,
and its integral
body diode
Use of external diodes
to prevent conduction
of body diode
14
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
A simple inverter
iA
+
Vg
+
–
Q1
D1 vA
–
v0(t) = (2D – 1) Vg
L
iL
+
+
Vg
+
–
Q2
D2 v
B
–
C
R
v0
–
iB
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
15
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Inverter: sinusoidal modulation of D
v0(t) = (2D – 1) Vg
Sinusoidal modulation to
produce ac output:
v0
Vg
D(t) = 0.5 + Dm sin (ωt)
D
0
0.5
1
The resulting inductor
current variation is also
sinusoidal:
–Vg
iL(t) =
Vg
v0(t)
= (2D – 1)
R
R
Hence, current-bidirectional
two-quadrant switches are
required.
16
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The dc-3øac voltage source inverter (VSI)
ia
Vg
+
–
ib
ic
Switches must block dc input voltage, and conduct ac load current.
17
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Bidirectional battery charger/discharger
D1
L
+
+
Q1
vbus
vbatt
D2
spacecraft
main power bus
–
Q2
–
vbus > vbatt
A dc-dc converter with bidirectional power flow.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
18
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.1.3. Voltage-bidirectional two-quadrant switches
• Usually an active switch,
controlled by terminal C
• Normally operated as twoquadrant switch:
i
1
+
i
on
v
v
C
off
off
(diode
blocks voltage)
(transistor
blocks voltage)
–
0
• can block positive or negative
off-state voltage
• provided that the intended onstate and off-state operating
points lie on the composite i-v
characteristic, then switch can
be realized as shown
instantaneous i-v
characteristic
BJT / series
diode realization
• can conduct positive on-state
current
• The SCR is such a device,
without controlled turn-off
19
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Two-quadrant switches
1
i
+
switch
on-state
current
i
v
on
–
0
v
1
+
i
off
off
(diode
blocks voltage)
(transistor
blocks voltage)
switch
off-state
voltage
v
C
–
0
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
20
Chapter 4: Switch realization
A dc-3øac buck-boost inverter
φa
iL
+
vab(t)
–
φb
Vg
–
+
+
vbc(t)
–
φc
Requires voltage-bidirectional two-quadrant switches.
Another example: boost-type inverter, or current-source inverter (CSI).
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
21
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.1.4. Four-quadrant switches
switch
on-state
current
• Usually an active switch,
controlled by terminal C
• can conduct positive or
negative on-state current
switch
off-state
voltage
• can block positive or negative
off-state voltage
22
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Three ways to realize a four-quadrant switch
1
1
i
1
+
1
i
i
+
+
+
v
v
v
–
–
–
i
v
–
0
0
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
0
0
23
Chapter 4: Switch realization
A 3øac-3øac matrix converter
3øac input
3øac output
ia
van(t)
+
–
vbn(t)
+
–
ib
+
–
vcn(t)
ic
• All voltages and currents are ac; hence, four-quadrant switches are required.
• Requires nine four-quadrant switches
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
24
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.1.5. Synchronous rectifiers
Replacement of diode with a backwards-connected MOSFET,
to obtain reduced conduction loss
i
1
i
+
1
i +
1
i
+
C
v
v
v
–
–
–
ideal switch
(reverse conduction)
v
on
0
0
0
on
off
conventional
diode rectifier
MOSFET as
synchronous
rectifier
25
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
instantaneous i-v
characteristic
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Buck converter with synchronous rectifier
iA
+
vA
L
–
iL(t)
Q1
Vg
+
–
–
vB
C
C
• Semiconductor
conduction loss can
be made arbitrarily
small, by reduction
of MOSFET onresistances
+
Q2
• MOSFET Q2 is
controlled to turn on
when diode would
normally conduct
iB
• Useful in low-voltage
high-current
applications
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
26
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.2. A brief survey of power semiconductor devices
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
Power diodes
Power MOSFETs
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs)
Thyristors (SCR, GTO, MCT)
On resistance vs. breakdown voltage vs. switching times
Minority carrier and majority carrier devices
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
27
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.3.1. Transistor switching with clamped inductive load
iA
+
vA
+
–
+
–
Vg
DTs
Ts
transistor
waveforms
L
iL(t)
–
physical
MOSFET
Vg
vA(t)
iL
iA(t)
–
vB
ideal
diode
gate +
driver
0
0
iL
iB
t
diode
waveforms
Buck converter example
iB(t)
0
0
t
vB(t)
vB(t) = vA(t) – Vg
i A(t) + iB(t) = iL
transistor turn-off
transition
–Vg
pA(t)
= vA iA
W off =
1
2
Vg iL
area
Woff
VgiL (t 2 – t 0)
t0
28
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t1
t2
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Switching loss induced by transistor turn-off transition
Energy lost during transistor turn-off transition:
W off =
1
2
VgiL (t 2 – t 0)
Similar result during transistor turn-on transition.
