# Concepts of Physics Mr. Kuffer 1 ```Concepts of Physics
Mr. Kuffer
1
Mr. K&uuml;ffer’s
Guide to Problem Solving…
Just Guesss!
Given
-
Identify given information
Unknown
-
Identify unknown information… What is the problem asking you to
solve?
Equation
-
Select the appropriate equation
Substitute
-
Substitute the given information into the equation
Solve
-
Solve the problem!
Stupid Step
-
Put a square around your final answer to separate it from the rest of
2
Purpose:
To create graphs in order to estimate and predict values (mass).
Procedure:
1. Measure the length of three wires to the smallest increment of
2. Measure the mass of only the longest and shortest wires.
3. Make a graph of mass (vertical) versus length (horizontal). Include
units on the graph.
4. Use the graph to predict the mass of the middle wire.
Observations and Data:
1. Does your graph of wire mass versus length pass through the
origin?
2. Should it? Why or why not?
3. Calculate the slope of the graph, including the units.
4. Explain the significance of determining the slope (a.k.a. What does
the slope tell us?)
Applications:
1. In the pharmaceutical industry, how might the weight of the
compressed tablets be used to determine the quantity of finished
tablets produced in a specific lot?
3
Concepts of Physics
Mr. Kuffer
Graphical Analysis with Excel
(Refer to Visualizing Data Packet as a supplemental)
1)
2)
What are the two (main) types of relationships that we will discuss this
year in Concepts of Physics?
During an experiment, a student measured the mass of 10.0 cm3 of
alcohol. The student then measured the mass of 20.0 cm3 of alcohol. In
this way the data in the table below was collected.
a. Plot a graph of the data, including a best-fit line.
b. Describe the resulting curve.
c. Use the graph to write a three variable equation for the volume to
the mass of alcohol.
d. Find the units of the slope of the graph. What is the name given to
this quantity?
e. What would the mass of 35 cm3 of alcohol be? (interpolate, step 17)
f. A mass for 60 cm3 of alcohol be? (extrapolate, step 23)
Volume (cm3)
10
20
30
40
50
Mass (g)
7.9
15.8
23.7
31.6
39.6
FYI: VOCAB:
1. DEPENDENT VARIABLE – the variable that may change as a result of
changes purposely made in independent variable. (Plotted on the vertical
axis)
2. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (manipulated variable) – the variable that is
changed on purpose by the experimenter. (Plotted on the horizontal axis)
4
3)
During a class demonstration, Mr. Kuffer placed a 1.0 kg mass on a
horizontal table that was nearly frictionless. Mr. Kuffer then applied
various horizontal forces to the mass and measured the rate at which it
gained speed (was accelerated) from each force applied. The results of
the experiment are shown below.
a. Plot a graph of the data, including a best-fit line.
b. Describe the relationship between force and acceleration according
to the graph.
c. Use the graph to write an equation relating force and acceleration
(Hint: Newton’s 2nd Law… F = ma).
d. Find the units of the slope of the graph.
Acceleration (m/s2)
4.9
9.8
15.2
20.1
25.0
29.9
4)
Force (N)
5
10
15
20
25
30
This time Mr. Kuffer changes the procedure a bit. The mass was varied
while the force was kept constant. The acceleration of each mass was
recorded. The results of the experiment are shown below.
a. Plot a graph of the data, including a best-fit line for the curve.
b. Describe the resulting curve.
c. According to the graph, what is the relationship between mass and
the acceleration produced by a constant force?
d. Find the units of the slope of the graph.
Mass (kg)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Acceleration (m/s2)
12.0
5.9
4.1
3.0
2.5
2.0
5
6
7
8
9
Graphical Analysis Rules:
What does it all mean?
 Identify the graph
 Identify the slope (+ / -)
 Is the line straight?
 Must be constant
 Is the line curved?
 Must be changing
 Is it increasing or decreasing?
Using the rules above, write a complete description of the motion indicated
by each graph below. (SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER)
A
B
d
C
d
D
d
d
t
t
F
d
t
t
G
d
t
H
d
d
t
E
t
t
10
Visualizing Data Lab
Ticker Timer w/ Power Point
Objective:
•
•
•
Graph the relationship between dependent and independent variables
Recognize linear and direct relationships
Interpret the slope of a curve
Procedure:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set up track on level surface (lab table)
tape ticker timer to dynamics cart track
run strip of paper through ticker time (be sure the timer is off)
tape paper to dynamics cart
turn ticker time to “on” position
gently push dynamics cart away from timer
Plot distance vs time graph
–
every six data points equals one tenth of a second
label graphs accordingly
draw a best fit line through the points
interpret line
11
HW #1
Plotting Line Graphs
1. Identify the independent and dependent variables in your data. The
independent variable is plotted on the horizontal axis, or x-axis. The
dependent variable is plotted on the vertical axis, or y-axis.
