Diversity of Modern Life Kingdom Monera (“Monerans”) • Smallest and simplest lifeforms • Unicellular (one-celled) • no nucleus • Bacteria and cyanobacteria Bacteria • Three basic shapes: • round (cocci) • rod (bacilli) • spiral (spirilli) Questions • What are two characteristics of the organisms in Kingdom Monera? • What is meant by unicellular? • What are the three shapes of bacteria? Kingdom Protista(“Protists”) • Single-celled or multicellular • more complex than organisms in Kingdom Monera • nucleus • protozoans (animal-like) • algae (plant-like) Protozoans • Kingdom Protista • no cell wall or chlorophyll • internal digestion • no locomotion (some) Algae • Cell walls • Chlorophyll • Photosynthetic • Placed in groups according to color and structure Questions • What are some characteristics of Protists? • What are the two types of Protists? • How are the two types of Protists different? Kingdom Fungi • Multicellular; complex • cell walls, no chlorophyll • Threadlike fungi (bread mold) • club fungi (mushrooms) • sac fungi (yeast and mildew) Questions • What are some characteristics of Fungi? • What are the three groups of fungi? Kingdom Plantae • Multicellular, cell walls, and chlorophyll • Largest and longest-living things on Earth • Vascular or Nonvascular Nonvascular Plants • CANNOT conduct water • Example: Moss • Moist environment Vascular Plants • CAN conduct water • Capable of living in drier areas • Club mosses, Ferns, Horsetails, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms Gymnosperms • Seed plant • name means “naked seed” • Most are conifers Angiosperms -Flowering Plants • Seed plant • name means “covered seed” • Seeds are produced inside ovaries • A ripened ovary is a fruit • largest/most diverse plants Questions • What is the major difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm? • What are three plant characteristics? • How are vascular and non vascular plants different? Sponges (invertebrate) • Simplest of the animal groups • lives in salt water attached to the bottom • Hollow central cavity • Two layers of body cells with tiny pores Coelenterates (invertebrate) • Jellyfish, hydras, and corals • two cell layers • Live in water • hollow body with a single opening Questions • What are three similarities between coelenterates and sponges? Flatworms (invertebrate) • Flattened body; mostly parasitic • one body opening • two eyespots (light detection) • Turbellarians (free-living) • Planarians (freshwater Turbellarians) Roundworms (invertebrate) • Rounded shaped • two body openings (eating and waste expulsion) • mostly free-living • Ex: Nematodes and hookworms Segmented Worms (invertebrate) • Rounded, segmented bodies • two body openings • has five hearts and a brain • Ex: leeches and marine tube worms Questions • In what major way are the three types of worms different? • How are the segmented worms MOST similar to the roundworms? Mollusks (invertebrate) • Soft-bodies, no shell: (octopus/squid) • well-developed organs • some with shells: (clams/oysters) Arthropods (invertebrate) • Largest group of animals • multiple body segments • jointed appendages (legs/arms) • exoskeleton (hard outer covering) Arthropods (continued) • Well-developed organs • insects, lobsters, crabs, and spiders Echinoderms (invertebrate) • Spiny skinned animals • star fish (sea stars), sand dollars, sea cucumbers • flexible arms; tube feet • known for regeneration (ability to grow new body parts) Questions • What is the major similarity between mollusks, echinoderms, and arthropods? • Which group of organisms are known for regeneration? • What is regeneration? Questions • What is the largest group of animals? • Describe an invertebrate. • An octopus and a clam belong to what group of invertebrates? • How is an endoskelton different from an exoskeleton? Vertebrates • Have backbones • body with a head and most have appendages • endoskeleton (internal skeleton for support/protection) Vertebrates (continued) • Endotherm (warm- blooded); these organisms can control their body temperature from within despite changes in the environment Vertebrates (continued) • Ectotherm (cold-blooded); body temperature changes with the environment Questions • What is the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm? • How is a vertebrate different from an invertebrate? Jawless fishes • Ex: Sea lamprey • mouth is used for sucking fluids; no appendages (fins) • flexible skeleton made of cartilage • ectotherms Cartilaginous Fishes • Two pairs of fins; gills • ectotherms • strong teeth (sharks) • SKELETON MADE OF CARTILAGE • stingrays, skates, sharks Bony fishes • Flounder, eels, trout, and others • SKELETON MADE OF BONE • gills • streamlined bodies (narrow shape) • most numerous group of fish Questions • How are the cartilaginous fishes mainly different from the bony fishes? • What do the other fishes have that the jawless fishes do not have? Amphibians • Frogs, toads, salamanders • part of their life is spent on land and part of life is spent in the water; (ectotherms) • smooth, moist skin • gills when they are young and have lungs as adults Reptiles • Adapted to live on land (terrestrial) • breathe with lungs • body covered with plates or scales • ectotherms Reptiles • Dinosaurs • Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators • lay eggs in a leathery shell Birds • Bodies adapted for flight (light, bones, feathers, and wings) • Scaly legs and feet • lay eggs in a hard shell • endotherms Mammals • Advanced nervous system; highly developed brain • Endotherms • Hairy bodies • can occupy several habitats • give birth to live young; produce milk mammary glands Questions • Which animals spend part of their life on and part of it in the water? • What type of animals have scales or or hard plates? Questions • Which two groups of animals are warm-blooded? • What is the difference between the eggs of reptiles and birds?