Aligning Assessment Methods with Learning Outcome Statements and Curricular Design Presented at

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Aligning Assessment Methods with
Learning Outcome Statements and
Curricular Design
Presented at
CCRI
April 8, 2005
[email protected]
Material from Maki, P. (2004). Assessing for Learning: Building a Sustainable Commitment Across
the Institution. Stylus Publishing and AAHE.
1

Alignment—degree to which learning
outcome statements match how and what
we teach; degree to which assessment
methods match or build upon our collective
educational practices
What methods of assessment capture
desired student learning--methods that
align with pedagogy, content, and curricular
design?
2
“The tasks to which students are asked to
respond on an assessment are not arbitrary.
They must be carefully designed to provide
evidence that is linked to the cognitive model of
learning and to support the kinds of inferences
and decisions that will be based on the
assessment results.”
National Research Council. Knowing what students know: The science and design of
educational assessment . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001, p. 47.
3
Assumptions Underlying
Teaching
Actual Practices
Assumptions Underlying
Assessment Tasks
Actual Tasks
4
When Will You Seek Evidence?
 Formative—along
the way?
For example, to ascertain
progress or development
 Summative—at
the end?
For example, to ascertain
mastery level of achievement
5
What Tasks Elicit Learning You
Desire?
 Tasks
that require students to select
among possible answers (multiple
choice test)?
 Tasks
that require students to
construct answers (students’ problemsolving and thinking abilities)?
6
Direct Methods

Focus on how students represent or
demonstrate their learning (meaning
making)

Align with students’ learning and
assessment experiences

Align with curricular-and co-curricular
design verified through mapping
7

Invite collaboration in design (faculty,
students, tutors)
8
Standardized Instruments

Psychometric approach—values quantitative
methods of interpretation

History of validity and reliability

Quick and easy adoption and efficient
scoring

One possible source of evidence of learning
9
Do Not Usually Provide

Evidence of strategies, processes, ways of
knowing, understanding, and behaving that
students draw upon to represent learning

Evidence of complex and diverse ways in
which humans construct and generate
meaning

Highly useful results that relate to pedagogy,
curricular design, sets of educational practices
10
Authentic, Performance-based
Methods

Focus on integrated learning

Directly align with students’ learning and
previous assessment experiences

Provide opportunity for students to
generate responses as opposed to
selecting responses
11

Provide opportunity for students to reflect
on their performance—strengths,
weaknesses, repositioned learning
12
Do Not Provide

Immediate reliability and validity (unless
there has been a history of use)

Usually do not provide easy scoring
unless closed-ended questions are used.
13
Some Options for Alternative
Methods

E-Portfolios

Capstone projects (mid-point and endpoint)

Performances, productions, creations

Visual representations (mind mapping,
charting, graphing)
14

Case studies

Disciplinary or professional practices

Agreed upon embedded assignments

Selection of assignments students hand in

Writing to speaking to visual presentation
15

Team-based or collaborative projects

Internships and service Projects

Oral examinations/questions

Critical incidents
16

Externally or internally juried review of
student projects

Externally reviewed internship

Performance on a case study/problem

Performance on case study accompanied
with students’ analysis
17

Locally developed tests

Pre-and post-tests

Learning Logs or Journals

Videotaping over time
18

Simulations—virtual labs, scenarios that
track decision making and actions

Magic box—problem solving over time
19
Indirect Methods-- May Be Combined
with Direct Methods

Focus group (representative of the population)

Interviews (representative of the population)

Surveys

Transcript analyses
20

Other sources of information that
contribute to your inference making:
CCSSE results, grades, participation
rates or persistence in support services,
course-taking patterns, majors
21
Identify Methods to Assess
Outcomes

Using the handout, identify both direct
and indirect methods you might use to
assess several of your outcomes.
Determine the kinds of inferences you
will be able to make based on each
method.
22
Examples of Changes:

Increased attention to weaving
experiences across the institution, a
program, or a department to improve
student achievement

Changes in advising based on
assessment results

Closer monitoring of student
achievement--tracking
23

Faculty and staff development to learn
how to integrate experiences that
contribute to improved student learning

Changes in pedagogy and curricular and
co-curricular design

Development of modules to assist
learning; use of technology; self-paced
learning, supplemental learning
24
Gather Evidence
Interpret
Evidence
Mission/Purposes
Learning Outcomes
How well do
we achieve
our
outcomes?
Enhance teaching/
learning;
inform institutional
decisionmaking, planning,
budgeting
25
“What and how students learn depends to
a major extent on how they think they will
be assessed.”
John Biggs, Teaching for Quality Learning at
University: What The Student Does. Society for
Research into Higher Education & Open
University Press, 1999, p. 141.
26
Works Cited
Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for Quality Learning at University:
What The Student Does. Society for Research into Higher
Education & Open University Press, 1999, p. 141.
Maki, P. (forthcoming, 2004., May). Assessing for Learning:
Building a Sustainable Commitment Across the Institution.
Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC, and the American
Association for Higher Education.
National Research Council. 2001. Knowing What Students
Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment.
Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press
27
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