Average power loss:
Psw = 1
Ts
pA(t) dt = (W on + W off ) fs
switching
transitions
29
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.2.1. Power diodes
A power diode, under reverse-biased conditions:
v
+
–
+
+
+
{ {
low doping concentration
p
n-
–
E
v
+
n
–
–
–
depletion region, reverse-biased
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
30
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Typical diode switching waveforms
v(t)
t
i(t)
tr
0
t
di
dt
area
–Qr
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
31
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Forward-biased power diode
v
+
–
i
{
conductivity modulation
n-
p
+
n
–
+
+
+
+
–
+
–
minority carrier injection
32
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Charge-controlled behavior of the diode
v
i
+
–
The diode equation:
q(t) = Q0 e λv(t) – 1
Charge control equation:
n-
p
n
+
+
dq(t)
q(t)
= i(t) – τ
dt
L
+
τL = minority carrier lifetime
(above equations don’t
include current that
charges depletion region
capacitance)
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
+
+
}
λ= 1/(26 mV) at 300 K
+
+
With:
+
Total stored minority charge q
In equilibrium: dq/dt = 0, and hence
q(t) Q
i(t) = τ = τ 0 e λv(t) – 1 = I 0 e λv(t) – 1
L
L
33
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Charge-control in the diode:
Discussion
• The familiar i–v curve of the diode is an equilibrium
relationship that can be violated during transient
conditions
• During the turn-on and turn-off switching transients,
the current deviates substantially from the equilibrium
i–v curve, because of change in the stored charge
and change in the charge within the reverse-bias
depletion region
• Under forward-biased conditions, the stored minority
charge causes “conductivity modulation” of the
resistance of the lightly-doped n– region, reducing the
device on-resistance
34
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Diode in OFF state:
reversed-biased, blocking voltage
v(t)
v
+
–
t
n–
p
n
E
v
i(t)
+
0
{
–
t
Depletion region, reverse-biased
• Diode is reverse-biased
• No stored minority charge: q = 0
(1)
• Depletion region blocks applied
reverse voltage; charge is stored in
capacitance of depletion region
35
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Turn-on transient
v(t)
Diode conducts with low on-resistance
t
• charge to increase
voltage across
depletion region
Diode is forward-biased. Supply minority
charge to n– region to reduce on-resistance
Charge depletion region
i(t)
On-state current determined by converter circuit
t
(1)
(2)
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
36
The current i(t) is
determined by the
converter circuit. This
current supplies:
• charge needed to
support the on-state
current
• charge to reduce
on-resistance of n–
region
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Turn-off transient
v
+
–
i (< 0)
n-
p
n
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
}
Removal of stored minority charge q
37
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Diode turn-off transient
continued
v(t)
t
(4) Diode remains forward-biased.
Remove stored charge in n– region
(5) Diode is reverse-biased.
Charge depletion region
capacitance.
