Lecture 1.0 Computer Basics What is in a computer? Computers do some pretty impressive things! CFD Modeling Flow Sheet Simulation Computer is a simple machine, in principle! Add Subtract Count Switching Pass information for one place to another CPU to RAM Bus = Communication with Equipment Hard Drive / RAM At the circuit level Computers use Binary Math; a switch is either on or off Instructions in Binary math = Machine Language What is Hexadecimal math? What is inside the Computer? What are these Components? Computer Components - I Mother Board Memory (RAM) (128 mbyte, 256 mbyte, 512 mbyte, 1024 mbyte) Serial Communications Bus CPU with math coprocessor and memory cache (512 k byte) Battery Clock = counting circuit Computer Components - II Connections for Key Board Mouse Hard Disk Drive (20-120 Giga byte) Floppy Drive (2 Mega byte) Zip Drive (100/250 Mega byte) CD Rom (650 Mega byte) DVD (4.7 Giga byte) Video Card that Drives Monitor (analogue) Sound Card that Drives Speakers (analogue) Modem Card (digital) Ethernet Card(digital) A-to-D/D-to-A Card = Data Acquisition Card IEEE bus = external communications Moore’s Law please see http://developer.intel.com/update/archive/issue2/focus.htm Chip Feature Scaling What does a ChE need to know to work in materials processing? Materials Nomenclature Materials are High Purity Chemicals Silicon = 99.9999% pure Structure is Important Defects in the Structure are Important Trace Impurities Play a Critical Role Where they are in the structure is also critical Course Overview Physics of Solids Materials Properties Device Physics Materials Processing of Silicon Chips Photolithography Deposition / Etching Implantation Planarization Course Overview Materials’ Properties Structure – Metals, Oxides, Semi-conductors Electrical Properties – Metals, Oxides, Semiconductors Other Properties – Piezo, magnetic, ferro-electric Device Physics Conductor Resistor Capacitor Diode Transistor Chip Devices Structures Memory CPU/Switches Multi-layer Interconnects barrier layers Limits on Computer speed Course Overview - Chemical Engineering in Processing of Silicon Chips Wafer Fabrication Doping Wafers Diffusion Implantation Patterning Spin Coating Photo-resist Development Photo-resist dissolution Etching Deposition Oxides Silicon Metals Multi-layer Interconnects Patterning Deposition Chemical Mechanical Polishing/Planarization Course Overview - II What Can Go Wrong? Understanding the electrical problem in terms of chip processing. Understanding what causes the problem Developing a solution to the problem Developing a strategy so that the problem will not occur again.