EDL 755: Governance and Policy development in PreK-12 Educational Organizations

EDL 755: Governance and Policy development in PreK-12 Educational
Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership
Spring 2014
Learn, Lead, Transform
Dr. Ian Pumpian and Dr. Nancy Frey
162-F and 162-G North Education Bldg.
Telephone: 619-528-9070 x. 224 (Ian)
619-528-9070 x. 226 (Nancy)
Email: ipumpian@mail.sdsu.edu
Office Hours: By appointment
Department of Educational Leadership
5500 Campanile Drive
NE 166
San Diego, CA 92182-1190
Department Web:
San Diego State University’s Department of Educational Leadership endeavors to
enhance public school systems by developing exceptional leaders committed to learn,
lead, and transform in ways that improve the educational attainment of all students,
especially historically underachieving students.
This seminar is organized as three interrelated lines of inquiry regarding the alignment
(and misalignment) of policy, governance, and practice:
Inquiry #1: What are the conditions necessary for aligning policy with best and
emerging practice?
Policies are adopted and programs are implemented. Form follows function, or at least it
should. But does it? How often in education, healthcare, and business do we observe a
total disconnect between policy and practice? How often does policy lead practice? Can
well intended policy lead to unintended practice? Do unacceptable practices lead to
unnecessarily restrictive policies? What happens when advances in practice make policy
obsolete or restrictive? How do effective leaders work to understand and effect changes
that realign policy and practice? And perhaps most importantly, what can leaders do to
ensure these realignments push progressive policies that result in most effective practice?
We will use a case study format to support a majority of this inquiry. The cases you will
explore will focus on the topic of school discipline policy and practice. It would be
difficult to argue that all of us will not benefit from expanding our understanding of this
topic as few of us will escape the impact of discipline on our careers as educational
leaders. We will be examining alignment and misalignment of district and site discipline
policies as well as the alignment of disciplinary practices at the site level with those
school and district policies.
Inquiry #2: How is policy put into operation through Professional Development?
Policies can be no greater than our capacity to implement them. Capacity depends on
many things including but not limited to finances, expertise, and will. Expertise depends
on enough people having enough knowledge, skill and a commitment to change practice
in ways that effectively implement policy. Assessing and developing this expertise is a
EDL 755 Governance and Policy 2
major responsibility of educational leaders. As such, we must have knowledge of
ideological and technical issues surrounding the new policies and practices and the skills
and disposition to be able to build the capacities of others. Generally speaking, this falls
under the expectation that we must be capable of facilitating professional development.
New practice will not emerge from new policy without well planned and delivered
professional development, and that fact has implications for each of us leaders.
Inquiry #3: How can educational leader best interact effectively with policy makers?
Another whole area of policy is our ability to effectively respond to, work with and
influence policy makers. Most notably, school board members and elected officials
represent policy makers that will have significant impact on policies and practices you
will have major responsive responsibilities and opinions. Your role as a constituent,
leader and/or employee requires skill and strategy. We must understand how policy is
developed and what influence we can have on that development. In addition, as an
education leader you need to have a working knowledge of school board procedure and
1. Organizational Strategy: Organize strategies to improve the quality of education and promote
the success of all students, while sustaining their institutional mission. The demonstration of this
outcome is based on knowledge of the organizations, their cultures, environments, and future
Learning Indicators:
1.1 Recognize the policy-making role of organizational boards and work effectively with these
boards to advance the mission of the institution or district.
1.2 Develop strategies to create sound and sustainable organizational reform efforts,
1.3 Project changes on the horizon that will affect your governance and leadership in
Pre-K-12 education in years to come.
2. Resource Management: Equitably and ethically sustain people, processes, information, and
assets, to fulfill the mission, vision and goals of their institutions.
Learning Indicators:
2.1 Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation
processes consistent with a college, school or district master plan, the California Master Plan
and local, state and national policies.
2.2 Analyze the historical and current political landscape for school accountability measures in a
variety of arenas including standards implementation, assessment results, budget reporting,
and organizational reform efforts.
4. Communications: Use scrupulous listening, speaking, and writing skills to engage in honest,
open dialogue.
Learning Indicators:
4.1 Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations
among all constituents.
4.2 Communicate clearly and appropriately to internal and external constituencies orally and in
5. Collaboration: Demonstrate the ability to develop responsive, cooperative, mutually
beneficial, and ethically sound internal and external relationships; ones that nurture diversity,
foster student success, and promote the organization’s mission.