i(t)
tr
0
t
di
dt
Area
–Qr
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
38
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The diode switching transients induce
switching loss in the transistor
Vg
+
–
+
–
vA
iA
+
–
fast
transistor
iL(t)
L
vB
+
Qr
Vg
silicon
diode
iL
vA(t)
0
iB
0
t
diode
waveforms
iL
iB(t)
vB(t)
• Diode recovered stored charge
Qr flows through transistor
during transistor turn-on
transition, inducing switching
loss
0
0
t
area
–Qr
–Vg
tr
• Qr depends on diode on-state
forward current, and on the
rate-of-change of diode current
during diode turn-off transition
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
see Section 4.3.2
iA(t)
transistor
waveforms
–
pA(t)
= vA iA
area
~QrVg
area
~iLVgtr
39
t0
t1 t2
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Switching loss calculation
Energy lost in transistor:
iA(t)
transistor
waveforms
Soft-recovery
diode:
Qr
Vg
WD =
iL
vA(t)
vA(t) i A(t) dt
0
switching
transition
(t2 – t1) >> (t1 – t0)
0
t
With abrupt-recovery diode:
diode
waveforms
iL
iB(t)
vB(t)
0
WD ≈
0
t
Vg (iL – iB(t)) dt
area
–Qr
switching
transition
Abrupt-recovery
diode:
(t2 – t1) << (t1 – t0)
–Vg
= Vg i L t r + Vg Q r
tr
pA(t)
• Often, this is the largest
component of switching loss
= vA iA
area
~QrVg
area
~iLVgtr
40
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t0
t1 t2
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Types of power diodes
Standard recovery
Reverse recovery time not specified, intended for 50/60Hz
Fast recovery and ultra-fast recovery
Reverse recovery time and recovered charge specified
Intended for converter applications
Schottky diode
A majority carrier device
Essentially no recovered charge
Model with equilibrium i-v characteristic, in parallel with
depletion region capacitance
Restricted to low voltage (few devices can block 100V or more)
41
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Characteristics of several commercial power
rectifier diodes
Part number
Rated max voltage
Rated avg current
V F (typical)
tr (max)
Fas t reco v ery rect i fi ers
1N3913
400V
30A
1.1V
400ns
SD453N25S20PC
2500V
400A
2.2V
2µs
Ul t ra-fas t reco v ery rect i fi ers
MUR815
150V
8A
0.975V
35ns
MUR1560
600V
15A
1.2V
60ns
RHRU100120
1200V
100A
2.6V
60ns
S cho t t k y rect i fi ers
MBR6030L
30V
60A
0.48V
444CNQ045
45V
440A
0.69V
30CPQ150
150V
30A
1.19V
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
42
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Paralleling diodes
Attempts to parallel diodes, and share the
current so that i1 = i 2 = i/2, generally don’t
work.
i
i2
i1
Reason: thermal instability caused by
temperature dependence of the diode
equation.
+
+
v1
v2
Increased temperature leads to increased
current, or reduced voltage.
–
–
One diode will hog the current.
To get the diodes to share the current, heroic
measures are required:
• Select matched devices
• Package on common thermal substrate
• Build external circuitry that forces the currents to balance
43
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Ringing induced by diode stored charge
see Section 4.3.3
iL(t)
L
vi(t)
+
–
vL(t)
vi(t) +
–
iB(t)
+
silicon
diode
V1
t
0
vB(t)
–
–V2
C
iL(t)
• Diode is forward-biased while iL (t) > 0
• Negative inductor current removes diode
stored charge Qr
• When diode becomes reverse-biased,
negative inductor current flows through
capacitor C.
• Ringing of L-C network is damped by
parasitic losses. Ringing energy is lost.
0
vB(t)
t
0
–V2
t2
t1
44
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t
area
– Qr
t3
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Energy associated with ringing
t3
Recovered charge is
Qr = –
iL(t) dt
vi(t)
V1
t2
t
0
Energy stored in inductor during interval
t2 ≤ t ≤ t3 :
t3
WL =
vL(t) iL(t) dt
t2
Applied inductor voltage during interval
t2 ≤ t ≤ t3 :
di (t)
vL(t) = L L = – V2
dt
Hence,
t3
t3
di (t)
WL =
L L iL(t) dt =
( – V2) iL(t) dt
dt
t2
t2
–V2
iL(t)
0
t
0
–V2
W L = 12 L i 2L(t 3) = V2 Qr
t1
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t
area
– Qr
vB(t)
45
t2
t3
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.2.2. The Power MOSFET
Source
• Gate lengths
approaching one
micron
Gate
n
p
n
n
• Consists of many
small enhancementmode parallelconnected MOSFET
cells, covering the
surface of the silicon
wafer
n
p
nn
• Vertical current flow
• n-channel device is
shown
Drain
46
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
MOSFET: Off state
source
n
p
–
• p-n- junction is
reverse-biased
n
n
n
p
• off-state voltage
appears across nregion
depletion region
nn
drain
+
47
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
MOSFET: on state
• p-n- junction is
slightly reversebiased
source
n
p
n
n
p
nn
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
• positive gate voltage
induces conducting
channel
• drain current flows
through n- region
and conducting
channel
channel
drain
n
drain current
48
• on resistance = total
resistances of nregion, conducting
channel, source and
drain contacts, etc.
