Name: Date: Period: The Enlightenment in Europe Reading Guide 1. What is the connection between the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment? 2. Define Enlightenment. I. Two Views on Government 3. Thomas Hobbes expressed his views in a work called ____________. 4. What convinced Hobbes that all humans were selfish and wicked? 5. Why do we (people) need governments to keep order? 6. According to Hobbes, in the state of nature, men are ______________. 7. According to Hobbes, how do people escape the horrors of nature? 8. What do the people get when they give up their rights to a strong ruler? 9. A social contract is an agreement between the people and the ___________. 10. According to Hobbes, the best government was an _________________. 11. How did Locke’s view of people differ from Hobbe’s view of people? 12. According to Locke, people have natural rights including __________, _________, and ____________. 13. According to Locke, what is the purpose of government? 14. According to Locke, if a government fails, the people have the right to ________________. 15. What impact did Locke have on the foundation of modern democracy? II. The Philosophes Advocate Reason 16. The philosophes believed that people could apply ___________ to all aspects of life. 17. According to philosophes, what is reason? 18. To philosophes, what was natural was also ____________ and __________. 19. Voltaire, a philosophe, never stopped fighting for _______________, _______________, and ___________________. 20. Montesquieu is associated with _____________________ or the division of power among separate branches. 21. Rousseau said, “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Explain this quote. 22. Explain “general will.” 23. How did Rousseau’s social contract differ from Hobbe’s social contract? 24. How did Rousseau’s definition of the people differ from Locke’s definition of the people? III. Impact of the Enlightenment 25. The theories of the philosophes eventually inspired both the ___________ and __________revolutions. 26. The Enlightenment led to three changes in Europe. Identify those changes.