Managing Work Flow and Job Design: Org., Team, &

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Chapter 2
Managing Work
Flow and Job
Design: Org.,
Team, &
Individual levels
of analysis
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Work: The Organizational Perspective
Designing the Organization:
Bureaucratic Organizations [Hierarchies]
Flat Organizations
Boundaryless Organizations
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Bureaucratic Organizations
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Flatter Organizations
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Boundaryless Organizations
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Other Emerging Org. Forms
Organized around needs of a particular
customer or developer group
 Virtual organization [temporary alliance
of global contractors to design specific
products or solve specific needs]
 More later on virtual teams

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Work: The Group Perspective
Teams:
 Small group of people with
complementary skill sets who work
together to solve problems or
achieve goals
 Vital in flat/boundaryless orgs
 Foundation of HPWSs [more later]
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Work: The Group Perspective
Types of Teams:
 Self-Managed Teams (usually production
oriented; members usually cross-trained)
 Problem-Solving Teams
(usually
temporary teams; often comprised of volunteers)
 Special-Purpose Teams
(e.g., task force;
examine complex issues, recommend actions)
 Virtual Teams (e.g., global; may work 24/7)
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Work: The Individual Perspective
Performance = Motivation * Ability
Motivation:
 Energizes, sustains, directs human behavior
 If Motivation = 0, Performance = 0
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Motivation
 Two-Factor Theory [now largely debunked]
 Motivators―responsibility, achievement
 Hygiene factors―working conditions, pay

Work Adjustment Theory
[too obvious?]
 Maximize fit between employee needs
and abilities and the job [duh?! ]

Goal-Setting Theory!
 Challenging [hard but attainable] goals
better than “do your best” or no goals
 Example [in class]
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Job Characteristics Theory
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Historical Approaches to Job Design
 Work Simplification [Frederick Taylor]
 Job Enlargement (horizontal loading)
 Job Enrichment (vertical loading)
 Job Rotation (variety)
 Human Relations Movement & JCT
[previous slide]
 Team-Based Job Design
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Multi-disciplinary Approach



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Mechanistic
Motivational
Biological
Perceptual motor
Others?
[see supporting materials presented in class]
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High-Performance Work Systems [HPWSs]
Emerging research investigates efficacy of High
Performance Work Systems [HPWSs] or High
Involvement Work Systems [HIWSs] that:
Provide organizational structure to facilitate
effective use of teams, exchange of information
Maintain dynamic capabilities to allow ongoing
structural adaptation/skill development as needed
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The Flexible Workforce


Core Workers
Contingent Workers





Temporary Employees
Part-Time Employees
Contract Workers
College Interns
Outsourcing/Subcontracting
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Outsourcing and Offshoring
Advantages
1.
2.
3.
Provide betterquality people with
most current skills
Cost savings with
economies of scale
or lower pay abroad
Preserve structure
while spinning off
labor units
Disadvantages
1.
2.
Could lose control of
important activities,
particularly during
volatile world politics
May lose opportunity
to gain knowledge
and information
helpful to company
processes
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Emerging Trends: Flexible Schedules
 Flexible Work Hours

Compressed Workweeks
 Four 10-hr days or four 12-hr days
[tough in CA due to overtime laws; more
to follow in Compensation module!  ]
Telecommuting [c/b used in disability
accommodation w/ leave if job permits]
 Case 3, text, p. 80

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Emerging Trends: HR Info Systems



Legacy HRIS
Applications
HRIS Security,
BYOD & Privacy
HRIS Analytics
[Bus 152]
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