# Smith Chart Examples

```TL terminated by arbitrary load
I(0)
+
Zg
F
V (0)
-
∼
l
V (0)
ZL =
I(0)
0
impedance:
ZL
= rL + jxL
zL ≡
Z0
coefficient:
V − (0)
zL − 1
ZL − Z0
ΓL ≡ Γ(d = 0) = +
=
=
V (0)
ZL + Z0
zL + 1
I(d)
+
Zg
F
ZL
V (d)
-
∼
l
0
normalized line
impedance:
1 + Γ(d)
Z(d)
V (d)
=
z(d) ≡
=
Z0
Z0 I(d)
1 − Γ(d)
generalized
reflection
coefficient:
V − (d)
z(d) − 1
−j2βd
Γ(d) ≡ +
= ΓL e
=
V (d)
z(d) + 1
Graphical representation of Γ(d) transformations:
Γ(d) = ΓL e−j2βd where
!
|Γ(d)| = |ΓL | ≤ 1
Γ(d) = ! ΓL − 2βd
As d changes, we trace out a circle of
constant radius on the complex Γ plane:
Im{Γ}
unit
circle
A full circle is traced out when
2π = 2βd = 2(2π/λ)d
d = λ/2
Increasing d (towards generator)
corresponds to CLOCKWISE
rotation around the circle
|
|Γ L
ΓL
Re{Γ}
Γ(d)
Visualize standing wave patterns in voltage and current:
V (d) ∝ |1 + Γ(d)|
I(d) ∝ |1 − Γ(d)|
standing waves characterized by:
(1) SWR = Vmax/Vmin
(2) wavelength
first voltage minimum
voltage
minimum
Vmin ∝ 1 − |ΓL |
Im{Γ}
−
1
|
)|
d
Γ(
Re{Γ}
|1
+
Γ(
d)|
Γ(d)
voltage
maximum
Vmax ∝ 1 + |ΓL |
Separate real and imaginary parts of
Γ to find special cases:
(r + jx) − 1
Γ(d) = Γr + jΓi =
(r + jx) + 1
r2 − 1 + x2
2x
=
+
j
(r + 1)2 + x2
(r + 1)2 + x2
CASE: z(d) purely real (so x = 0)
Im{Γ}
r−1
+ j0
Γ(d) =
r+1
r
r=∞
(open ckt)
Γ
Re{Γ}
0
-1
1/3
-1/2
r=0
1
0
(short ckt)
3
1/2
∞
1
r=1
(matched)
Separate real and imaginary parts of
Γ to find special cases:
(r + jx) − 1
Γ(d) = Γr + jΓi =
(r + jx) + 1
r2 − 1 + x2
2x
=
+
j
(r + 1)2 + x2
(r + 1)2 + x2
CASE: z(d) purely imaginary (so r = 0)
x2 − 1
2x
|Γ(d)| = | 2
+j 2
|=1
x +1
x +1
Im{Γ}
x=1
x=∞
x
!
Γ
0
π
1
π/2
∞
0
-1
−π/2
−∞
−π
Re{Γ}
x=0
x = −∞
x = −1
Separate real and imaginary parts of z to find general contours:
1 + (Γr + jΓi )
1 − Γ2r − Γ2i + j2Γi
z = r + jx =
=
1 − (Γr + jΓi )
(1 − Γr )2 + Γ2i
contours of constant r? equate real parts of above expression
1 2
r 2
2
) + Γi = (
)
(Γr −
1+r
1+r
yields the equation of a circle with
center at: (Γr , Γi ) = (
1
1+r
r
, 0)
1+r
Separate real and imaginary parts of z to find general contours:
1 + (Γr + jΓi )
1 − Γ2r − Γ2i + j2Γi
z = r + jx =
=
1 − (Γr + jΓi )
(1 − Γr )2 + Γ2i
contours of constant x? equate imag. parts of above expression
1 2
1 2
(Γr − 1) + (Γi − ) = ( )
x
x
2
yields the equation of a circle with
1
center at: (Γr , Γi ) = (1, )
x
1
x
THE SMITH CHART
• Superimposes
constant r and x
circles inside unit
circle on the
complex Γ plane
• By drawing the
SWR circle on the
chart, we can
quickly relate Γ(d)
with the unique
line impedance
z(d) = r + jx at that
point
x values
r values
-x values
Distance ( λ)
towards
generator
Distance ( λ)
towards
The standing wave ratio
is read off of the chart
by noting the r value
where a constant Γ
circle intersects the
Γr axis
1) SWR = Zmax/Z0
= zmax
= rmax
2) SWR = Z0/Zmin
= 1/zmin
= 1/rmin
1/SWR
SWR
EXAMPLE:
1) Find Γ on the
Smith Chart
Γ
26.6&deg;
If the effective reflection
coefficient on a
piece of 50 Ω line
is Γ=0.4+j0.2, what
is the corresponding
line impedance
at that point ?
Γi = 0.2
47
4
.
=0
|
Γr = 0.4
|Γ
EXAMPLE:
If the effective reflection
coefficient on a
piece of 50 Ω line
is Γ=0.4+j0.2, what
is the corresponding
line impedance
at that point ?
1) Find Γ on the
Smith Chart
off of chart
3) Use Z0 to renormalize
Z = 50 (2.0 + j1.0)
= 100.0 + j 50.0 Ω
x = 1.0
Γ
r =2.0
16
EXAMPLE:
attached to a lossless,
100 Ω T-L. Find Z(d) at
d = 0.4λ
1) Normalize ZL
zL = 0.5-j0.25
2) Find zL on the
Smith Chart
3) Rotate along
constant Γ by
0.4λ
0.05λ
values of z
4) Use Z0 to renormalize
Z(d) = 100 (.95-j0.77)
= 95-j77 Ω
Z(d)calc = 95.29-j77.03
%error ~ 0.2%
z = 0.5-j0.25
z = 0.95-j0.77
WTG = 0.45
WTG = 0.35+0.05
1
1 − Γ(d)
1 − ΓL e−j2βd
y(d) =
=
=
z(d)
1 + Γ(d)
1 + ΓL e−j2βd
λ
λ
λ
−j2β(d&plusmn;
)
−j2βd
∓j2β(
4
4)
= z(d &plusmn; )
=e
e
since: e
4
= e−j2βd e∓π
= −e−j2βd
impedance grid reflected
around the Γr = 0 axis
-or- can just read off values
for y(d) = g(d) + j b(d) as
λ
g(d) = r(d &plusmn; )
4 λ
b(d) = x(d &plusmn; )
4
We can transform z into
y by rotating z half way
around a constant Γ circle
Given Z = 95+j20 on
a 50 Ω line, find Y
1) Find z
z = 1.9+j0.4
2) Draw Γ circle
3) Draw line through
origin
4) Find intersection
with Γ circle