Cancer Prevention & Early Detection University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee November 15, 2011 American Cancer Society Mission Statement The American Cancer Society is the nationwide communitybased voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives and diminishing suffering from cancer, through research, education, advocacy, and service. What We Do – Save Lives Helping people stay well By educating them on steps they can take to prevent cancer and find it early Helping people get well By providing accurate and timely informational, emotional, and practical support services Funding cancer research To further understand its causes, determine how best to prevent it, and discover new ways to cure it. Fighting back against cancer By supporting the American Cancer Society and those in your life who are affected by cancer, you can join us in creating a world with more birthdays! What is cancer? Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Cancer can be caused by both external factors and internal factors Can you guess? 355,000 Cancer Statistics Cancer is the #1 cause of death among working-age adults in the United States. • One-third are caused by tobacco use. • One-third are related to overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, and nutrition. “Two-thirds of cancer deaths can be prevented” --John Seffrin, CEO American Cancer Society Prevention and Early Detection If people would just do four things -- engage in regular physical activity, eat a healthy diet, not smoke and avoid becoming obese – they could slash their risk of diabetes, heart attack, stroke or cancer by 80%, a new report has found. But less than 10% of the 23,153 people in the multiyear study -- published in Monday’s Archives of Internal Medicine -- actually lived their lives this way. Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2009, Shara Yurkiewicz Prevention & Early Detection Cancers that can be prevented or detected early by screening account for at least 50% of all new cancer cases. Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 Cancer Risk Factors What is a risk factor? Anything that increases a person’s risk for getting a disease What is a modifiable risk factor? Anything that increases a person’s risk for getting a disease that can be changed Cancer Risk Factors While you can’t change your genetics, there are many things you can do to lower your risk for cancer. Reduce Your Risk Five lifesaving things you can do: 1. Don’t use tobacco 2. Maintain a healthy weight and adopt a physically active lifestyle 3. Consume a healthy diet with an emphasis on fruits and vegetables 4. Protect yourself from the sun 5. Get recommended screening tests Tobacco Use • Tobacco use is responsible for an estimated 443,000 premature deaths in the US every year, including 49,400 deaths in nonsmokers as a result of secondhand smoke • The American Cancer Society can help you or loved ones quit. Call 1.800.ACS.2345 or visit www.cancer.org/greatamericans for more information. • Become an advocate – www.acscan.org Maintain a Healthy Weight • Balance caloric intake with physical activity • Avoid excessive weight gain throughout life • Achieve and maintain a healthy weight if currently overweight or obese Adopt a Physically Active Lifestyle Adults: • Engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on five or more days a week (45-60 minutes is preferable) Children: • Engage in at least 60 minutes per day on five or more days a week Consume a Healthy Diet • Watch portion sizes • Eat 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day • Chose whole grains • Limit consumption of processed and red meats • Limit alcohol consumption – no more than 1 drink per day for woman and 2 for men On any given day in the US 815 billion calories are consumed (200 billion more than needed) 47 million hot dogs 4 million pounds of bacon 60 million pounds of red meat 170 million eggs 3 million gallons of ice cream 10 million pounds of candy 16 million gallons of beer and ale Protect Yourself from the Sun • Avoid direct exposure between 10am and 4pm when UV rays are the most intense • Wear hats that shade the face, ears and neck and clothing that covers arms, legs and torso • Cover exposed skin with sunscreen of SPF15 or higher • Avoid tanning beds and sun lamps What do you know about Skin Cancer? 1) I can't get skin cancer because my routine (work, drive to work, indoor hobbies, and vacations) doesn't include any outdoor activities. 2) If I'm wearing sunscreen, I can stay in the sun as long as I want. 3) A sunscreen labeled SPF 30 blocks twice as much UV radiation as one labeled SPF 15. 4) Getting a "base tan" at an indoor tanning salon is a good way to prevent sunburn when I go to the beach later this summer. Cancer Early Detection Develop a good relationship with your physician. Be open and honest in your discussions. He/she can educate you on early detection tests and screening tests. Bring a list of things you would like to discuss with your physician. Be empowered to ask for what screenings wait for your provider to bring it up. Example: “What early detection tests should I have them done?” you need. Don’t always should I consider? How often Breast Cancer Women at average risk should begin annual mammograms at age 40. Clinical breast exams should be part of a periodic health exam – every 3 years for women in their 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 and older. Women should know how their breasts normally feel so they can promptly report any changes to their physician. Women at increased risk (family history, genetic tendency or past breast cancer) should talk with their physician about their options. Cervical Cancer Screening should begin approximately 3 years after a woman begins to have vaginal intercourse, but no later than 21 years of age. Cervical screening should be done every year with regular Pap tests or every two years using liquid-based Pap tests. At or after age 30, women who have had three normal test results in a row may get screened every two to three years. But a physician may suggest getting the test more often if a woman has certain risk factors such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or a weakened immune system. Women 70 years of age and older who have had three or more normal Pap test results and no abnormal results in the last 10 years may choose to stop cervical cancer screening. Colorectal Cancer Beginning at age 50, men and women of average risk should follow one of these screening options: Tests that detect polyps and cancer: Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years Colonoscopy every 10 years Double contrast barium enema every 5 years Computed Tomographic (CT) colonography every 5 years Tests that primarily detect cancer: A guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) every year Stool DNA test (interval uncertain) Prostate Cancer The American Cancer Society recommends that men discuss the potential benefits and limitations of prostate cancer early detection testing with their health care provider beginning at age 50 Men at high risk should have this conversation at age 45. Men at high risk include African-Americans and men who have a close relative (father, brother, or son) who had prostate cancer before age 65. Stay Healthy from Cancer.org http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/index Choose You www.chooseyou.com We are here. We can help. Do you have questions about preventing cancer or early detection tests? Have your or someone you love been diagnosed with cancer? The American Cancer Society can help. Call us at 1.800.ACS.2345 day or night or visit www.cancer.org Questions?