Trends related to Urbanization

Trends related to Urbanization
Most of the land in urban
settlements is devoted to
housing, where people live
within U.S. urban areas
◦ the most fundamental spatial
distinction is between innercity residential
neighborhoods that surround
the CBD and suburban
residential neighborhoods on
the periphery
Inner cities in the U,S,
contain concentrations of
low-income people
Inner-city Issues
◦ Physical
◦ Social
◦ Economic
Major physical
problem face by
neighborhoods is
the poor condition
of the housing
◦ Most built before
Process of
As the # of low-income
residents increase in the
city, the territory they
occupy expands
◦ Large houses built by wealthy
families in the 19th century are
subdivided into smaller dwellings
for low-income families
◦ Definition:
 Process of subdivision of houses and
occupancy by successive waves of
lower-income people
◦ As rent decreases, so does
 Eventually no one will rent, buildings
Leads to schools, shops closing as well
◦ Definition:
 Drawing lines on a map to identify
areas in which they will refuse to loan
money (done by banks)
◦ As a result, families that try to fix
up houses in “bad” neighborhoods
have difficulty loaning money
◦ Technically illegal
 but difficult to enforce
◦ Inner-city residents often
referred to as a permanent
underclass because they are
trapped in an unending cycle of
economic and social problems
◦ Suffers from:
 High rates of unemployment,
alcoholism, drug addiction, illiteracy,
juvenile delinquency, and crime
◦ Schools, hospitals, shops are all
 Lack adequate fire/police protection
◦ Homeless
 Estimated that nearly 1 million are
homeless in America
◦ Future is bleak
Little to no technical skills
Fewer than ½ complete high school
Atmosphere ignores “good habits”
With less Primary and Secondary
jobs, even more unemployment
Culture of Poverty
◦ Trapped in cycle because they
live in a culture of poverty
 3/4ths of babies in inner-cities born
to unwed mothers
 3/4ths of children live with 1 parent
Many mothers have to stay home
“Deadbeat Dads” no help
◦ Many turn to drugs
 Rates of use have most rapidly
increased in inner-cities recently
 Many obtain through criminal
Leads to gangs controlling drug
Contributes to gang violence
◦ Many neighborhoods segregated
 Most inner-city residents are
African-American and Hispanic
Eroding Tax Base
◦ Low-income inner-city residents
require more public services
But can pay very little of taxes necessary
to support those services
◦ Central cities face growing gap
between need of services and funds
to pay for them
Impact of Recession
◦ Once of the principal causes of
severe recession in 2008 was
collapse of housing market
Two choices:
Reduce Services
 Close libraries, eliminate bus routes,
collect trash less frequently
Raise Tax Revenues
 Provide tax breaks for downtown offices,
luxury hotels, restaurants, shops
 Even with break, still pay more taxes
than abandoned buildings
◦ Federal Aid to cities has significantly
decreased since 1980s
Declined 2/3rds
Primarily in the inner city
Banks had increased loans to lowincome inner-city households buying
their 1st home
Many had poor credit, no background
Called subprime mortgages
◦ Investing in housing viewed as way
to get higher rate of return than
other investments
House prices increased rapidly
Banks saw this as an opportunity to
increase # of home owners
◦ Concentric model shows inner- city
residents more likely to be renters
◦ When people can’t repay loans=
bank foreclosure
In 1st year of recession 10% of
Americans behind on their mortgages
◦ Compounding problem- the
housing bubble burst
Homes have decreased in value
Home now worth less than mortgage
◦ Definition:
 Refers to the growth of areas
of concentrated poverty
◦ Originally comprised of
mostly immigrants
 Newly-arrived Irish, Italian,
and German immigrants
 But even larger AfricanAmerican and Hispanic
ghettos have grown since the
Real Estate developers and
banks contributed to
growth of urban ghettos in
3 ways:
◦ Blockbusting
 When real estate agents and
developers used racism to “bust
up” a block by bringing in a
minority family into a
predominately white
 Then profited in all the turnover
◦ Racial Steering
 When real estate agents would
intentionally or unintentionally
steer people to buy a home in a
neighborhood based on their
race, which contributed to racially
segregated housing patterns
◦ Redlining
 Banks refusing loans in central
neighborhoods that were “redlined”
Urban Renewal
 Cities identify blighted
inner-city neighborhoods
 They acquire property, move
residents, demolish, and
 National government
grants help finance
 Has been criticized for
destroyed older
neighborhoods and
reducing supply of low-cost
 Called “Negro Removal” in
 Many North American and
European Cities have turned
away from
◦ Public housing
 Many sub-standard inner-city
houses have been
demolished and replaced
with public housing
 In U.S. public housing is
reserved for low-income
 Must pay 30% of their
income for rent
 Maintained by housing
 Only 1% of all dwellings
 U.S. has stopped funding most
public housing
 Instead looks to renovating
old buildings from 1950s
and 1960s
◦ Renovated housing
 Some non-profit
organizations renovate lowincome housing and sell or
rent to low-income people
 Example: Habitat for Humanity
◦ Process by which middle-class
people move into deteriorated
inner-city neighborhoods and
renovate housing
◦ Chicago
Houses may be larger
More substantially constructed
Cheaper than suburbs
Architectural details
Close to work
No children
In cities where there is strong
gentrification, ethnic patterns
are being altered
Inner-city white population increasing
African-Americans, Hispanics declining
Renovations are expensive!
