Oral Language Development for Young Dual Language Learners And Its Impact on Literacy Development Barbara Zurer Pearson, Ph.D. University of Massachusetts, Amherst Westfield State College June 12, 2010 S Workshop: Closing the Early Literacy Gap: Strategies for Action and Reflection on Current Practices for Literacy Development (Birth to 8) Barbara Zurer Pearson [email protected] www.zurer.com/pearson Sponsored by: MA Department of Early Education and Care (EEC) MA Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) Pioneer Valley Readiness Center with EEC’s Coordinated Family and Community Engagement programs Massachusetts Head Start Assoc. Head Start State Collaboration Office Dual Language Learner (DLL) Focus on Relationship between Oral and Literate Language S What are you hoping to learn today? Strategies: Exchange ideas on “what to do on Monday” Reflection: Providing evidence base for “evidence-based practice” (what make evidence useful? Or less useful?) Three themes for today 1. Oral and Literate Language 2. Dual Language Learners 3. Research into Practice My relevant background S MS TESOL S Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics (language acquisition) S Coordinator UMiami Bilingualism Study Group S BSG: Longitudinal study of 24 BL-learning infants, 3 mos to 3 years S Cross-sectional study of 1,000 children in 10 elementary schools at K, 2nd, and 5th grades—ORAL and LITERATE Language, narrative (published in 2002, Oller & Eilers, Eds.) My relevant background - 2 S Dissertation advisor, “Discourse analysis of children’s language in small group settings in preschool” S Peer reviewer for several journals, incl. “Early Education and Development” S (Associate Director Composition program UMiami) S Project Manager for development of language test for African American English speakers, published in 2005 by Harcourt/ Assessment issues in bilinguals as well Mixed Audience S Not “one-size-fits-all” (aka “fits-none”) S Rather, smorgasbord—(I hope) to have something for everyone. (which I may leave to the end, but ask them when they occur—or write on your card). S Please stop me to ask questions The Gap: How early do we see it? Not babbling. Not first words. By about 18 months. S Measurable differences emerge In vocabulary S In processing (Hart & Risley, 1995) S Ann Fernald, “looking while listening.” S Follow/track child’s eyes S Janet Werker, Chris Fennell S First “notice” minimal pairs for novel words (17 vs.20 mos) Theme 1: Oral and Literate Language S CONTINUUM w/ Two dimensions (E. Finnegan, Language, 1994) LITERATE (written) FORMAL/ de-contextual INFORMAL (in context) ORAL CONTINUUM w/ Two dimensions LITERATE (written) literature email comics letters Legal documents FORMAL/ de-contextual INFORMAL (in context) conversation speeches ORAL Characteristics of literate language S Longer words S 1st and 2nd person pronouns S Longer sentences S Contractions S Lots of adjectives S Demonstratives (this, that) S 3rd person pronouns S Emphatics S Abstract language S Wh-questions Start with “transcribing talk.” Which genres can be used to scaffold which other ones? Snow et al. (1990) Oral narrative the bridge into literacy. Rhymes / chants / Mother Goose Danling Fu (2003) An Island of English Use drawing integrated with writing Early writing incorporate L1—they write it, not you. Theme 2: Studies of Bilinguals Dual Language Learners As different from each other as they are from monolinguals. S DLL Glossary S Simultaneous S Sequential Code-switching Critical (sensitive) period S L1/ L2 S Dominant language Heritage language speaker S Balanced bilingual Communicative competence S Interdependent/ independent BICS/ CALPS S Passive bilingual Formulaic speech Research on Bilinguals (DLL) 1. Large study of “language and literacy in bilingual children” (LLBC) 2. Dissertation on child and teacher talk in preschool settings 3. Cross-cultural ethnography (Korean & U.S. preK teachers) Take-home messages S Short-term versus long-term (K versus 5/ Collier & Thomas) S Oral language independent (within languages) vs. literacy interdependent (across languages) S “Profile effect”—relationships between vocabulary and literacy skills are different for children learning more than one language than for those learning only one language S Distributed characteristics S Conceptual vocabulary Take-home messages – 2 S Talking AND LISTENING to a child makes a measurable difference in quality and quantity of speech from the child S Children’s most mature sentences were in their personal narratives. S (use non-fiction as well as fiction/ narrative versus exposition/ information texts, from Korean study) Bilingualism Study Group / University of Miami S Infant Study 25 babies 3 months to 3 years, S Language & Literacy (LLBC) 960 children 5-11 D. K. Oller Vivian Umbel Ana