Crime, Violence and Abuse in the Lives of Children: Developmental Victimology David Finkelhor

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Crime, Violence and Abuse in the Lives
of Children:
Developmental Victimology
David Finkelhor
Crimes against Children Research Center
University of New Hampshire
5th Violence Prevention Milestones Meeting
Cape Town, South Africa
6-7 September 2011
Youth Risk - Adult Risk
(12-17)
Children More Victimized than Adults,
General Crime
4
2.9 x
3
2.3x
2
2.0x
1.9x
1
0
Agg.
Assault
Simple
Assault
National Crime Victimization Survey, 2000
Rape
Robbery
Children More Victimized than Adults
UK, 2006
Source: British Crime Survey - Roe & Ashe, 2008
Youth Have More Serious Crime Victimization
15.8
10.1
5.7
5.7
Youth
Adult
National Crime Victimization Survey, 2001
Adult
Youth
Rural Youth More Victimized than Urban Adults
Youth (12-17)
National Crime Victimization Survey, 2001
Adults
Why are Children So Victimized?
 Smallness, inexperience, dependency, fewer
conflict resolution strategies
 Weak norms and sanctions, limited protections
 Risky activities, less self-control
 Lack of choice over associates
Crime? Violence? Abuse?
Newspaper Article
Myths About Violence Against Children
 Children less affected by violence
 Violence can be positive for children
 Violence more mutual among children
Perils of Fragmentation







Underestimates true scope of victimization
Obscures interconnections
Fails to identify most victimized children
Unnecessary competition for scare resources
Reduces policy influence
Reinforces arbitrary distinctions
Ignores children’s own perspective
Developmental Aspects of Violence Risk
Family
Lethality
Gender
Differences
Stranger/
Acquaintance
Weapon
0
Age
18
Developmental Aspects of
Violence Impact
Attachment
Emotional Regulation
Cognitive Development
Memory Storage & Processing
Social Withdrawal
Inhibition of Aggression
Moral Development
Friendship Formation & Acceptance
Attributional Biases
Academic Performance
Self-Esteem
Pessimism
Social Competence
Antisocial Behavior
Younger
Older
JVQ Modules
 Module A: Conventional Crime
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Robbery
Personal Theft
Vandalism
Assault with Weapon
Assault without Weapon
Attempted Assault
Kidnapping
Bias Attack
 Module B: Child Maltreatment
–
–
–
–
Physical Abuse by Caregiver
Psychological/Emotional Abuse
Neglect
Custodial Interference/Family Abduction
 Module C: Peer & Sibling Victimization
–
–
–
–
–
–
Gang or Group Assault
Peer or Sibling Assault
Nonsexual Genital Assault
Bullying
Emotional bullying
Dating Violence
 Module D: Sexual Victimization
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Sexual Assault by Known Adult
Nonspecific Sexual Assault
Sexual Assault by Peer
Rape: Attempted or Completed
Flashing/Sexual Exposure
Verbal Sexual Harassment
Statutory Rape & Sexual Misconduct
 Module E: Witnessing & Indirect Victimization
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Witness to Domestic Violence
Witness to Parent Assault of Sibling
Witness to Assault with Weapon
Witness to Assault without Weapon
Burglary of Family Household
Murder of Family Member or Friend
Witness to Murder
Exposure to Random Shootings, Terrorism or Riots
Exposure to War or Ethnic Conflict
“Poly-Victims”: Number of Past Year Victimizations and
Trauma Symptoms
Poly-victims

NATSCEV PY weighted
ANOVA includes sex, age, race/ethnicity, family structure and SES.
Sexual Abuse Substantiation Rates:
Rate per 10,000 Children (<18)
1990-2009
61% Decline (1992-2009)
5% Decline
(2008-2009)
Source: NCANDS
Physical Abuse Substantiation Rates:
Rate per 10,000 Children (<18)
1990-2009
55% Decline (1992-2009)
0% Decline
(2008-2009)
Source: NCANDS
FBI Forcible Rape Rate & NCANDS Sexual Abuse Rate
1990-2009
Forcible Rape
33% Decline
1992 - 2009
59% Decline
1990 - 2008
*Source: FBI, Crime in the United States Reports and NCANDS
Sexual Abuse
Trends in Children’s Exposure to Violence
U.S. Official and Survey Data
200.00
180.00
160.00
140.00
Grand Mean
(36 indicators)
120.00
100.00
Survey Data Mean
(26 indicators)
80.00
60.00
40.00
Official Data Mean
(10 indicators)
20.00
0.00
Sources: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book, NCANDS, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), School Crime Supplement to the NCVS (SCS), Youth Risk
Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey (HBSC), Child Trends
Possible Mechanisms
Economic improvement
Increased agents of social intervention
More effective interventions
Psychopharmacology
Aggressive policing
Changing norms and awareness
Technology and surveillance
Finkelhor, D. (2008). Childhood victimization: Violence,
Crime, and Abuse in the Lives of Young People. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Daniel Schneider Child Welfare Book of the Year Award
For more information contact:
David Finkelhor
[email protected]
http://www.unh.edu/ccrc
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