◦ Cities encourage with low-cost loans
and tax breaks
◦ Encourages middle-class to move in,
low-class to move out
Not concerned with inner city
U.S. and other countries have laws to
protect low-class families
Moving farther from center
Reimbursed for moving and rent increases
over 4-year period
Some argue helps disperse
lower-income families more
evenly throughout city
◦ Instead of clumping in one area
◦ Definition:
◦ Definition:
◦ Rules concerning annexation vary
from state to state
◦ In the U.S. a city surrounded by
suburbs is sometimes called a
central city
◦ Boundaries of a city define the
geographic area within which
the local government has legal
 Defines an urban settlement that
has been legally incorporated into
an independent, self-governing unit
 Process of legally adding land area to a
 Usually only happens when majority of
residents in the area vote in favor of
doing so
The city
Often desired in 19th century because
cities offered more services
Today it is less likely, most don’t want
to pay city taxes
Defining Urban Settlements
◦ City: a legal entity
◦ Urbanized Area: a continuously
built up area
◦ MSA: a functional area
Urbanized Area
◦ Definition:
 In the U.S. the central city AND
surrounding suburbs
 Approximately 70% of U.S.
population lives in urbanized areas
◦ Functional area
 Minimum of 50,000 people
 Surrounding counties with high
population density and large % of
residents working in the central city
 Also have micropolitan statistical
◦ The increase in rural
populations that result
from the out-migration
of city residents from
their city and suburban
homes in search of nonurban lifestyles
◦ Noticed in the 1950s
◦ Rings of wealthier
communities that grew
just outside of the
◦ Modern form of
commuting that involves
only commuting of
information, not the
Developed by Chauncy Harris
According to model, an urban
area consists of an inner city
surrounded by large
suburban and residential
areas tied together by a
beltway or ring road
Edge Cities
◦ Definition:
 Around the beltway are nodes of
consumer and business services
◦ Originally built as suburban
 Services grew with population
 Many are specialized nodes
Collection of hotels around airports,
Density Gradient
◦ As you travel outward
from the center city,
the population
density declines
 According to the
density gradient, the #
of houses per unit of
land diminishes as
distance from the
center city increases
Urban Sprawl:
◦ Diffusion of urban
land use and life-style
into formerly nonurban, often
agricultural lands
Uneven Development
◦ Definition:
 Refers to urban
development that is not
spread equally among a
city’s areas
 Leaves some areas richly
developed and others
continually poor and
◦ Often caused by
cumulative causation
 When money flows to
areas of greatest profit
As suburban regions
grew and became more
desirable two
consequences occurred
◦ Segregated social classes
◦ Segregated land uses
Residential Segregation
◦ Prior to suburbs, vertical
integration in cities
◦ Once cities spread out
replaced by territorial
◦ Suburban neighborhoods
discouraged entry of lowincome or minority residents
 Feared loss of property values
Segregated Land Uses
◦ Zoning ordinances were
developed in European and
North American Cities in the
early decades of 20th century
 Prevented to mixing of landuses within the same district
Businesses have moved to
the suburbs too
Suburbanization of Retailing
◦ Most residents no longer want to
make journey to CBD
◦ Retailing has increased in
planned suburban shopping
◦ Manufacturers have selected
peripheral locations because
land costs are lower
◦ Services have moved to be
closer to customers
 Malls have become centers for
activities in suburban areas
Suburbanization of Factories
and Offices
◦ Factories and warehouses have
migrated to suburbia for more
space, cheaper land, and better
truck access
◦ Offices that do not require faceto-face contact are increasingly
moving to the suburbs
Historically, growth of suburbs
was constrained by poor
Motor Vehicles
◦ Suburban explosion of 20th century
relied on motor vehicles
 Rather than railroads of 19th century
 rail-lines restricted development to
narrow ribbons within walking distance
of stations
◦ People lived in crowded cities
because they had to be within
walking distance of shops and
◦ Cars/trucks permitted large-scale
development from the center
 Invention of railroad 1st allowed
people to live in suburbs but work
in the central city
 Later improved to
streetcars/trolleys, then subways
to accommodate commuters
 Provided more flexibility
◦ Ownership nearly universal in
American households
Public Transit
◦ Few people now live within walking
distance of employment
Urban areas are characterized by extensive
European cities like
London, England have
worked to limit urban
development to a
particular area by
installing a green belt
◦ A boundary that forces all
urban development to occur
within the city’s urban core
North American cities
have a difficult time
setting such boundaries
◦ Can attract investors who
want to develop lands and
grow the city at the expense
of rural lands
Portland, Oregon
◦ One U.S. city that has
effectively instituted a
boundary to contain urban
 Boundary forced revitalization of
the inner-city, not outward growth
 While it did work, it also increased
cost of living and real estate prices
One neo-urban trend is
planned communities
◦ Movement to bring together
trends in healthy living,
sustainable growth, and urban
◦ Neighborhoods with masterplanned housing designs,
walkable pathways, recreational
facilities, and security features
Many recent, neo-urban
designs include festival
◦ Large recreational areas for
communities, such as waterfront
parks along rivers