The Impact of Change on American Indians The Nez Perce and Chief Joseph Region: Pacific >The Nez Perce formed a friendship with early white settlers in the west. > Chief Joseph agreed to give up land and move to reservation in order to avoid war. > A fight broke out and soon a war started between the US Army and the Nez Perce. >The remaining Nez Perce who were not killed were forced onto a reservation in Oklahoma. Many became sick and died there. The Battle of Wounded Knee >The last major armed conflict between American Indians and the US Army. >In 1890, 500 troops arrived to escort the remaining members of the Lakota Sioux tribe off their land and into a reservation. >Fighting broke out after the Lakota began performing a Ghost Dance (used to summon their ancestors) >150 Lakota’s were killed, the remaining 4,000 Lakota surrendered 17 days later. Forced Relocation and Assimilation >By 1890, most all American Indians were forced to relocate onto reservations set aside for them by the United States government. This treaty (or agreement) was called the Dawes Act. >The population of buffalo was dramatically reduced in order to force American Indians to move in search of food. >Eventually the US Government would break its treaty with the American Indians and begin selling off land for their reservations – forcing them to move once again. >At the same time, the government attempted to assimilate (change) American Indians to follow the style and culture of white Americans. Some American Indians were forced to change their name and appearance. American Indians were not considered citizens until 1924.