The “Other” Personality Theories The Neo-Freudians’ (Psychodynamic) Three Core Beliefs ◦ Much of mental life – thoughts, feelings, and motives - is unconscious ◦ Stable personality patterns start to form in early childhood, early experiences play significant role in personality development ◦ Personality development involves more than learning to regulate sexual and aggressive impulses Childhood anxiety triggers our desire for love and security Our inferiority complexes trigger us to compensate in other ways Karen Horney & Alfred Adler A Jungian Walk in the Woods Close your eyes, DON’T say your answers out loud!! ◦ You’re walking through the woods. There’s someone with you. Who is it? ◦ You come to a house. What does it look like? ◦ You go inside the house and are in the dining room. What do you see? ◦ You’re back outside and you find a key. What do you do with it? oYou find a cup. What does it look like? What do you do with it? oYou come to some water. How big is the body of water? oYou have to get to the other side of the water. How do you do it? A Jungian Walk in the Woods, Explained The woods stand for the unconscious mind. The person with you is the person who is most important to you at this time. The house stands for the size of your ambition. The dining room stands for sociability. A Jungian Walk in the Woods, Explained The key stands for knowledge. What is done with the key is what the person does with their education. The cup stands for love. The water stands for the person’s problems: the bigger the body of water, the bigger they perceive their problems to be. How they get across the water is how they deal with their problems. The Humanistic Perspective Maslow Why we don’t become selfactualized: o It’s at the top of the pyramid, weakest of all needs o The Jonah Complex o Cultural environment may stifle self-actualization o Childhood experiences may inhibit personal growth The Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers ◦ The Perceived Self – On the sheet of paper, take 3 minutes to write a description of how you see yourself. ◦ The Ideal Self – Turn the paper over and take another 3 minutes to describe who you would like to be. Why the Incongruence? Perceived Self Ideal Self Trait / Big Five Theories The Meyers-Briggs ◦ For each pair of items, check which one you agree with more. ◦ Add up the number of checks for each column and put that number in the box. ◦ E / I = extraversion / introversion ◦ S / N = sensing / intuition ◦ T / F = thinking / feeling ◦ J / P = judging / perceiving What do you think is Mr. Aiello’s “score”? ◦ I S T J (I N F J) The Big Five (CANOE) Mcrae & Costa Take The Big Five Inventory (BFI) Scoring ◦ Extraversion – reverse the numbers placed in front of items 6, 21, & 31 (1 = 5, 2 = 4, 3 = 3, 4 = 2, 5 = 1) Add all the numbers for 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, & 36. Scores can range from 8 – 40. ◦ Agreeableness – reverse numbers 2, 12, 27, & 37. Add the numbers for 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37, & 42. Scores can range from 9 – 45. ◦ Conscientiousness –reverse numbers 8, 18, 23, & 43. Add the numbers for 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38, & 43. Scores can range from 9 – 45. The Big Five (OCEAN) Scoring ◦ Neuroticism – reverse numbers 9, 24, & 34. Add all the numbers for 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, & 39. Scores can range from 8 – 40. ◦ Openness – reverse numbers 35 & 41. Add all the numbers for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 41, & 44. Scores can range from 10 – 50. The Person-Situation Controversy Are we consistent over time and throughout situations? ◦ In general, yes ◦ In specific situations, not so much Gordon Allport 18,000 adjectives to describe behavior Secondary - thousands Central – 6 - 10 Cardinal - 1 Social Cognitive Theories Reciprocal Determinism – Bandura Personal Construct Theory George Kelly We are strongly motivated to make sense of our world. Like scientists, we are always attempting to make better predictions about what will happen to us. So we generate and test hypotheses. We use bipolar constructs to interpret and predict events. Personality differences result largely from differences in the way people construe their worlds. We may use very different descriptors to characterize the same person. Those different construals will produce different social behaviors toward the person. Our relatively consistent patterns of behavior occur because of the relatively stable way we construe the world. Take the REP Test (Handout 15 – 15) Internal vs. External Locus of Control Reverse the numbers you placed before statements 3, 6, 7, 8. and 10. ◦ (1 = 7, 2 = 6, 3 = 5, 4 = 4, 5 = 3, 6 = 2, 7 = 1) Add up the total score College students avg. = 52 The higher your score the greater your internal locus of control Internals not only believe that they can control their own destinies, but in fact they are more effective in influencing their environments. Internals receive higher grades and better evaluations than do externals. Although true across the ages, it is especially true in adolescence. Internals feel more responsible for their achievements, believe that studying will pay off, and generally seem to have a better idea of how to prepare for an exam. They are more likely to attribute their grades to their abilities or effort and thus are more likely to study for the next exam. Given the task of changing others’ beliefs, they are more successful. Internals, however, seem to be less susceptible to control and influence from others. They are particularly resistant to subtle forms of attempted influence. Internals are less likely to conform and are not as likely to respond to the prestige of a message’s source as are externals. Internals also seem to exhibit greater selfcontrol. • Among those who attempt to quit smoking, internals show fewer relapses. • Internals are more likely to engage in physical exercise, better at losing weight, more apt to use seatbelts, and more likely to practice preventive dental and medical care. • Internals are better hospital patients, knowing more about their condition and less satisfied with the amount of information given them by their nurses and doctors.