Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the spam value chain

Click Trajectories: End-to-End
Analysis of the spam value chain
Kirill Levchenko , Andreas Pitsillidis , Neha Chachra , Brandon Enright ,
Tristan Halvorson , Chris Kanich , He Liu , Damon McCoy , Geoffrey M.
Voelker , Stefan Savage Dept. of CSEE University of California, San Diego
M. Felegyhazi
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Chris Grier
Dept. of CSEE
University of California, Berkeley
Christian Kreibich , Nicholas Weaver , Vern Paxson
International Computer Science Institute Berkeley , CA
Presented by Xinruo Zhang
 Implementation
 Analysis for a particular example
 Data collection method
 Contribution
 Weakness & improvement
Spam-based advertising to us
◦ Think of it merely as junk that jamming inbox
To spammer
◦ Think it is a multi-million business
Spam value chain (aka Spam ecosystem)
◦ botnet, domain, name server, web server,
hosting or proxy service acquired
Introduction (cont’d)
Three categories of spam-advertised
◦ Illegal pharmaceuticals, replica luxury goods
and counterfeit software
◦ Nearly 95% of spam-advertised emails
contains these three popular products
How modern spam works?
◦ Advertising, Click Support and Realization
◦ Includes all activities focused on attracting
potential customers to pay attention to what
the spammers want to sell
◦ The most evolved part of the spam ecosystem,
particularly, the delivery of email spam
Click Support
◦ In this stage, having delivered their
advertisement, a spammer entice the receiver
into clicking an embedded URL with their
best effort.
◦ Redirection sites, Domains, Name servers,
Webs servers, and affiliate programs
Click Support
◦ Redirection sites: redirect to additional URLs.
Because some spammers directly advertise a
URL embedded in email and thus they would
encounter various of defensive measures to
interfere their activities.
Click Support
◦ Domain: typically, a spammer may purchase
domains directly from a registrar, however, in
real life, they frequently purchase from reseller.
◦ Name server: any registered domain in turn
have supporting name server infrastructure.
Get infrastructure either by themselves or by
third party.
Click Support
◦ Stores and Affiliate programs
 Today spammers work as affiliates of an online
store, earns a commission
 The affiliate program provides all technique and
 Furthermore, affiliate programs even take
responsibility for payment and fulfillment service
◦ have brought the customers to an advertised
site, the seller realizes the latent value by
acquiring the customer’s payment
◦ it contains two processes: Payment service
and Fulfillment service
Payment service
◦ Standard credit card payment
 In order to get the most value
◦ Issuing bank
 Customer’s bank
◦ Acquiring bank
 Merchant’s bank
◦ Card association network
 Visa or MasterCard
◦ Fulfill an order in return for customer’s
◦ Shipping issue
 Suppliers will offer direct shipping service so
affiliate program can avoid warehousing
 Virtual products can be got via internet download
Practical Example
Data Collection Method
Data Collection Method
Lack a solid understanding of the spambased enterprise’s full structure before
 And most anti-spam interventions focus
on only one facet of the overall spam
value chain
 authors present a whole analysis for spam
ecosystem with large-scale practical study
Weakness & Improvement
lack of legal and ethical concerns
◦ For some issue concerns the ethics of any
implicit harm caused by criminal supplier
only have one medium – email spam
◦ Consider twitter spam, other social network