Chapter 4: Switch realization
MOSFET body diode
• p-n- junction forms
an effective diode, in
parallel with the
channel
source
n
p
n
n
n
p
• negative drain-tosource voltage can
forward-bias the
body diode
Body diode
• diode can conduct
the full MOSFET
rated current
nn
• diode switching
speed not optimized
—body diode is
slow, Qr is large
drain
49
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Typical MOSFET characteristics
0V
00V
• Off state: V GS < V th
=1
• On state: VGS >> V th
DS
=2
V
V
DS
10A
V DS
ID
=
2V
• MOSFET can
conduct peak
currents well in
excess of average
current rating
—characteristics are
unchanged
on state
5A
V DS =
off
state
1V
V DS = 0.5V
0A
0V
5V
10V
15V
VGS
50
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
• on-resistance has
positive temperature
coefficient, hence
easy to parallel
Chapter 4: Switch realization
A simple MOSFET equivalent circuit
D
• Cgs : large, essentially constant
• Cgd : small, highly nonlinear
Cgd
G
• Cds : intermediate in value, highly
nonlinear
Cds
• switching times determined by rate
at which gate driver
charges/discharges Cgs and Cgd
Cgs
S
Cds(vds) =
C0
1+
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Cds(vds) ≈ C0
vds
V0
51
V0
C 0'
vds = vds
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Switching loss caused by
semiconductor output capacitances
Buck converter example
Cds
Cj
+
–
+
–
Vg
Energy lost during MOSFET turn-on transition
(assuming linear capacitances):
W C = 12 (Cds + C j) V 2g
52
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
MOSFET nonlinear Cds
Approximate dependence of incremental Cds on vds :
Cds(vds) ≈ C0
C '0
V0
vds = vds
Energy stored in Cds at vds = VDS :
V DS
W Cds =
vds i C dt =
vds C ds(vds) dvds
0
V DS
W Cds =
0
C '0(vds) vds dvds = 23 Cds(VDS) V 2DS
— same energy loss as linear capacitor having value
53
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
4
3
Cds(VDS)
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Characteristics of several commercial power MOSFETs
Rated max voltage
Rated avg current
R on
Qg (typical)
IRFZ48
60V
50A
0.018Ω
110nC
IRF510
100V
5.6A
0.54Ω
8.3nC
IRF540
100V
28A
0.077Ω
72nC
APT10M25BNR
100V
75A
0.025Ω
171nC
IRF740
400V
10A
0.55Ω
63nC
MTM15N40E
400V
15A
0.3Ω
110nC
Part number
APT5025BN
500V
23A
0.25Ω
83nC
APT1001RBNR
1000V
11A
1.0Ω
150nC
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
54
Chapter 4: Switch realization
MOSFET: conclusions
A majority-carrier device: fast switching speed
Typical switching frequencies: tens and hundreds of kHz
On-resistance increases rapidly with rated blocking voltage
Easy to drive
The device of choice for blocking voltages less than 500V
1000V devices are available, but are useful only at low power levels
(100W)
Part number is selected on the basis of on-resistance rather than
current rating
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
55
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.2.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)
Base
• Interdigitated base and
emitter contacts
Emitter
• Vertical current flow
n
p
• npn device is shown
n
n
• minority carrier device
• on-state: base-emitter
and collector-base
junctions are both
forward-biased
nn
• on-state: substantial
minority charge in p and
n- regions, conductivity
modulation
Collector
56
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
BJT switching times
vs(t)
Vs2
–Vs1
VCC
vBE(t)
0.7V
RL
iC(t)
iB(t)
vs(t)
+
–
RB
+
vBE(t)
–
–Vs1
+
iB(t)
IB1
vCE(t)
0
–
–IB2
vCE(t)
VCC
IConRon
iC(t)
ICon
0
(1) (2) (3)
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
57
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Ideal base current waveform
iB(t)
IB1
IBon
0
t
–IB2
58
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Current crowding due to excessive IB2
Base
Emitter
–IB2
p
n
–
–
+
–
+
–
–
–
p
n-
can lead to
formation of hot
spots and device
failure
n
Collector
59
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
BJT characteristics
IC
n
egio
ve r
acti
10A
CE
V CE = 5V
saturation region
slope
=β
5A
n
ratio
-satu
quasi
V CE = 200V
V = 20V
VCE = 0.5V
• Off state: I B = 0
• On state: I B > IC /β
• Current gain β decreases
rapidly at high current. Device
should not be operated at
instantaneous currents
exceeding the rated value
VCE = 0.2V
cutoff
0A
0V
5V
10V
15V
IB
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
60
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Breakdown voltages
BVCBO: avalanche breakdown
voltage of base-collector
junction, with the emitter
open-circuited
IC
increasing IB
BVCEO: collector-emitter
breakdown voltage with zero
base current
IB = 0
open emitter
BVsus BVCEO
BVCBO
VCE
BVsus: breakdown voltage
observed with positive base
current
In most applications, the offstate transistor voltage must
not exceed BVCEO.