Navarro Rebecca Eilers Rebecca Burns* Sylvia Fernandez Maria Fernandez Alan Cobo-Lewis Virginia Gathercole Barbara Zurer Pearson NICHD 5R01 HD30762 to D.K. Oller & R. E. Eilers NIDCD Bilingualism Supplement to Longitudinal Infant Vocalizations Project Nested factorial (@ 3 grades) (Core Design-LLBC, Oller & Eilers, 2002) Monolinguals Bilinguals Only Spanish Home Lang: English & Spanish School:1-way SES: Hi Lo Hi Lo 2-way Hi Lo 1-way Hi Lo 2-way Hi Lo SES (Replicated at Kindergarten, 2nd and 5th Grades) Measures—in English & Spanish S 9 Standardized (sub)Tests S Woodcock Johnson & Woodcock Munoz (picture vocabulary, oral vocab, analogies, letter-word, word attack, passage comprehension, proofing, dictation) S PPVT/ TVIP S 3 Probe studies S Narrative, Grammatical judgments, Phonological translation Short-term versus long-term studies PPVT Scores by Grade 110 Score 100 90 ML BL 80 70 60 K 2nd 5th From LLBC, 2002 Interdependence versus independence of two languages of DLL S Can one language be used to scaffold the other? S Can one language be a foundation for learning in the other? Factor Analysis of Bilinguals’ English (blue) & Spanish (orange) Data Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 –.01 Word Attack .82 .71 Letter–Word Rdg Comp .79 .64 .82 .61 .35 .25 .37 .28 Proofing Dictation Picture Vocab .70 .61 .66 .70 .32 .34 .48 .40 .80 –.05 –.00 .78 .69 .74 .74 .61 .78 .72 Analogies Oral Vocab PPVT .38 Inter-dependence - 2 S (in fact, children who learned to read in both English and Spanish outperformed those who learned to read only in English) Profile Effect Relationships between vocabulary and other language skills are different for children learning more than one language than for those learning only one language S Makes the wrong “prediction.” S Low vocabulary score in monolingual child— S Processing problem? S Inability to learn at same pace as peers S Low vocabulary score in bilingual child— S Lack of exposure, not poor processing S (plus it’s “distributed” across languages) —Vocabulary weakest in general Proofreading Scores by Grade 110 110 100 100 90 ML BL 80 70 Score Score PPVT Scores by Grade 90 80 70 60 K 2nd 5th From LLBC, 2002 60 K i.e. other skills NOT weak 2nd 5th Why might vocabulary be weak? S Depends on quantity of input (and as we’ll see later, also the quality). S Single language measure is inadequate. S Looks at only a part of what the child knows; compares it (through standardized score) to the totality of the monolingual child’s vocabulary Why might vocabulary be weak? S Distributed Characteristic Some vocabulary in one language and not the other S Total Conceptual Vocabulary – “how many things or actions can the child name?” A reasonable sign of language capacity more generally Generally know some words in one language only. S Miami Infant Study (1/25) S Doublet studies S Infants about 30%, S K 50%, S 1st 60+% S College 90% S Most BLs’ vocabulary is “distributed” (in both languages) S Even 2 tests, don’t give the full picture Vocabulary is not just numbers. S It’s organization, too. S Antonyms, synonyms, category relationships (a rose is a flower, a flower is a plant, etc.) S (We found these not to be a problem for BLs, even with somewhat lower vocabulary.) Make the wrong predictions for BLs •(Pearson, 1993) •Lower SAT “predicts” equal success in coursework after 4 semesters Research on Talking with children: Children need adult language modeling •Children need lots of opportunities to practice talking--doing “co-constructing” stories and conversations Requires a balance S Do you know how much time children get to talk? “Observational Experiment” S Experiment done by Gathercole S Children in Scottish preschool; S 3 sets of 4 children recorded in 2 situations with 4 different teachers. Burns-Hoffman, 1992 Teacher-Child Proportion of Talk (words/minute) 160 Average Words 140 120 100 TeacherW ords 80 ChildW ords 60 40 20 0 T1 T2 T3 T4 Burns, 1992 Child-Teacher Proportion of Talk (adult words x 10) Av. Words per Hour 900 TeacherWords 750 ChildWords 600 450 300 150 ChildWords 0 T1 T2 TeacherWords T3 T4 Clearest message? S Teachers 1 & 2: TALK LESS S Teacher 4: TALK MORE S Teacher 3: Tell us your secret! The Secret: Children’s Personal Stories S Children told more personal stories with Teacher #3 S With all teachers children used their most complex language when telling personal stories Another language secret: stop quizzing Children did the least amount of talking with teachers who did the most amount of quizzing. Quizzing is not warm, nurturing communication. Issues of Quality (from Hart & Risley, 1995) Positive versus Negatives Responses versus Initiations* *questions versus commands looks the same PRACTICE What are the “take-away” messages? S How to keep kids from talking?? S (NOT TELLING THEM NOT TO--THAT USUALLY DOESN’T