Study Guide Chapter 18, 19, 20 Chapter 18: Biodiversity 1. Define extinction. 2. How many major extinctions have there been in the past? 3. What makes the current extinction different from the past ones? 4. How has the genetic diversity of crops declined? 5. List and describe the 5 causes of declining biodiversity. Chapter 19: Global Change 1. Define global change. 2. List some natural causes and anthropogenic causes of global change. 3. Define global climate change. 4. Define el nino. 5. What are two anthropogenic sources that have contributed to global climate change. 6. Explain the sun-earth heating system. 7. Explain the greenhouse effect. 8. What are the two most common gases in the atmosphere? 9. List the 5 greenhouse gases and their duration in the atmosphere. 10. What is the global temperature with the greenhouse gases and what is it without? 11. List the natural sources of each greenhouse gas. 12. List the anthropogenic sources of each greenhouse gas. 13. What are the top anthropogenic sources of CH4, N2O, and CO2? 14. Explain the behavior of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. How are they increasing but they also vary in concentration at the same time. 15. Explain the positive and negative feedback loops in terms of climate change. 16. How can we examine the global temperatures from 400,000 years ago? 17. What are some consequences of global warming? 18. What is the Kyoto Protocol? Chapter 20: Economics and Sustainability 1. Define sustainability. 2. Define economics. 3. Explain the law of demand and the law of supply. 4. What is GDP? 5. Define capital and what are the 3 types of capital? 6. What is the GPI used for? 7. Define valuation. 8. Explain the differences between anthropocentric, ecocentric, and biocentric worldviews. 9. Explain what the UNEP, world bank, WHO, and UNDP do. 10. When is Earth Day? 11. What does the HDI measure? 12. What does the HPI measure? 13. Explain the process of developing a environmental policy. 14. Explain the difference between command-and-control approach and the incentive-based approach. 15. Define green tax. 16. Explain the triple bottom line. 17. What is the main goal of the millennium development? 18. What was the Green Belt Movement? STUDY YOUR OLD MATERIAL!!!!!