61
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Darlington-connected BJT
• Increased current gain, for high-voltage
applications
Q1
Q2
D1
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
• In a monolithic Darlington device,
transistors Q1 and Q2 are integrated on the
same silicon wafer
• Diode D1 speeds up the turn-off process,
by allowing the base driver to actively
remove the stored charge of both Q1 and
Q2 during the turn-off transition
62
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Conclusions: BJT
G
G
G
BJT has been replaced by MOSFET in low-voltage (<500V)
applications
BJT is being replaced by IGBT in applications at voltages above
500V
A minority-carrier device: compared with MOSFET, the BJT
exhibits slower switching, but lower on-resistance at high
voltages
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
63
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.2.4. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
• A four-layer device
Emitter
• Similar in construction to
MOSFET, except extra p
region
Gate
n
n
p
n
n-
• On-state: minority carriers
are injected into n- region,
leading to conductivity
modulation
n
p
minority carrier
injection
• compared with MOSFET:
slower switching times,
lower on-resistance, useful
at higher voltages (up to
1700V)
p
Collector
64
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The IGBT
collector
Symbol
gate
Location of equivalent devices
emitter
C
n
Equivalent
circuit
n
p
n
p
n
i1
i2
nG
i1
p
i2
E
65
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Current tailing in IGBTs
IGBT
waveforms
iL
Vg
vA(t)
iA(t)
C
curr
ent ta
}
il
0
0
iL
t
diode
waveforms
iB(t)
0
0
t
vB(t)
G
i1
–Vg
i2
pA(t)
E
Vg iL
= vA iA
area Woff
t
t0
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
66
t1
t2
t3
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Switching loss due to current-tailing in IGBT
+
vA
iL(t)
–
iL
–
+
–
vB
+
–
Vg
DTs
Ts
IGBT
waveforms
L
gate +
driver
Vg
vA(t)
iA(t)
curr
ent ta
ideal
diode
il
}
iA
physical
IGBT
0
0
iB
iL
t
diode
waveforms
Example: buck converter with IGBT
iB(t)
0
0
t
vB(t)
transistor turn-off
transition
Psw = 1
Ts
–Vg
pA(t)
= vA iA
Vg iL
pA(t) dt = (W on + W off ) fs
switching
transitions
area Woff
t0
t1
67
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t2
t3
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Characteristics of several commercial devices
Part number
Rated max voltage
Rated avg current
V F (typical)
tf (typical)
S i ng l e-chi p dev i ces
HGTG32N60E2
600V
32A
2.4V
0.62µs
HGTG30N120D2
1200V
30A
3.2A
0.58µs
M ul t i p l e-chi p p o w er m o dul es
CM400HA-12E
600V
400A
2.7V
0.3µs
CM300HA-24E
1200V
300A
2.7V
0.3µs
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
68
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Conclusions: IGBT
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
Becoming the device of choice in 500 to 1700V+ applications, at
power levels of 1-1000kW
Positive temperature coefficient at high current —easy to parallel
and construct modules
Forward voltage drop: diode in series with on-resistance. 2-4V
typical
Easy to drive —similar to MOSFET
Slower than MOSFET, but faster than Darlington, GTO, SCR
Typical switching frequencies: 3-30kHz
IGBT technology is rapidly advancing:
G
G
3300 V devices: HVIGBTs
150 kHz switching frequencies in 600 V devices
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
69
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.2.5. Thyristors (SCR, GTO, MCT)
The SCR
construction
symbol
equiv circuit
K
G
K
Anode
Anode (A)
n
n
p
Q2
Q1
Gate (G)
n-
Cathode (K)
Q1
Gate
Cathode
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Q2
p
A
70
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
• Positive feedback —a latching
device
iA
forward
conducting
• A minority carrier device
• Double injection leads to very low
on-resistance, hence low forward
