Non-Photorealistic Rendering CS 446: Real-Time Rendering & Game Technology

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Non-Photorealistic
Rendering
CS 446: Real-Time Rendering
& Game Technology
David Luebke
University of Virginia
Demo
• Today: Sean Arietta, Super Mario Sunshine
• Thursday: Greg Tylka
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David Luebke
Assignments
• Assn 4 description due tonight at midnight
– Remember to post these on forum, not send by e-mail
– Assn 4 due Mar 31, integrated demo Mar 23
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Non-Photorealistic Rendering
“Using a term like ‘nonlinear science’ is like referring to the bulk of
zoology as ‘the study of nonelephant animals’”
• Photorealism: age-old goal of graphics
• Non-photorealistic rendering
– Broadly, techniques for rendering that don’t strive for
realism, but style, expressiveness, abstraction,
uncertainty, etc
– A terrible term that we may be stuck with
• Better terms: stylized rendering, artistic rendering, abstract
rendering, comprehensible rendering, etc.
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Stylized Rendering
• NPR usually used to refer to graphics techniques
that emulate a particular artistic style or medium
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Impressionistic painting
Pen-and-ink (cross hatching, outlining, etc)
Colored-pencil, copperplate engraving, you name it
Cartoon drawing
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David Luebke
Toon shading
• Toon shading is the term that we use to refer to
cartoon-like rendering effects
• Tendencies in cartoon/comic style:
– Simple, flat shading (cel shading)
• Two-tone (light/shadow) or three-tone (light/shadow/highlight)
– Edge highlighting
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Boundary (border edge)
Crease (hard edge)
Material edge
Silhouette edge
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Toon Shading
• Cel shading
– Threshold the lighting equation
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Ex: the Cg program we looked at
Diffuse below 0.5 ? dark color : light color
Specular above 0.5 ? hilight color : diffuse color
If no pixel shaders, can use N ● L to look up a 1-D texture
containing the shaded colors
– In general, can think of these procedures as remapping
the traditional lighting equation elements (tone mapping)
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Silhouette Rendering
• Boundary (border edge)
– Not shared by two polygons
– E.g. the edge of a sheet of paper
– Solid models usually have no boundaries
• Crease (hard edge)
– Shared by two polygons at a dihedral angle greater than
some threshold (often 60°)
– Or a vertex with two normals/two colocated vertices
– Ridge or valley edges
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David Luebke
Silhouette Rendering
• Material edge
– Triangles sharing edge have different materials/texture
maps/etc
– Or just an edge that the artist wants to emphasize
• Silhouette edge
– Triangles sharing edge face different directions
(towards/away from viewer)
– Lots of techniques to find at runtime!
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David Luebke
Finding/Rendering Silhouette Edges
• Surface angle silhouetting
– Again, like the Cg program we looked at
– Calculate N●V, if below threshold  draw black
– Problem: depends on surface curvature (see Fig 7.5)
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Procedural Geometry Silhouetting
• Idea: render the geometry in such a way that the
silhouettes “fall out”
• Ex:
– Draw frontfacing polygons
– Draw backfacing polygons
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But draw them in thick (2-pixel) wireframe
Or draw them in wireframe, z-biased forward a bit
Or “fatten” them
Or displace them along their normals (“halo” effect)
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Results
Wireframe
40 fps
Translation
50 fps
Fattening
11.5 fps
Original Venus model : 5672 triangles, 66 fps
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Image Processing Silhouetting
• Idea: analyze the image after it’s rendered, and
extract silhouettes (like edge detection)
• Can help by rendering e.g. depth image, object-ID
image, normal image
• Perfect for fragment program!
