Puritan Beliefs o Humans are totally depraved/sinful creatures (Original Sin) o Predetermination (saint/sinner) Elect/Saint: The select few predetermined by God to go to heaven (not worthy, but God is loving) Through intense introspection (prayer/meditation) one can determine his/her spiritual state (one will feel the arrival of God’s grace – Irresistible Grace) Exemplary behavior is a sign of saintliness o One must live simply (this translates to their writing) o Valued hard-work, honesty, responsibility, and selfcontrol o Education is important because one must have personal knowledge of Scripture (Bible = God’s word; Harvard) o People need the rules and regulations of society o The wilderness/frontier is the breeding ground for sin Terminology o Typology: Reading the present in terms of the past. The Puritans believed that they were on a spiritual journey, and they compared events in their lives/events in nature to occurrences in the Bible. Basically, they used the bible to interpret events in their own lives. o Covenant: God’s contract with his people; his explicit interaction. o Divine Providence: God’s implicit intervention in human affairs. o Doctrine of Afflictions: God will sanctify himself in those that are near him (God will test the elect, whereas he might ignore a sinner). Think Job. o Jeremiad: If a collective covenant is broken, God will punish the entire group.