Overview of Cryptography and Its Applications INCS741: Cryptography Dr. Monther Aldwairi

INCS741: Cryptography
Overview of Cryptography and
Its Applications
Dr. Monther Aldwairi
New York Institute of TechnologyAmman Campus
• Historically Kings communicated with their
generals using cryptographic methods.
– Julius Caesar used a cipher named after him.
• Today with the advent of the Internet
electronic services are integral part of our
daily life
– Exchanging payment in formation is vital for
internet economy
• It’s empirical to protect electronic information
• Cryptology is the all-inclusive term used for the
study of secure communication over non-secure
channels and related problems.
• Cryptography is the process of designing systems
to realize secure communications over nonsecure channels.
• Cryptanalysis deals with breaking cryptosystems.
• Coding Theory deals with symbolic
representation of input information using
symbols, often called codes such as
– Compression, secrecy and error-correction.
Code Vs Cipher
• Code is replacing message words by
codewords or symbols
– Unanticipated words cannot be used
• Cipher is Encrypting the message using some
– Stream Ciphers. Data fed to the algorithm in small
chunks (bits, chars)
– Block Ciphers. Data fed to the algorithm in blocks
Secure Communications Scenario
Plain text
Security Issues
1. Read the message
2. Find the key and read all the encrypted messages
3. Integrity: Corrupt or modify the content of the
message in such a way that Bob will think Alice sent
the altered message.
4. Authentication: Impersonate Alice and communicate
with Bob
• Oscar is a passive observer who is trying to perform (1)
and (2).
• Mallory is more active and malicious who is trying to
perform (3) And (4).
Possible Attacks
1. Ciphertext only: Eve has only a copy of ciphertext
2. Known Plaintext: Eve has a copy of ciphertext and the
corresponding plaintext and tries the deduce the key.
3. Chosen Plaintext: Eve has temporary access to the
encryption machine/algorithms.
She can encrypt large number of plaintexts and use them
to deduce the key.
4. Chosen Ciphertext: Eve has temporary access to the
decryption machine.
She can decrypt large number of ciphertexts and symbols
and use them to deduce the key.
Kerckhoff’s and Shannon Principles
• A cryptosystem should be secure even if
everything about the system, except the key, is
public knowledge.
• The enemy knows the system edge.
• The security of the system, therefore, should
be based
1. key length
2. The quality of the algorithm.
Symmetric Key Cryptography
• Encryption and decryption keys are known to
both communicating parties (Alice and Bob).
– A Secret key should be shared (or agreed) b/w the
communicating parties.
• They are usually related and it is easy to derive
the decryption key once one knows the
encryption key.
– In most cases, they are identical.
• All of the classical (pre-1970) cryptosystems are
– Such as DES and AES (Rijndael)
Public Key Cryptography
• Encryption Key is made public! Public Key.
• Decryption Key is kept private. Private Key
– Sender encrypts the message by the Public Key of the
– Only the receiver can decrypt the message by her/his
Private Key
• Computationally expensive to find the Decryption
Key from the Encryption Key
– Such as RSA, Discrete Logarithm and Elliptic Curve
• Used to encrypt small amounts of data (key
exchange or signatures)
Key Length
• The security of cryptographic algorithms is hard
to measure.
– How difficult is it for an adversary to find the key
– The key should be large enough to prevent brute force
or exhaustive search attack.
– The adversary to determine the key simply by trying
all possible keys in the key space.
• For example, DES utilizes 56-bit key, therefore
there are 256 (or approx 7.2 x 1016) possible keys
in the key space.
Key Length
• For a cryptanalyst, brute force should be the
last choice.
– He needs to take advantage of the weakness in
the algorithm or in it’s implementation, in order to
reduce the possible keys to try out.
• Longer keys do not necessarily improve the
• Once secure is not always secure
Unbreakable Cryptosystems
• Almost all of the practical cryptosystems are
theoretically breakable given the time and
computational resources
• However, there is one system which is even
theoretically unbreakable: One-time-pad.
– One-time pad requires exchanging key that is as long as
the plaintext.
– However impractical, it is still being used in certain
applications which necessitate very high-level security.
• Security of one-time pad systems relies on the
condition that keys are generated using truly random
Cryptographic Objectives
• Confidentiality
– Hiding the contents of the messages exchanged.
• Integrity
– Bob wants to make sure that Alice’s massage hasn’t
been altered
• Authentication
– Bob wants to make sure that Alice could have sent the
message he received.
1. Identification: Identity of the sender.
2. Data-origin authentication: data origin, creator and time.
• Non-repudiation
– Alice can’t deny sending the message.