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Silhouette Edge Detection
• Idea: find silhouette edges geometrically and render
them explicitly
– Hierarchy of normal cones
– Lots of other interesting geometric approaches
• Most work, but gives the most flexibility in how
silhouettes are drawn
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Recap: Edge Highlighting
• Toon shading (and other NPR techniques based on
drawing) requires drawing/highlighting some edges:
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Silhouette edges
Mesh boundaries (always on silhouette)
Creases (ridge and valley)
Material boundaries
• Find first at run-time, precalculate the others (unless
object is deformable)
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David Luebke
Recap: Silhouette Edges
• Surface angle silhouetting
– Calc N●V, if below threshold  draw black
• Best as a per-pixel routine
• The Cg program we looked at
• Options: spheremap, or use a mip-map with top-level textures dark
– Pros:
• Uses the texture hardware  fast
• Can antialias the resulting lines
– Cons:
• Line width depends on curvature
• Doesn’t work for some models (e.g., a cube)
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Recap: Silhouette Edges
• Procedural Geometry Silhouetting
– Idea: render geometry such that the silhouettes “fall out”, e.g.:
• Draw frontfacing polygons
• Draw backfacing polygons
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But draw them in (possibly thick) wireframe
Or draw them z-biased forward a bit
Or “fatten” them
Or displace them along their normals (“halo” effect)
» Flip normals
» Amount of displacement varies w/ distance (why?)
» Perfect task for vertex shader!
– Pros: relatively robust, doesn’t need connectivity info
– Cons: Wastes some fill & some polys, needs antialiasing
Recap: Silhouette Edges
• Silhouette Edge Detection
– Idea: find silhouette edges geometrically on the CPU
and render them explicitly
• Brute force: test every edge to see if its adjoining polygons
face opposite directions in eye space
– Can speed this up with hierarchy or randomized coherent search
• Most work, but gives most flexibility in how silhouettes drawn
– GPU variant:
• Draw degenerate quadrilateral at each edge
• “Fatten” quad into a “fin” when edge is on silhouette
– Fin thickness based on distance to eyepoint
– Vertex shader & replicated vertices today  geometry shader!
Highlighting Ridge Edges
• Clever related technique by Raskar:
– Add “fins” to every edge at dihedral angle
– Size fins according to distance to viewer
– Again, perfect for vertex shader, geometry shader
• Similar but more complicated technique for
highlighting valley edges
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Drawing Lines:
Outlining Polygons
• Surprisingly hard to draw polys as filled outlines
– Problem: depth buffer values of edge & polys same
– 2-pass technique: draw polys, then draw edges
• Z-bias edges forward or polygons back (glPolygonOffset)
• Works okay, but has occasional problems
– 3-pass technique:
• Render filled polygon
– Disable depth buffer writes (leave depth test on)
– Enable color buffer writes
• Render polygon edges polygon
– Normal depth & color buffering
• Render filled polygon again
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– Enable depth buffer writes
– Disable color buffer writes
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David Luebke
Drawing Lines:
Hidden-Line Rendering
• Hidden-line vs. obscured line vs halos
– Hidden-line
• Draw polygons to depth buffer (not color buffer)
• Draw edges using previous technique
– Obscured (light, dotted, dashed) line
• Draw all edges in obscured style
• Draw polygons to depth buffer (not color buffer)
• Draw edges using previous technique
– Haloed line
• Draw all edges as thick background-color lines
• Draw edges using biasing, foreground-color
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Other Styles
• Impressionistic or “painterly” rendering:
– Sprinkle particles on object surface
– Draw particles as brushstrokes
– Can render images to encode normals, surface
curvature, depth, color/tone info
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Painterly Rendering
• More info if time permits…
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Other Styles
• Hatching:
– Store different cross-hatch
patterns representing
different tones as textures
– Clever ways to use texture
hardware to blend between
tones at run-time
• More info if time permits…
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Other Styles
• “Graftals” are a general term used for strokes,
decals, little bits of geometry
• Dynamic placement of graftals to achieve certain
effects/styles:
Other Styles
• Technical Illustration
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Generalizing NPR
• Recent work by researchers in NPR attempts to
generalize many of these concepts:
Coherent Stylized Silhouettes
Kalnins, Davidson, Markosian, Finkelstein
Generalizing NPR
• Recent work by researchers in NPR attempts to
generalize many of these concepts:
Suggestive Contours
DeCarlo, Finkelstein, Reinkiewicz, Santella
Gallery of NPR images
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Technical Illustration
Coherent Stylized Silhouettes
Suggestive Contours
SIGGRAPH papers…
NPAR
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