The Supporting Facility Creating the Right Environment Learning Objectives Discuss the impact of the “servicescape” on the behavior of customers and employees. Describe the critical facility design features. Identify the bottleneck operation in a product layout and rebalance for increased capacity. Use operations sequence analysis to minimize flow-distance in a process layout. Prepare a process flowchart. Recommend facility design features to remove anxiety of disorientation. Servicescapes Designing Physical Surroundings to Affect Employee and Customer Behavior Ambient Conditions: background characteristics such as noise level, music, lighting, temperature, and scent. Spatial Layout and Functionality: reception area, circulation paths of employees and customers, and focal points. Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts: selection, orientation, location, and size of objects. Typology of Servicescapes Who Performs in Servicescape Physical Complexity of the Servicescape Elaborate Lean Self-service (customer only) Golf course Water slide park Post office kiosk E-commerce Interpersonal (both) Luxury hotel Airline terminal Budget hotel Bus station Remote service (employee only) Research lab L.L. Bean Telemarketing Online tech support Facility Design Considerations Nature and Objectives of Service Organization Land Availability and Space Requirements Flexibility Aesthetic Factors The Community and Environment Environmental Orientation Considerations Need for spatial cues to orient visitors Formula facilities draw on previous experience Entrance atrium allows visitors to gain a quick orientation and observe others for behavioral cues Orientation aids and signage such as “You Are Here” maps reduce anxiety Walk-Through-Audit Service delivery system should confirm to customer expectations Customer impression of service influenced By use of all senses. Service managers lose sensitivity due to Familiarity. Need detailed service audit from a customers perspective. Product Layout Line-balancing Problem Automobile In Driver’s License Office Review Payment Violations Eye Test Photograph 1 2 3 4 5 15 240 30 120 60 60 Activity numbers Time in seconds 40 90 Flow rate per hour 20 180 Issue 6 30 120 Out Automobile Driver’s License Office (Improved Layout) In 1,4 55 65 3 60 60 2 30 In 1,4 55 65 3 60 60 120 5 20 180 Out 6 30 120 Process Layout Relative Location Problem Ocean A A B 7 8 World Theme Park Daily Flows C D E F 20 0 5 6 6 10 0 2 15 7 8 10 3 B C 10 6 D 0 30 5 E 10 10 1 20 F 0 6 0 3 Flow matrix A Net flow B C D E 15 30 0 15 6 12 40 10 8 20 8 8 30 6 6 F 10 4 Triangularized matrix Description of attractions: A=killer whale, B=sea lions, C=dolphins, D=water skiing, E=aquarium, F=water rides. Ocean World Theme Park (Proposed Layout) (a) Initial layout A B C D E F (b) Move C close to A Pair Flow distances AC 30 * 2 = 60 AF 6 * 2 = 12 DC 20 * 2 = 40 DF 6 * 2 = 12 Total 124 (c ) Exchange A and C Pair Flow distances A AE 15 * 2 = 30 C B CF 8 * 2 = 16 AF 6 * 2 = 12 D E F AD 0*2= 0 DF 6 * 2 = 12 Total 70 Pair Flow distances CD 20 * 2 =40 A B CF 8 * 2 =16 D E F DF 6 * 2 = 12 AF 6 * 2 = 12 CE 8 * 2 = 16 Total 96 (d) Exchange B and E and move F Pair Flow distances A F AB 15 * 2 =30 AD 0*2=0 C E FB 8 * 2 = 16 D B FD 6 * 2 = 12 Total 58 C Process Flow Charting Symbols Category Symbol Operation Customer contact Travel Delay Inspection D Description An operation performed by the server off-line or customers self-service. A possible service failure point. An occasion when server and customer interact. An opportunity to influence customer service perceptions. The movement of customers, servers, or information between operations. Delay resulting in a queue and a need for waiting space for customers. An activity by customer or server to measure service quality. Credit Card Processing (Before) Distance 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. Time 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.25 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.25 min 0.5 min. 0.5 min 0.5 min. 1.0 min. 0.5 min. 0.25 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.25 min. 0.5 min. D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Activity Customer requests check Server walks Server prepares check Server walks Server presents check Server walks Customer inspects, puts card out Server returns to table Server picks up card Server walks to process Server fills out slip Server processes slip Server obtains preauthorization Server walks Server presents slip Server walks Customer signs (leaves) Server walks Server picks up slip (Customer leaves) Server walks Total time: Server:9 min. (270 ft.) Customer: 7.75 min. Credit Card Processing (After) Distance 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. Time 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 0.25 min. 0.5 min. 0.5 min 0.5 min. 0.25 min 0.5 min. 0.5 min. 1.0 min. 0.5 min. 0.25 min. 0.5 min. D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Activity Customer requests check Server walks Server prepares check Server fills out slip Server walks Server presents check and slip Server returns to table Customer inspects, puts card out, signs slip Server returns to table Server picks up card and slip Server walks Server processes slip an card Server obtains authorization Server walks Server presents card and receipt Server walks Customer leaves Total time: Server: 7.5 min. (210 ft.) Customer: 6.75 min. Topics for Discussion Compare the attention to aesthetics in waiting rooms that you have visited. How did the different environments affect your mood? Give an example of a servicescape that supports the service concept and another that detracts. Explain the success or failure in terms of the servicescape dimensions Based on your work experience, contrast a supportive servicescape with a poor one in terms of job satisfaction and productivity.