voltage drops attainable in very high
voltage devices
increasing iG
reverse
blocking
• Simple construction, with large
feature size
iG = 0
vAK
forward
blocking
reverse
breakdown
• Cannot be actively turned off
• A voltage-bidirectional two-quadrant
switch
• 5000-6000V, 1000-2000A devices
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
71
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Why the conventional SCR cannot be turned off
via gate control
K
G
• Large feature size
K
–iG
• Negative gate current
induces lateral voltage
drop along gate-cathode
junction
n
+
–
–
–
–
p
–
n
–
+
n-
• Gate-cathode junction
becomes reverse-biased
only in vicinity of gate
contact
p
iA
A
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
72
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO)
• An SCR fabricated using modern techniques —small feature size
• Gate and cathode contacts are highly interdigitated
• Negative gate current is able to completely reverse-bias the gatecathode junction
Turn-off transition:
• Turn-off current gain: typically 2-5
• Maximum controllable on-state current: maximum anode current
that can be turned off via gate control. GTO can conduct peak
currents well in excess of average current rating, but cannot switch
off
73
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The MOS-Controlled Thyristor (MCT)
Anode
• Still an emerging
device, but some
devices are
commercially available
Gate
n
• p-type device
• A latching SCR, with
added built-in
MOSFETs to assist the
turn-on and turn-off
processes
Q3 channel
Q4 channel
n
p
n
pn
• Small feature size,
highly interdigitated,
modern fabrication
Cathode
74
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
The MCT: equivalent circuit
Cathode
• Negative gate-anode
voltage turns p-channel
MOSFET Q3 on, causing
Q1 and Q2 to latch ON
Q1
Q4
Gate
Q3
Q2
• Maximum current that can
be interrupted is limited by
the on-resistance of Q4
Anode
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
• Positive gate-anode
voltage turns n-channel
MOSFET Q4 on, reversebiasing the base-emitter
junction of Q2 and turning
off the device
75
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Summary: Thyristors
• The thyristor family: double injection yields lowest forward voltage
drop in high voltage devices. More difficult to parallel than
MOSFETs and IGBTs
• The SCR: highest voltage and current ratings, low cost, passive
turn-off transition
• The GTO: intermediate ratings (less than SCR, somewhat more
than IGBT). Slower than IGBT. Slower than MCT. Difficult to drive.
• The MCT: So far, ratings lower than IGBT. Slower than IGBT. Easy
to drive. Second breakdown problems? Still an emerging device.
76
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.3. Switching loss
• Energy is lost during the semiconductor switching transitions, via
several mechanisms:
• Transistor switching times
• Diode stored charge
• Energy stored in device capacitances and parasitic inductances
• Semiconductor devices are charge controlled
• Time required to insert or remove the controlling charge determines
switching times
77
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.3.1. Transistor switching with clamped inductive load
iA
+
vA
iL(t)
–
physical
MOSFET
+
–
+
–
Vg
DTs
Ts
–
vB
gate +
driver
transistor
waveforms
L
Vg
vA(t)
iL
iA(t)
ideal
diode
0
0
iL
iB
t
diode
waveforms
Buck converter example
iB(t)
0
0
t
vB(t) = vA(t) – Vg
i A(t) + iB(t) = iL
vB(t)
transistor turn-off
transition
–Vg
pA(t)
= vA iA
W off =
1
2
Vg iL
area
Woff
VgiL (t 2 – t 0)
t0
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
78
t1
t2
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Switching loss induced by transistor turn-off transition
Energy lost during transistor turn-off transition:
W off =
1
2
VgiL (t 2 – t 0)
Similar result during transistor turn-on transition.