Learning Indicators:
5.1 Embrace and support shared governance and the role of trustees, administrators, faculty,
staff and students in institutional governance.
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EDL 755 Governance and Policy
5.2 Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and
goals of PreK-12 education.
5.3 Facilitate shared problem solving and decision-making.
6. Organizational Advocacy: Recognize, commit to and advocate for the mission, vision, and
goals of the organization.
Learning Indicators:
6.1 Represent the educational organization in the local community, in the broader educational
environment, and at various levels of government.
6.2 Investigate the role of mass media and public scrutiny on your leadership and your
decision making
6.3 Assess your role in the policy-making arena and how to navigate the political decision
making arenas.
8. Financial and Legal Forces: Identify the financial and legal forces affecting leadership in PreK-20 Education.
Learning Indicators:
8.1 Evaluate the impact of various legislative initiatives on governance and the roles of
administrators, faculty, staff, and boards in shared governance.
8.9 Compare the structure of governance in larger and smaller school districts including
mayoral control modifications in some urban districts and the impact of charter school
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological
Elmore, R. (1979). Backward mapping: Implementation research and policy decisions.
Political Science Quarterly, 94(4), 601-616. [Posted on BlackBoard]
Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Uline, C. (2013). Common Core English Language Arts in a PLC
at Work, Leaders Guide. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. [Distributed in class]
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2013). Common Core English Language Arts in a PLC at Work,
Grades 9-12. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. [Distributed in class]
Freedberg, L., & Chavez, L. (2012). Understanding school discipline in California:
Perceptions and Practices: Results of a Statewide Survey of California School
Districts. Oakland, CA: EdSource. [Posted on BlackBoard]
Gemberling, K. W., Smith, C. W., & Villani, J. S. (2000). The key work of school boards
guidebook. Alexandria, VA: National School Boards Association. [Posted on
Pickeral, T., Evans, L., Hughes, W. & Hutchison, D. (2009). School Climate Guide for
District Policymakers and Educational Leaders. New York, NY: Center for Social
and Emotional Education. [Posted on BlackBoard]
San Diego Unified School District. (October 2012). Uniform Discipline Plan. San Diego,
CA: Author. [Posted on BlackBoard]
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EDL 755 Governance and Policy
Policy Inquiry #1: What Are The Conditions Necessary For Aligning
Policy With Best And Emerging Practice?
Case study: Backward Policy Analysis of Student Discipline Policies and Site Practices
Leading to Recommendations for Progressive Changes
Essential Questions:
Are State, District and Site discipline polices well aligned?
Do those policies reflect research-based positive and restorative practices?
Are site disciplinary practices aligned with stated policies?
Do site-based practices reflect research-based positive and restorative practices?
What steps can be taken to better align policies and practices?
What steps can be taken to have research-based positive and restorative practices
more represented in policy and practice?
Required Activities
1. Read Education Code, District, and Site Student Discipline Policies.
a. Are they aligned? Explain these findings.
b. Are positive and restorative approaches promoted in these policies?
Explain these findings.
c. Please summarize implications of this backward review.
2. Conduct a review of site disciplinary records.
a. Are site practices aligned with policies? Explain these findings.
b. Are site punitive actions above or below district averages and are they
changing over time?
c. Is there evidence that alternatives to using only punitive actions are being
3. Attend Restorative Practices or Positive Behavioral Supports Workshop.
4. Review two specific disciplinary actions from the office documents.
a. Is there evidence of any positive or restorative practice involved?
5. Review staff development plan and activities.
a. What time has been allocated to the school disciplinary plan?
b. Is there attention and investment in promoting proactive and restorative
Deliverables: Complete an Executive Summary Report (approximately 5
pages) and a 5-slide Power Point Presentation on your Case Study.
1. Answer each of the 6 essential questions listed above. Phrase Question 6 in the
form of recommendations.
2. The Executive Summary should be submitted to instructors no later than May 3.
3. Be prepared to deliver a 10-minute presentation in class on May 3 using your 5slide power point.
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EDL 755 Governance and Policy
Policy Inquiry #2: How is policy put into operation through
Professional Development?
Case study: Lead a professional study group and reflect on the challenges and successes you
I. Rationale: With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards and its initial
implementation this year, educators all over California are eager to better understand the
implications on their practice. Yet in many cases, teachers do not have experience at
closely examining standards for the purposes of linking them to classroom instruction and
formative assessment. The need for such professional development far outstrips available
resources, and many administrators are addressing these needs through the use of
professional learning communities.