2. Determine the range of the independent variable to be plotted.
3. Decide whether the origin (0,0) is a valid data point
4. Spread the data out as much as possible. Let each division on the graph
paper stand for a convenient unit.
5. Number and label the horizontal axis.
6. Repeat steps 2-5 for the dependent variable.
7. Plot the data points on the graph.
8. Draw a “best-fit” straight line or smooth curve that passes through as many
data points as possible. Do not use a series of straight line segments that
“connect the dots”
9. Give the graph a title that clearly tells what the graph represents.
Graph the Following
Graph on Excel!
Data Set #1
distance (m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Data Set # 2
time (s)
1
4
9
16
25
36
49
64
81
speed (m/s)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
time (s)
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
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Graph Matching
One of the most effective methods of describing motion is to plot graphs of position,
velocity, and acceleration vs. time. From such a graphical representation, it is possible to
determine in what direction an object is going, how fast it is moving, how far it traveled,
and whether it is speeding up or slowing down. In this experiment, you will use a Motion
Detector to determine this information by plotting a real time graph of your motion as
you move across the classroom.
The Motion Detector measures the time it takes for a high frequency sound pulse to travel
from the detector to an object and back. Using this round-trip time and the speed of
sound, you can determine the position to the object. Logger Pro will perform this
calculation for you. It can then use the change in position to calculate the object’s
velocity and acceleration. All of this information can be displayed either as a table or a
understanding of the concepts of kinematics.
walk back and forth
in front of
Motion Detector
OBJECTIVES

Analyze the motion of a student walking across the room.
 Predict, DESCRIBE, sketch, and test position vs. time kinematics graphs.
 Predict, DESCRIBE, sketch, and test velocity vs. time kinematics graphs.
MATERIALS
computer
Vernier computer interface
Logger Pro
Vernier Motion Detector
meter stick
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PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS
1. Use a coordinate system with the origin at far left and positive positions increasing to
the right. Sketch the position vs. time graph for each of the following situations:
a)
b)
c)
d)
An object at rest
An object moving in the positive direction with a constant speed
An object moving in the negative direction with a constant speed
An object that is gradually accelerating in the positive direction, starting from rest
2. Sketch the velocity vs. time graph for each of the situations described above.
PROCEDURE
Part l Preliminary Experiments
1. Connect the Motion Detector to the DIG/SONIC 1 channel of the interface.
2. Place the Motion Detector so that it points toward an open space at least 4 m long.
Use short strips of masking tape on the floor to mark the 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m
positions from the Motion Detector.
3. Open the file “01a Graph Matching” from the Physics with Computers folder.
4. Using Logger Pro, produce a graph of your motion when you walk away from the
detector with constant velocity. To do this, stand about 1 m from the Motion Detector
and have your lab partner click
. Walk slowly away from the Motion Detector
when you hear it begin to click.
5. Sketch what the position vs. time graph will look like if you walk faster. Check your
prediction with the Motion Detector.
6. Try to match the shape of the position vs. time graphs that you sketched in the
Preliminary Questions section by walking in front of the Motion Detector.
Part Il Position vs. Time Graph Matching
7. Open the experiment file “01b Graph Matching.” A position vs. time graph will
appear.
8. Write a complete description of how you would walk to produce this target graph.
Do this in your lab notebook.
9. To test your prediction, choose a starting position and stand at that point. Start data
collection by clicking
. When you hear the Motion Detector begin to click,
walk in such a way that the graph of your motion matches the target graph on the
computer screen.
10. If you were not successful, repeat the process until your motion closely matches the
graph on the screen. Sketch your graph, including all significant data points.
11. Open the experiment file “01c Graph Matching” and repeat Steps 8 – 10, using a
new target graph.
12. Answer the Analysis questions for Part II before proceeding to Part III.
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Part IIl Velocity vs. Time Graph Matching
13. Open the experiment file “01d Graph Matching.” A velocity vs. time graph will
appear.
14. Describe how you would walk to produce this target graph. (written explanation
should be included in your lab notebook)
15. To test your prediction, choose a starting position and stand at that point. Start by
clicking
. When you hear the Motion Detector begin to click, walk in such a
way that the graph of your motion matches the target graph on the screen. It will be
more difficult to match the velocity graph than it was for the position graph.
