A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience

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Learning
Associative learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism’s
behavior due to experience
Learning that certain events occur together.
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which an organism comes to
associate stimuli
Behaviorism
The view of psychology should be an objective
science that studies behavior without reference to
mental processes
Unconditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally
occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that
unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a
response
Conditioned response
In classical conditioning the learned response to a
previously neutral conditioned stimulus. A learned
response
Conditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant
stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned
stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. A
learned or conditioned reinforcer
Acquisition
The initial stage in classical conditioning; associating
a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so
that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned
response
Extinction
The diminishing of a conditioned response
Spontaneous recovery
The reappearance, after a rest period, of an
extinguished response
Generalization
The tendency, once a response has been
conditioned, for stimuli to the conditioned stimulus to
elicit similar responses. When similar stimuli elicit similar
responses
Discrimination
The learned ability to distinguish between a
conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not
signal an unconditioned stimulus
Operant conditioning
A type of leaning in which behavior is strengthened if
followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a
punisher
Respondent behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to
some stimulus
Operant behavior
Law of effect
Behavior that operates on the environment,
producing consequences
Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by
favorable consequences become more likely , and
that behaviors followed by unfavorable
consequences become less likely
Operant chamber (Skinner box) A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal
can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer,
with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of
bar pressing or key pressing
Shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which
reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer
approximations of a desired goal
Reinforcer
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Primary reinforcer
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that
satisfies a biological need
Conditioned reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its
association with a primary reinforce. Money or
vacations
Continuous reinforcement
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Partial (intermittent)
Reinforcing a response only part of the time
Fixed-ratio schedule
A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a
response after a specified number of responses
Variable-ratio schedule
A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a
response after an unpredictable number of responses
Fixed-interval schedule
A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a
response only after a specified time has elapsed
Variable-interval schedule
Punishment
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment
Premack Principle
Cognitive map
Latent learning
A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a
response at unpredictable time intervals
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Encourages a behavior by giving a reward
Encourages a behavior by removing an aversive
(bad) stimulus
Adds a stimulus to decrease a behavior
Takes away a stimuli to decrease a behavior
A more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a
less preferred activity
A mental representation of the layout of one’s
environment
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is
an incentive to demonstrate it
Overjustification effect
The effect of promising a reward for doing what one
already likes to do
Intrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to
be effective
Extrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for a promised
rewards or threats of punishment
Observational learning
Modeling
Learning by observing others
The process of observing and imitating a specific
behavior
Mirror neurons
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing
certain actions or when observing another doing so
Prosocial behavior
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior, opposite of
antisocial behavior
Pavlov
He presented a neutral stimulus (a tone) just before
an unconditioned stimulus (food in mouth). The
neutral stimulus became a conditioned stimulus,
producing a conditioned response
John Garcia
He did the taste aversion studies, that showed that
your biology can determine what you can or cannot
be conditioned to do
Watson
Did the Baby Albert Study
Skinner
Designed an operant chamber, with a bar of key that
an animal presses or pecks releasing food and the
device records the animal’s accumulated responses.
Bandura
Researcher of observational learning, did the Bobo
doll experiment showing that we learn and are likely
to imitate those we perceive similar to ourselves.
Taste aversion study
An experiment done by Garcia that proves Pavlov
wrong in the sense that anyone can’t be conditioned
to anything, your biology determines what you can
be conditioned to do
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