II. Activities
You will host a series of professional learning community sessions with a small group of
educators currently enrolled in the Preliminary Administrative Credential program at SDSU.
There are two cohorts (Regional and SDUSD Collaborative). You will select one cohort.
Regional (Tuesdays 6:15-7:15)
HSHMC, 3910 University Ave.
March 11
March 25 (online)
April 8
April 15
April 22
SDUSD (Wednesdays 6:15-7:15)
Mission Bay Professional Development Center,
2475 Grand Ave., Pacific Beach
March 12
March 26 (online)
April 9
April 16
April 23
To prepare you for this work, you will receive two books at our first class meeting:
o Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2013). Common Core English Language Arts in a PLC at
Work, Leaders Guide. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
o Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2013). Common Core English Language Arts in a PLC at
Work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
You do not need to be a content expert in English language arts, or even within the grade band of
educators you will be leading. Rather, the purpose is for you to hone your leadership and
facilitation skills such that you can promote the learning of others. As an educational leader
preparing for work at the district, state, and national levels, you will not be an expert at all things.
Rather, you will be charged with creating environments such that others can learn. To further
prepare you for this work, Nancy will meet with all of you for the first hour of your February 22,
2014 class with Dr. James-Ward. Please bring your books with you to this meeting.
III. Deliverables: Complete a professional development log detailing your planning,
implementation, and reflections of these 5 PLC sessions using the PLC worksheet
(posted on BlackBoard) and a reflection on the process (2-3 pages, double-spaced,
Times New Roman 12 pt. font).
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EDL 755 Governance and Policy 6
1. Complete logs for each of the five sessions. These should be completed
during the PLC process, and not after all the sessions have been completed. The
purpose of recording your thoughts on these logs is to assist you with planning. As
such, they do not need to be elaborate or polished.
2. When the PLC cycle is complete, reflect on the overall successes and challenges of
leading a PLC. Consider your role as a facilitator, and how your leadership style
contributed or detracted from the goals you identified. Finally, consider the skills
needed to lead professional development. How will you continue to develop your
skill set?
3. Submit the completed logs and your reflection by May 3, 2014.
Policy Inquiry 3: How Can Educational Leaders Best Interact
Effectively With Policy Makers?
Another important area of policy concerns our ability to effectively respond to, work with, and
influence policy makers. Most notably, school board members and elected officials represent
policy makers that will have significant impact on the policies you will enact. Your role as a
constituent, leader and/or employee requires skill and strategy. We must understand how policy
is developed and what influence we can have on that development. In addition, as an education
leader you need to have a working knowledge of school board procedure and structure.
1. Read The Key Work of School Boards Guidebook (Gemberling, Smith, & Villani, 2000)
which is posted on the course BlackBoard site in the Course Documents folder.
2. Attend class on March 19, 2014. In class, we will examine key strategies lobbyists use
to influence policy makers. Why would we do this? It is because you are an expert in
educational practices and key policy makers can benefit from your expertise. You must
be an advocate for programs and services, and garner the publicity and resources you
need to promote effective practices and eliminate unacceptable ones. In the case of
interactions with legislators, you are an informed constituent and there will be times
when significant opportunities and challenging circumstances will be best handled
through well-established relationships. As well, in the case of interactions with Board
members, they are your employers. Finally, we examine these key strategies because
these they also describe a generic skill set that will facilitate your effectiveness
communicating with the public and with your school partners.
3. Field work assignment. At the heart of the “lobbyist strategies” we will discuss the
notion of proactively establishing key contacts and relationships before you may need
to rely on them. Key to building those relationships is by locating common ground, i.e.,
beliefs or support for initiatives that you share.
To that end, the field component of this inquiry is to hold a meeting with a strategically chosen
board member or legislator. It could be a hosted visit to show off your school or a coffee to
introduce yourself and learn more about his or her major educational priorities. Simply said, it's a
“get to know” meeting. The invitation script could be as simple as, “I am an administrator at….
or I am one of your constituents… and I am also a doctoral student in the Educational
Leadership program at SDSU. I want to [invite you to/ schedule a time with you] so I can
introduce myself, share my professional goals and learn more about your educational priorities. I
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EDL 755 Governance and Policy 7
am interested in meeting with you because I am impressed with the work (or public
statements) you have made regarding…” This last item would be based on pre-contact work you
have done to find out something about this policy maker. In the case of a legislator, you may end
up meeting with an aide, which is fine. Some of you may find this activity actually leads to some
new EDL 760 ideas. If you are contacting a board member, make sure you follow district
protocol for informing your immediate supervisor of your intentions.