WORK) S RESPONDING NEGATIVELY S CORRECTING FORM S CONSTANTLY DISAGREEING S MAKING FUN DON’T DO THESE! How do you get more language from preschoolers? No DRILLS! What does it mean to “teach” preschoolers language? S What do you want? S How do you get it? WHAT KIND of LANGUAGE ARE YOU LOOKING FOR? Specific Complex Less about here and now More about there and then S SPECIFIC HERE AND NOW: --> PICK UP THE TRUCK --> PICK UP THE BLUE TRUCK THE TRUCK WITH THE BIG TIRES THE TRUCK YOU PLAYED WITH YESTERDAY COMPLEX (MORE THAN ONE SENTENCE --OR VERB-- AT A TIME But not just strung together “and then and then and then”) I WANT IT --> I WANNA GO I WANT YOU TO GO. COMPLEX (2) (MORE THAN ONE SENTENCE --OR VERB-- AT A TIME) QUOTATION HE SAID, “BOO.” HE SAID, “I’M GOING” --> HE SAID HE WAS GOING. SHE SAID, “I’M A PRINCESS.” --> SHE SAID SHE WAS A PRINCESS. Hazel…. COMPLEX (3) (MORE THAN ONE FUNCTION AT A TIME) WHO FOUND THE CHEESE? WHO FOUND THE BREAD? JOHN MARY WHO FOUND WHAT? (from DELV) WHO FOUND WHAT? MARY, JOHN, CHEESE, BREAD JOHN -- CHEESE MARY -- BREAD SOME 4’S AND MANY 5’S CAN DO THIS. COMPLEX(4) -4 SCOMPLEX TALK ABOUT WHAT OTHERS ARE THINKING TAKING THE PERSPECTIVE OF ANOTHER And fitting it into your language “THEORY OF MIND” (OF OTHER MINDS) BUILD TALK ABOUT HERE AND NOW S WHAT’S THAT YOU ARE DOING? S TELL ME ABOUT THIS. S WHAT IS THIS PERSON DOING? S WHAT IS THIS PERSON THINKING? MOVE IT TO YESTERDAY S (TALK MONDAY ABOUT MONDAY) S TALK TUESDAY ABOUT MONDAY: S WHAT DID WE DO? S HOW DID IT GO? S WHERE WERE WE? MOVE IT TO TOMORROW S (TALK TUESDAY ABOUT TUESDAY) S TALK TUESDAY ABOUT WEDNESDAY: S WHAT WILL WE DO? S HOW WILL IT GO? NOW THERE IS NO LIMIT TO WHAT THEY CAN SAY TALK ABOUT THE PAST TALK ABOUT THE FUTURE TALK ABOUT MAKE BELIEVE TALK ABOUT WHAT MIGHT BE EASIEST WAY TO GET TO “THERE AND THEN” SBOOKS WHY NOT TV AND VIDEO? INTERACTION ENCOURAGES CHILD’S OWN STORY The role of media in language development S Media don’t replace INTERACTION S “Motive and opportunity” S Interaction provides opportunity S Media contribute to motivation (at this age) Cf BOOKS—lots of dialogic reading at this conference SO, YOU WANT COMPLEX, SPECIFIC TALK ABOUT DISTANT THINGS WHERE YOU HAVE TO KNOW WHAT OTHER PEOPLE KNOW (OR DON’T KNOW) Describe, Reflect, Anticipate S Main Take-home message for Language Strategies S Listen S Build from the child S (Respond responsively) S Expand the child’s utterance S Recast, don’t correct S Repetition, repetition, repetition Best Practices Meaningful Language Interaction S Language is the Key: S Follow the CAR S Follow the child’s lead S Comment and wait S Ask questions and wait S Respond by adding a little more and wait Contact Lora Heulitt at the National Head Start Family Literacy Center for more information. [email protected] Suggested Publications S Barbara’s website: www.zurer.com/pearson/bilingualchild S Pearson, B. Z. Raising a BL Child S Patton Tabors, One Child, Two Languages S WestEd article, in Concepts of Care,* (also en español) S Danling Fu, An Island of English (2003) S B. Hart & T. Risley, Meaningful Differences (1995) Professional development ideas S Research tells us that our ability to follow children’s different conversational threads has the greatest impact on child language development. S In group care, we are always attuned to all the members of our group. Without training and coaching, we are likely to cut short many critical opportunities for one-on-one conversations with individual children. Building Language Awareness S “How much do I talk with my co-teachers during the day?” S Does most of my talk involve the children (a characteristic of quality care settings) S “How much do I talk during activities?” S How long can I keep a conversation going with a single child? Building Language Awareness Recognizing Different TYPES of Talk Management Task accompaniment (selftalk) Personal stories Expository talk (like a book) (Quizzing) Identify which languages you are using For which purposes S S S Which language am I using? Which language(s) do the children need? S Recommend a combination of self-assessment through record-review as well as feedback notes from an outside observer. S Identify the kinds of talk they are using during different activities. Language awareness is the key: S Don’t let opportunities to respond slip away S And create other opportunities to respond A young friend from RCMA in Immokalee FL…Photographer T. Hoffman Bilingual First Language Acquisition Two languages from birth. Balanced (often) Independent of each other? (maybe) From Raising a Bilingual Child, Pearson, 2008 Even 2 languages learned from birth can be unequal. Depends on type and amount of exposure. SLA : Start to learn one first; then add the second early How independent? late(r) How balanced? An L2 can overtake an L1. And often does.