# CS 445 / 645 Introduction to Computer Graphics Lecture 24 Final Exam Prep ```CS 445 / 645
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 24
Final Exam Prep
Final Exam
Thursday, December 12th from 7 – 10 p.m.
• Room OLS 011
You may use one sheet of notes (8.5 x 11’’)
• You can write on both sides of paper
Not everything from semester will be on test
Pre-Midterm Material
Angel
• Chapter 4
• Chapter 5
• Appendix B
• Appendix C
OpenGL Red Book
• Chapter 1 - 4
Material Since Midterm
Angel
• Color: 1.4, 2.5, 7.4.5, 8.13
• Lighting: 6 (all), 13.1 – 13.5
• Texture Maps and Antialiasing: 7.6 – 7.11, 8.12
• Visibility: 5.6, 8.8, 9.10.3 – 9.10.4
• Rotations: 4.10 – 4.11
• Curves: 10.1 – 10.10
Red Book
• pp. 233 - 242
• Chapter 9
Class Material
• Antialiasing Hardware
• Morphing
• Making Movies
Review – Vector Arithmatic
Dot (to determine angle between and length of
projection (when normalized vectors)
• Do math to understand why normalization required
Cross product (Right-hand rule)
Equations of lines / Equations of planes
Distance from line to plane
• Point of intersection
Review – Coordinate Space
Coordinate space
• Right-handed coordinate system
• openGL camera initialized to look down –z axis
Review - OpenGL
No significant coding required
I might ask you to tell me what a function does
• One you’ve used for the projects
I might ask you to tell me what order to put the transformation
commands
Direction of rotations
Ordering of polygon vertices
Back-face rendering
Textures
• Filtering, Mipmap, Bump Map, Displacement Map, Alpha blending, Multi
texturing
Review
Rendering Pipeline (model, light, view, clip,
project)
Review
Homogeneous Coordinate System
• What does w do?
Modeling Transformations
• Rotate, translate, scale, rotate about arbitrary axis
Viewing Transformations
• Orthographic (parallel) and Perspective
Understand how matrix formed by composing
many modeling and viewing transformations
effects the vertices of a model and its rendering
Review - Color
• Metamers
• Relative changes versus absolute values
• Ability to represent all colors
• RGB sensitivity
• Color spaces
– Intuitive spaces, distance between similar colors
Review – Lighting Equations
• Dependent on what factors
• Calculate the reflection vector
• Know how parameters affect images
• The Rendering Equation
Flat, Gouraud, Phong
• Improvements versus cost
Indirect lighting
– Viewer dependent/independent
– Costs/benefits
– Hemicube
• Form Factors
– Understand geometry of how they are computed
– Understand simultaneous solution of all factors
Review - Antialiasing
Sampling and Quantization
Area Sampling (Weighted and unweighted)
What is a filter?
Super Sampling / Multisampling
• Stochastic Supersampling
Nyquist Rate
How is antialiasing done in hardware?
Review – Textures
Filtering
Mip Map
• Construction
• Switching between layers
Bump Map
Displacement Map
Alpha Blending
Repeating vs. Clamping
Review - Visibility
Back-face culling
Manifolds
Occlusion (Painter’s Algorithm)
Fragments (Analytic Visibility Algorithm)
BSP Tree
• Multiple polygons aligned on same plane
• Construction of tree / traversal of tree
• Pros and cons
Review - Visibility
Warnock’s Algorithm
Z-buffer
• What is its depth
• Pros and cons
Review - Rotations
Euler Angles
Gimbal Lock
How many DOFs do we require
Math of axis angle
• Why does axis angle use 4 DOFs to model 3
Quaternion
• Why better than Euler?
• How is it similar to axis-angle
• When is it better than axis-angle?
Interpolation for animation with different representations?
Review Splines
Know how to build M matrix
• Hermite, Bezier, B-spline
Understand each spline’s G matrix
Continuity terms
What’s a duck?
Uniform vs. non-uniform b-splines
Review - Morphing
How does the Beier and Neely algorithm work
Review – Making Movies
What is compositing?
What is matchmoving?
• How can we automate this?
What is a story board?
How can we preserve real-world lighting when
compositing digital characters?
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