Cancer Prevention & Early Detection University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee November 15, 2011

Cancer Prevention & Early Detection
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
November 15, 2011
American Cancer Society
Mission Statement
The American Cancer Society is the nationwide communitybased voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating
cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer,
saving lives and diminishing suffering from cancer, through
research, education, advocacy, and service.
What We Do – Save Lives
Helping people stay well
By educating them on steps they can take to prevent cancer and find it early
Helping people get well
By providing accurate and timely informational, emotional, and practical support
Funding cancer research
To further understand its causes, determine how best to prevent it, and discover new
ways to cure it.
Fighting back against cancer
By supporting the American Cancer Society and those in your life who are affected by
cancer, you can join us in creating a world with more birthdays!
What is cancer?
 Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by
uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal
 Cancer can be caused by both external factors
and internal factors
Can you guess?
Cancer Statistics
Cancer is the #1 cause of death
among working-age adults in the
United States.
• One-third are caused by tobacco use.
• One-third are related to
overweight/obesity, physical inactivity,
and nutrition.
“Two-thirds of cancer deaths can be prevented”
--John Seffrin, CEO
American Cancer Society
Prevention and Early Detection
If people would just do four things -- engage in
regular physical activity, eat a healthy diet,
not smoke and avoid becoming obese – they
could slash their risk of diabetes, heart attack,
stroke or cancer by 80%, a new report has
But less than 10% of the 23,153 people in the
multiyear study -- published in Monday’s
Archives of Internal Medicine -- actually lived
their lives this way.
Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2009, Shara Yurkiewicz
Prevention & Early Detection
Cancers that can be prevented or detected early by screening
account for at least 50% of all new cancer cases.
Cancer Facts & Figures 2009
Cancer Risk Factors
What is a risk factor?
 Anything that increases a person’s risk for getting a
What is a modifiable risk factor?
 Anything that increases a person’s risk for getting a
disease that can be changed
Cancer Risk Factors
While you can’t change your genetics, there are many things
you can do to lower your risk for cancer.
Reduce Your Risk
Five lifesaving things you can do:
Don’t use tobacco
Maintain a healthy weight and adopt a physically active
Consume a healthy diet with an emphasis on fruits and
Protect yourself from the sun
Get recommended screening tests
Tobacco Use
• Tobacco use is responsible for an estimated 443,000 premature
deaths in the US every year, including 49,400 deaths in nonsmokers as
a result of secondhand smoke
• The American Cancer Society can help you or loved ones quit. Call
1.800.ACS.2345 or visit for more
• Become an advocate –
Maintain a Healthy Weight
• Balance caloric intake with physical activity
• Avoid excessive weight gain throughout life
• Achieve and maintain a healthy weight if currently
overweight or obese
Adopt a Physically Active
• Engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate to
vigorous physical activity on five or more days
a week (45-60 minutes is preferable)
• Engage in at least 60 minutes per day on five
or more days a week
Consume a Healthy Diet
• Watch portion sizes
• Eat 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day
• Chose whole grains
• Limit consumption of processed and red meats
• Limit alcohol consumption –
no more than 1
drink per day
for woman and 2 for men
On any given day in the US
 815 billion calories are consumed (200 billion more than needed)
 47 million hot dogs
 4 million pounds of bacon
 60 million pounds of red meat
 170 million eggs
 3 million gallons of ice cream
 10 million pounds of candy
 16 million gallons of beer and ale
Protect Yourself from the Sun
• Avoid direct exposure between 10am and 4pm when
UV rays are the most intense
• Wear hats that shade the face, ears and neck and
clothing that covers arms, legs and torso
• Cover exposed skin with sunscreen of SPF15 or higher
• Avoid tanning beds and
sun lamps
What do you know about Skin
1) I can't get skin cancer because my routine (work, drive to work, indoor
hobbies, and vacations) doesn't include any outdoor activities.
2) If I'm wearing sunscreen, I can stay in the sun as long as I want.
3) A sunscreen labeled SPF 30 blocks twice as much UV radiation as one
labeled SPF 15.
4) Getting a "base tan" at an indoor tanning salon is a good way to prevent
sunburn when I go to the beach later this summer.
Cancer Early Detection
 Develop a good relationship with your physician. Be open and honest in your
 He/she can educate you on early detection tests and screening tests.
 Bring a list of things you would like to discuss with your physician.
 Be empowered to ask for what screenings
wait for your
provider to bring it up.
 Example: “What early detection tests
should I
have them done?”
you need. Don’t always
should I consider? How often
Breast Cancer
 Women at average risk should begin annual mammograms at age 40.
 Clinical breast exams should be part of a periodic health exam – every 3 years for
women in their 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 and older.
 Women should know how their breasts normally feel so they can promptly report
any changes to their physician.
 Women at increased risk (family history, genetic tendency or past breast cancer)
should talk with their physician about their options.
Cervical Cancer
 Screening should begin approximately 3 years after a woman begins to have vaginal
intercourse, but no later than 21 years of age.
 Cervical screening should be done every year with regular Pap tests or every two years
using liquid-based Pap tests. At or after age 30, women who have had three normal test
results in a row may get screened every two to three years. But a physician may suggest
getting the test more often if a woman has certain risk factors such as human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or a weakened immune system.
 Women 70 years of age and older who have had three or more normal Pap test results
and no abnormal results in the last 10 years may choose to stop cervical cancer
Colorectal Cancer
Beginning at age 50, men and women of average risk should follow one of these
screening options:
Tests that detect polyps and cancer:
 Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years
 Colonoscopy every 10 years
 Double contrast barium enema every 5 years
 Computed Tomographic (CT) colonography every 5 years
Tests that primarily detect cancer:
 A guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT)
every year
 Stool DNA test (interval uncertain)
Prostate Cancer
The American Cancer Society recommends that men discuss the potential
benefits and limitations of prostate cancer early detection testing with
their health care provider beginning at age 50
Men at high risk should have this conversation at age 45. Men at high risk
African-Americans and men who have
a close
relative (father, brother, or son)
who had prostate cancer before age
Stay Healthy from
Choose You
We are here. We can help.
 Do you have questions about preventing cancer or early
detection tests?
 Have your or someone you love been diagnosed with
 The American Cancer Society can help.
 Call us at 1.800.ACS.2345 day or night or visit