Average power loss:
Psw = 1
Ts
pA(t) dt = (W on + W off ) fs
switching
transitions
79
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Switching loss due to current-tailing in IGBT
+
vA
Ts
iA(t)
curr
ent ta
ideal
diode
vB
gate +
driver
+
–
DTs
Vg
vA(t)
iL
–
+
–
Vg
IGBT
waveforms
L
iL(t)
–
il
}
iA
physical
IGBT
0
0
iB
iL
t
diode
waveforms
Example: buck converter with IGBT
iB(t)
0
0
t
vB(t)
transistor turn-off
transition
Psw = 1
Ts
–Vg
pA(t)
= vA iA
Vg iL
pA(t) dt = (W on + W off ) fs
switching
transitions
area Woff
t0
t1
t2
80
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t3
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.3.2. Diode recovered charge
Vg
+
–
+
–
vA
iA
+
–
fast
transistor
iL(t)
L
iA(t)
transistor
waveforms
vB
+
silicon
diode
iL
vA(t)
0
iB
0
t
diode
waveforms
iL
iB(t)
vB(t)
• Diode recovered stored charge
Qr flows through transistor
during transistor turn-on
transition, inducing switching
loss
0
0
t
area
–Qr
–Vg
tr
• Qr depends on diode on-state
forward current, and on the
rate-of-change of diode current
during diode turn-off transition
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Qr
Vg
–
pA(t)
= vA iA
area
~QrVg
area
~iLVgtr
81
t0
t1 t2
t
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Switching loss calculation
iA(t)
Energy lost in transistor:
transistor
waveforms
Soft-recovery
diode:
Qr
Vg
WD =
iL
vA(t)
vA(t) i A(t) dt
0
switching
transition
(t2 – t1) >> (t1 – t0)
0
t
With abrupt-recovery diode:
diode
waveforms
iL
iB(t)
vB(t)
0
WD ≈
0
t
Vg (iL – iB(t)) dt
area
–Qr
switching
transition
Abrupt-recovery
diode:
(t2 – t1) << (t1 – t0)
–Vg
= Vg i L t r + Vg Q r
tr
pA(t)
= vA iA
• Often, this is the largest
component of switching loss
area
~QrVg
area
~iLVgtr
82
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t0
t
t1 t2
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.3.3. Device capacitances, and leakage,
package, and stray inductances
• Capacitances that appear effectively in parallel with switch elements
are shorted when the switch turns on. Their stored energy is lost
during the switch turn-on transition.
• Inductances that appear effectively in series with switch elements
are open-circuited when the switch turns off. Their stored energy is
lost during the switch turn-off transition.
Total energy stored in linear capacitive and inductive elements:
WC =
Σ
capacitive
elements
1
2
CiV 2i
WL =
Σ
inductive
elements
1
2
83
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
L jI 2j
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Example: semiconductor output capacitances
Buck converter example
Cds
+
–
Cj
+
–
Vg
Energy lost during MOSFET turn-on transition
(assuming linear capacitances):
W C = 12 (Cds + C j) V 2g
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
84
Chapter 4: Switch realization
MOSFET nonlinear Cds
Approximate dependence of incremental Cds on vds :
C '0
V0
vds = vds
Cds(vds) ≈ C0
Energy stored in Cds at vds = VDS :
V DS
W Cds =
vds i C dt =
vds C ds(vds) dvds
0
V DS
W Cds =
0
'
0
C (vds) vds dvds = 23 Cds(VDS) V 2DS
— same energy loss as linear capacitor having value
85
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
4
3
Cds(VDS)
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Some other sources of this type of switching loss
Schottky diode
• Essentially no stored charge
• Significant reverse-biased junction capacitance
Transformer leakage inductance
• Effective inductances in series with windings
• A significant loss when windings are not tightly coupled
Interconnection and package inductances
• Diodes
• Transistors
• A significant loss in high current applications
86
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Ringing induced by diode stored charge
iL(t)
L
vi(t)
+
–
vL(t)
vi(t) +
–
silicon
diode
iB(t)
+
vB(t)
–
V1
t
0
–V2
C
iL(t)
• Diode is forward-biased while iL (t) > 0
• Negative inductor current removes diode
stored charge Qr
• When diode becomes reverse-biased,
negative inductor current flows through
capacitor C.