A reflection paper for this experience is due on May 3, 2014. This 4-5 page paper (doublespaced, Times New Roman 12-font)
must include:
1. An explanation and rationale regarding the policymaker you selected.
2. What preparation did you do prior to contact?
3. What was your method of setting up the contact and the nature of the interaction?
4. Describe the actual encounter in detail, including your purposes for meeting with him
or her, and the extent to which your purposes were met.
5. Reflect on the interaction. In what ways were your initial perceptions about the
policymaker’s work confirmed and/or disconfirmed? How will you follow up with
him or her? What are or next steps in building this relationship, if any?
6. Summary of your thoughts.
Students are expected to attend all classes and actively participate in class discussions in
a manner that deepens the learning experience for all the class members. Students are
expected to complete assignments in a timely manner, striving for consistency in the
quality of their ideas and their writing.
Students will be expected to engage in self-reflection and provide meaningful input
related to their ability to demonstrate competency in meeting course outcomes.
Grading Scale
93 % - 100 % = A
87 % - 89 % = B+
80 % - 82 % = B73 % - 76 % = C
90 % - 92 % = A83 % - 86 % = B
77 % - 79 % = C + 70 % -72 % = CDisability
It is the policy of SDSU to make reasonable accommodations for qualified students with
disabilities, in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). If a student
with disabilities needs accommodations, the student must notify the Director of Student
Disability Services. Procedures for documenting student disability and the development
of reasonable accommodations will be provided to the student upon request. Students will
be notified by the Director of Student Disability Services when each request for
accommodation is approved or denied in writing via a designated form. To receive
accommodation in class, it is the student’s responsibility to present the form (at his or her
discretion) to the instructor. In an effort to protect student privacy, the Department of
Student Disability Services will not discuss the accommodation needs of any student with
instructors. Faculty may not make accommodations for individuals who have not been
approved in this manner.
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EDL 755 Governance and Policy
Students may be suspended, placed on probation, or given a lesser sanction for one or
more of the following causes which must be campus-related:
(a) Cheating or plagiarism in connection with an academic program at a campus.
(b) Forgery, alteration, or misuse of campus documents, records, or identification.
Absence for Religious Observances
It is the responsibility of the student to notify the instructor within one week of the
beginning of the course about any religious holidays that will require an excused
absence. Instructors shall reasonably accommodate students who notify them in advance
of planned absences for religious observances.
Field Trips and Liability Coverage
Should this course require students to participate in field trips, research or studies that
include course work that will be performed off-campus, it is important to note that
participation in such activities may result in accidents or personal injury. Student
participating in the event are aware of these risks, and agree to hold harmless San Diego
State University, the State of California, the Trustees of the California State University
and Colleges and its officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, suits,
judgments, expenses and costs of any kind on account of their participation in the
activities. Student using their own vehicles to transport other students to such activities
should have the current automobile insurance.
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EDL 755 Governance and Policy
All EDL 755 class meetings will be held at Health Sciences High and Middle College,
3910 University Ave., San Diego, CA 92105. In addition, Tuesday evening book club
meetings are held at HSHMC. Wednesday evening book club meetings are at the
Mission Bay Professional Development Center, 2475 Grand Ave., in Pacific Beach.
8:00 AM-12:00 PM
Class Topics
Inquiry #1: What Are The
Conditions Necessary For
Aligning Policy With Best And
Emerging Practice?
Read and Study BEFORE
Elmore, 1979
SDUSD Uniform Discipline
California Ed Code sections
48900-48910 (posted on
8:30-9:30 AM
(Start of Dr.
8:00 AM-12:00 PM
8:00 AM-1:00 PM
Class and
celebration lunch
Preparing for Inquiry #2
(book clubs)
Bring books to class
Inquiry #2:
How is policy put into
operation through
Professional Development?
Read and Study AFTER
Freedburg & Chavez (2012)
Pickeral, et al., (2009)
Read and Study BEFORE
Fisher, Frey, & Uline (2013)
Leader’s Guide
Read and Study BEFORE
Fisher & Frey (2013) Gradeband specific book
Inquiry #3:
Gemberling et al., (2000)
How Can Educational Leaders Best
Interact Effectively With
Policy Makers?
In-class presentations and
DUE 5/3/14
discussion of the three
Inquiry 1 deliverables:
 Executive summary
discipline report
 In-class presentation of
the summary report
Inquiry 2 deliverables:
 5 PLC logs
 Reflection paper
Inquiry 3 deliverables:
 Policy maker interview
and reflection
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