AP WORLD HISTORY Study Guide: Chapter 21 – The Muslim Empires Intro: 1. Who are the 3 new Muslim empires that rise from the ashes of the old Arabic Empire? Where are they located? How do they interact (as a group) with the West? The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders 2. Where do the Ottomans come from? What are 3 of their significant accomplishments? A State Geared to Warfare 3. Who are the janissaries? What allowed them to become so powerful? The Sultans and Their Court 4. EXTRA CREDIT – What advantage is gained by using both Christians and Jews as merchants? 5. What problems typically faced a sultan during his reign? What problems arose at his death? Constantinople Restored and the Flowering of Ottoman Culture 6. Describe the culture of the Ottoman Empire. Be sure to touch on the following topics… a. Architecture b. Coffee houses c. Markets and crafts d. Literature The Problem of Ottoman Decline 7. Explain why the “decline” of the Ottoman Empire may have been overly exaggerated. In other words, in what ways do we find their decline to be normal and even unavoidable? 8. What are 3 factors that contribute to their decline? (Be sure that one focuses on the succession of sultans) Military Reversals and the Ottoman Retreat 9. What were the economic consequences (for the Ottomans) of the shift in naval power from Ottoman to European in the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean? 10. What inherited characteristic of Ottoman society encouraged them to dismiss European advancement? What impact did this dismissal have on the future of the Empire? The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids 11. What are 2 ways in which the Ottomans and Safavids are similar? What is the major difference between the two? 12. As a refresher, what are the differences between Sunnis and Shi’as? 13. How does the Safavid Empire begin? Which people/groups are responsible for their rise? 14. How do the Safavids fare against the Ottomans? What impact does this have on the development of southwest Asia? Politics and War Under the Safavid Shahs 15. In what are the Safavids, Western Europeans, Japanese, and Latin American colonies similar? (Hint: think labor). In what ways are the Ottomans and Safavids similar? (Hint: think military). 16. What was the relationship between the Safavids and Portuguese? Does it seem odd that they would foster this sort of bond? State and Religion 17. Compare the development and usage of language in the Ottoman and Safavid Empires. What trends do you notice? 18. What was the relationship between church and state in the Safavid Empire? Elite Affluence and Artistic Splendor 19. Describe the culture of the Ottoman Empire. Be sure to touch on the following topics… a. Architecture b. Education c. Markets and crafts d. Literature Society and Gender Roles: Ottoman and Safavid Comparisons 20. Compare and contrast (in non-thesis form) the social systems of the Ottomans and Safavids. 21. How were women in the new Arabic empires similar to women in most other civilizations at the time? In what ways did women attempt to improve/effect their position in society? The Rapid Demise of the Safavid Empire 22. How is the decline of the Safavids similar to the decline of the Ottomans? The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India 23. How does the Mughal empire originate? How does the reason for its development differ from that of the Ottomans and Safavids? ** Make sure to read about Humayan Akbar and the Basis for a Lasting Empire 24. What characteristics made Akbar such a great leader? What steps does he take to reconcile with the Hindu population in India? Social Reform and Social Change 25. What steps does Akbar take to improve the status of women in Mughal society? How successful were these reforms? Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts 26. What was the key to India’s economic success? What impact did this have on their relationship with the West? Artistic Achievement in the Mughal Era 27. Compare the lifestyles of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal leaders. 28. Create your own question and answer on Mughal architecture. Court Politics and the Position of Elite and Ordinary Women 29. Describe the opportunities that became available to women like Nur Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. How do their lives compare with those of the average woman in Mughal society? The Beginnings of Imperial Decline 30. What were the two main causes of Mughal decline? Describe how these two factors cause the collapse of this empire? see below for Points to Ponder) Points to Ponder (these are the questions you will turn in) – 4 points each 1. Discuss the social and political organization of the Ottoman Empire. 2. Compare the interactions between the Ottomans and the West with those of Russia and the West. 3. Compare and contrast the role of religion in the new Muslim empires (Ottomans/Safavids) with Mughal India 4. How has India changed from the Mauryan dynasty to the Mughal? How has it remained the same? 5. How have gender roles and relations changed from Aryan India to Mughal India?