• Ringing of L-C network is damped by
parasitic losses. Ringing energy is lost.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
87
0
t
area
– Qr
vB(t)
t
0
–V2
t1
t2
t3
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Energy associated with ringing
t3
Recovered charge is
Qr = –
vi(t)
iL(t) dt
V1
t2
t
0
Energy stored in inductor during interval
t2 ≤ t ≤ t3 :
t3
WL =
vL(t) iL(t) dt
–V2
iL(t)
t2
Applied inductor voltage during interval
t2 ≤ t ≤ t3 :
di (t)
vL(t) = L L = – V2
dt
Hence,
t3
t3
diL(t)
WL =
L
i (t) dt =
( – V2) iL(t) dt
dt L
t2
t2
0
t
area
– Qr
vB(t)
t
0
–V2
W L = 12 L i 2L(t 3) = V2 Qr
t2
t1
88
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
t3
Chapter 4: Switch realization
4.3.4. Efficiency vs. switching frequency
Add up all of the energies lost during the switching transitions of one
switching period:
W tot = W on + W off + W D + W C + W L + ...
Average switching power loss is
Psw = W tot fsw
Total converter loss can be expressed as
Ploss = Pcond + Pfixed + W tot fsw
where
Pfixed = fixed losses (independent of load and fsw )
Pcond = conduction losses
89
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Efficiency vs. switching frequency
Ploss = Pcond + Pfixed + W tot fsw
Switching losses are equal to
the other converter losses at the
critical frequency
100%
dc asymptote
fcrit
90%
fcrit =
80%
η
This can be taken as a rough
upper limit on the switching
frequency of a practical
converter. For fsw > f crit, the
efficiency decreases rapidly
with frequency.
70%
60%
50%
10kHz
Pcond + Pfixed
W tot
100kHz
1MHz
fsw
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
90
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Summary of chapter 4
1. How an SPST ideal switch can be realized using semiconductor devices
depends on the polarity of the voltage which the devices must block in the
off-state, and on the polarity of the current which the devices must conduct
in the on-state.
2. Single-quadrant SPST switches can be realized using a single transistor or
a single diode, depending on the relative polarities of the off-state voltage
and on-state current.
3. Two-quadrant SPST switches can be realized using a transistor and diode,
connected in series (bidirectional-voltage) or in anti-parallel (bidirectionalcurrent). Several four-quadrant schemes are also listed here.
4. A “ synchronous rectifier” is a MOSFET connected to conduct reverse
current, with gate drive control as necessary. This device can be used
where a diode would otherwise be required. If a MOSFET with sufficiently
low R on is used, reduced conduction loss is obtained.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
91
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Summary of chapter 4
5. Majority carrier devices, including the MOSFET and Schottky diode, exhibit
very fast switching times, controlled essentially by the charging of the
device capacitances. However, the forward voltage drops of these devices
increases quickly with increasing breakdown voltage.
6. Minority carrier devices, including the BJT, IGBT, and thyristor family, can
exhibit high breakdown voltages with relatively low forward voltage drop.
However, the switching times of these devices are longer, and are
controlled by the times needed to insert or remove stored minority charge.
7. Energy is lost during switching transitions, due to a variety of mechanisms.
The resulting average power loss, or switching loss, is equal to this energy
loss multiplied by the switching frequency. Switching loss imposes an
upper limit on the switching frequencies of practical converters.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
92
Chapter 4: Switch realization
Summary of chapter 4
8. The diode and inductor present a “clamped inductive load” to the transistor.
When a transistor drives such a load, it experiences high instantaneous
power loss during the switching transitions. An example where this leads to
significant switching loss is the IGBT and the “current tail” observed during
its turn-off transition.
9. Other significant sources of switching loss include diode stored charge and
energy stored in certain parasitic capacitances and inductances. Parasitic
ringing also indicates the presence of switching loss.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
93
Chapter 4: Switch realization
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