16. Open the experiment file “01e Graph Matching.” Repeat Steps 14 – 15 to match
this graph. (Again sketch your graph)
17. Remove the masking tape strips from the floor.
ANALYSIS – (ANSWER ALL QUESTION IN LAB NOTEBOOK)
Part II Position vs. Time Graph Matching
1. Describe how you walked for each of the graphs that you matched. (You should
2. Explain the significance of the slope of a position vs. time graph. Include a
discussion of positive and negative slope.
3. What type of motion is occurring when the slope of a position vs. time graph is zero?
4. What type of motion is occurring when the slope of a position vs. time graph is
constant?
5. What type of motion is occurring when the slope of a position vs. time graph is
Part III Velocity vs. Time Graph Matching
7. Describe how you walked for each of the graphs that you matched.
8. Using the velocity vs. time graphs, sketch the position vs. time graph for each of the
graphs that you matched. In Logger Pro, switch to a position vs. time graph to
check your answer. Do this by clicking on the y-axis and selecting Position. What
does the area under a velocity vs. time graph represent? (You may have trouble with
this question, do the best you can to answer it. We will discuss it further after the lab.)
10. What type of motion is occurring when the slope of a velocity vs. time graph is zero?
11. What type of motion is occurring when the slope of a velocity vs. time graph is not
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HW #2
CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS
Name___________________
Motion Graphs
Period_________
The following questions pertain to
Graph #1.
1. Describe what is happening in each segment.
A
B
C
D
E
2. What is the velocity in segment B?
3. What is the velocity in segment D?
4. Where does the object end up with respect to the origin?
5.
The following questions pertain to
Graph #2.
1. Describe what is happening in each segment.
A
B
C
D
E
F
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Where does the object start out?
What is the acceleration in segment A?
How far does the object travel in segment B?
What is the acceleration in segment C?
How far did the object travel in segment D?
What is the acceleration in segment E?
How far did the object travel in segment F?
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HW #2
The following questions pertain to Graph #3.
1. Describe what is happening in each segment.
A
B
C
D
E
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the acceleration in segment A?
What is the acceleration in segment C?
What is the acceleration in segment E?
If the object started 5 m behind the origin, where did it end up after 36
seconds? *******
The following questions pertain to Graph #4.
1. Describe what is happening in each segment.
A
B
C
D
E
F
2.
3.
4.
5.
How far does the object travel in segment A?
What was the acceleration in segment B?
What was the acceleration in segment D?
What was the acceleration in segment F?
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HW #2
Graph # 1
Distance (m)
20
C
15
B
D
10
E
A
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
Time (s)
Graph # 2
Velocity (m/s)
20
B
15
F
E
C
10
A
5
D
0
0
10
20
30
40
Time (s)
18
HW #2
GRAPH # 3
VELOCITY (M/S)
25
20
A
D
C
15
E
10
B
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
TIME (S)
GRAPH # 4
DISTANCE (M)
14
12
10
A
E
D
8
F
6
4
B
C
2
0
0
10
20
30
40
TIME (S)
19
20
21
STUDY GUIDE
WRITE A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE MOTION GIVEN IN EACH
GRAPH AND ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS. (SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER)
Distance vs Time
10
Distance (m)
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
-5
-10
-15
Time (s)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What is the velocity of segment A?
What is the velocity of segment B?
What is the velocity of segment C?
What is the velocity of segment D?
What is the velocity of segment E?
What is the velocity of segment F?
What is the velocity of segment G?
At the end of the trip, where does the object end up?
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Velocity (m/s)
Velocity vs Time
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2 0
-4
-6
-8
-10
10
20
30
40
Time(s)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What is the acceleration in segment A?
What is the acceleration in segment B?
Where does the object start out?
What is the acceleration in segment D?
How far does the object travel in segment E?
What is the acceleration in segment F?
How far does the object travel in segment G?
If the object started out 4.5m beyond the origin, where did it end up?
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Understanding Motion Graphs
24
9. The total distance a lab cart travels during specified lengths of time
is given in the following data table.
Time (s)
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Distance (m)
0.00
0.32
0.60
0.95
1.18
1.45
a) Plot the distance vs. time from the values given in the table and
draw curve that best fits all points.
b) Describe the resulting line
c) According to the graph, what type of relationship exists between
the total distance traveled by the lab cart and the time?
d) What is the slope of this graph?
e) Write an equation relating distance and time for this data.
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