Special Senses Olfactory (Smell) Receptors Pathways Discrimination Gustation (taste) Papillae Receptors Taste buds Basal cells (stem cells) Gustatory cells Taste pore Survive 10 days Discrimination Primary taste sensations Bitter Sour Salty Sweet Secondary taste sensation Umami Water Aging Vision Accessory structures Palpebrae (eyelids) Medial/lateral canthus Eyelashes Tarsal glands Lacrimal caruncle Thick fluid Conjunctiva (corners of your eye) Conjunctivitis Palpebral conjuctiva Cornea Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland Lysozyme Orbital fat Eye Iris Pupil (opening) Constrictor muscles Dilator muscles Retina Photoreceptors Rods Cones Optic disc Blind spot Chamber of the eye Anterior Posterior Lens Cataracts Refraction (light is bent) Focal point Accommodation Astigmatism Image reversal Visual acuity Visual Physiology Recovery after stimulation Bleaching Night blindness Color vision Blue cones Green cones Red cones Color blindness http://colorvisiontesting.com/ishihara.htm http://www.color-blindness.com/ishihara38-plates-cvd-test/#prettyPhoto http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/games/illusions/l ots_of_illusions.htm Visual pathway Visual Physiology Central processing of visual information Field of vision Depth perception Brain stem and visual processing Circadian rhythm Which sphere is bigger? Left facing or right facing? Lines straight or curved? How many triangles? Standing up or lying down? How many legs? Equilibrium and Hearing External ear Auricle Acoustic canal Tympanic membrane Ceruminous glands Cerumen Middle ear Tympanic cavity Auditory tube Auditory ossicles Malleus, incus, stapes Inner ear Bony labyrinth Cochlea Cochlear Implant Equilibrium Semicircular ducts Utricle and saccule Hair cells Receptors for gravity and balance Pathways for sensations vestibular Hearing Cochlear Duct Introduction to sound Amplitude: how high the wave travels Wavelength: top of one wave to the next Frequency/Pitch: how many times the wavelength repeats in a second Decibels (amt of energy) Hearing Hearing Process Spiral ganglion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkPj4IGbmQQ&featur e=related Auditory pathways Cochlear branch Auditory sensitivity Hearing Process Step 1: Sound waves arrive at the tympanic membrane. Step 2: Movement of the tympanic membrane causes displacement of the auditory ossicles. In this way, sound is amplified. Step 3: Movement of the stapes at the oval window establishes pressure waves of the vestibular duct. Step 4: The pressure waves distort the basilar membrane on their way to the round window of the tympanic duct. Information about frequency is translated into information about position along the basilar membrane. Step 5: Vibration of the basilar membrane causes vibration of hair cells leading to the release of neurotransmitters and thus to the stimulation of sensory neurons. The number of hair cells responding provides information on the intensity of the sound. Step 6: Information about the region and intensity of stimulation is relayed to the CNS over the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII). Equilibrium Hair cells in the inner ear Vestibulocochlear nerve Cranial nerve VIII Balance and hearing rely on the same basic types of sensory receptors (hair cells). The anatomical structure of the associated sense organ determines what stimuli affect the hair cells.