Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL and HEALTH EDUCATION VOLUME 10 Editorial Board Editor-in Chief Dr. B.O. Asaeha University of IbaLur. Managing Editor Members A.O. Adegbesan. PhD UniuersiVy of Ibadari K.O. Omolawon, PhD University of Diadem Editorial Advisers Professor Jimmy Coloway (Georgia] Professor William Chen (Florida) Professor Gudrun Doll-Tepper (Benin) Professor M. Kamil Ozer (Turkey) Professor L. Zaichkowsky (Massachusetts) Proessor J.A. Ajala (Ibadan) Professor E.O. Ojeme (Benin Gift/) Professor S.A. Adeyanju (Re-Ife) Professor L.O. Amusa (South Africa) 2006 Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and NonAthletes in Selected Secondary Schools in Nigeria O.O. Oyerinde1 Abstract This study investigated the problem of secondary school students' smoking behaviour according to the type of school they attend and the smoking habits of secondary school athletes and non-athletes in selected secondary schools in Nigeria. The hypotheses that there is no significant difference in the number of smokers from federal and state-owned schools and that there is no significant difference in the number of male athletes smokers and non-athletes smokers from federal and state-owned secondary schools in Nigeria were tested. The data collected were grouped, tabulated and analyzed using percentage and chi square analysis, where applicable. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that male athletes and non-athletes in federal and state-owned schools differ significantly in their smoking habits. It was therefore recommended that sports handlers in bothfederal and state-owned secondary schools should adopt sports and recreation programmes in their schools for smoking cessation among students. Introduction Studies in the area of drug use and abuse have revealed the major factors in habit formation with regard to a particular drug by individuals (Johnson, 1972;Asuni, 1974; Boroffka, 1985; Martin et al., 2007). Cigarette is one of the dangerous drugs used in many. Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete parts of the world (Miller, 1973; Jeffery, 2001). Olayemi (1982) and Chantal (2006) have stated that drug abuse does not exclude drugs like alcohol and tobacco. Such personal effects as curiosity, acceptance by others, expression of independence, boredom, need for relaxation, and school achievement have been sighted as factors that lead people into drug use (Akindele, 1974; Olatawura and Odejide, 1982; Gavin, 2005). Socio-cultural factors, such as religion, parent's attitude and availability are also sighted by some authors. Other works (Ogunremi and Rotimi, 1979; Elegbeleye and Femi-Pearse, 1974; Udoh, 1982; Miller, 1983; Fawole, 1986) also revealed that cigarette smoking prevalence exists among Nigerian secondary students irrespectively of religion, sex, academic discipline, age and locality. However, studies concerning students' smoking behaviour according to school type and among athletes in Nigerian schools are so scattered and far apart as not to make an impressive collection and a significant impression, especially among scholars. Hence, this study investigated the problem of students' smoking behaviour according to school type. It also investigated smoking habits of secondary school athletes and non-athletes, according to school type. The major hypothesis was that there is no significant difference in the number of smokers in federal and state-owned schools. The other hypotheses are that there is no significant difference in the number of male athlete smokers and nonathletes smokers in federal and state-owned schools, and that there is no significant difference in the smoking habits of female athletes and non-athletes in federal and state-owned schools. Methodology One thousand secondary school students in two federal and fifteen state-owned schools in Oyo, Ogun, Edo, Ondo and Lagos states were sampled for the study. The two categories of schools used formed the predominant school types in the states used. Fifty subjects were sampled from each school, using the systematic sampling procedure and utilizing the class registers. Students who had participated in the school's annual interhouse athletic competitions were categorized as athletes, while all others were non-athletes. In all, Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete 510 (51.0%) female and 490 (49.0%) males were used, while 533 (53.3%) were athletes and 467 (46.7%) were nonathletes. The data for the study were collected using previously validated and standardized questionnaire (SPDG). The questionnaire helped to determine subjects' background as well as collect personal data. It also helped to determine their levels of awareness of cigarette and the extent of its use. This was done by dividing the respondents into various groups using the following variables: religion, birth order, sex, school type, parental status, smoking status, sports preference, and parental status. The reliability tests carried out in four secondary schools in Kwara and old Bendel states revealed an internal consistency and reliability indices of r=0.76. Results and Discussion Data collected were grouped, tabulated and analysed using percentage and chi-square analysis. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05% level of significance. Table 1: Subjects' smoking status according to school type All subjects Male subjects 2 Female subjects Fed State Row total X Fed State Row total Smok ers 142 118 54.6 45.4 1 14.2 1.8 26020 1.16 NS 117 65.0 23.0 63 35.0 12.9 18037 NonSmok ers 362 376 49.1 50.9 36.3 37.7 7387-1 146 47.2 2.9.9 163 52.8 33.3 30963 50.4 49450 50.5 le+06 263 54 2264 6 5e+05 2 X 14 Fed State Row total 25 31.3 4.9 55 68.8 10.8 8016 216 212 50.5 49.5 42.5 41.7 42884 241 47 5e+05 26753 X2 9 NS = Not significant at p 0.05 level * = Significant at p 0.05 level. Table 1 shows a no significant difference in the cigarette-smoking habit of students from federal and stateowned schools. The A2 1.16 noted for all the subjects there is not significant. Thus, the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the smoking Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete habits of students in federal and state-owned schools is accepted. However, the significant x2 of 13:71 found for male students and 9.22 for female students at a probability level of 0.05 supports the fact that male and female students from federal and state-owned schools behave differently as far as smoking is concerned. The percentage scores in table 1 for male and female subjects show this fact more clearly. Among male smokers, 117 (23.90%) were from federal government schools, whereas only 63 (12.9%) were from state-owned schools. An appreciable differential was also shown for female smokers in federal and state-owned schools - i.e., 108% of female smokers were from state-owned schools, while only 4.9% of them attended federal schools. The fact that a non-significant result was obtained for all subjects, while significant results were found for male and female subjects revealed that male and female subjects in the two categories of schools, when treated separately, behave differently in matters of cigarette smoking. It was also revealed that whether a student attends a federal or state-owned school does not constitute a variable strong enough to influence his/her smoking habit. Therefore, the view that students from federal government schools would smoke more/less than, their counterparts in state-owned schools has no significant scientific basis. In both school categories, however, a rather low percentage of smokers is shown. For instance, only 14.2% of subjects in federal schools were found to be smokers, while 11.8% was recorded for subjects in stateowned schools (table 1). Furthermore, the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the cigarette-smoking habits of male athletes and non-athletes in federal and state-owned schools was rejected. Table 2 presents the percentage and chi-square values of the data collected. The cigarette smoking habits of male athletes and nonathletes in federal and state-owned schools differ significantly. Table 2 shows that a fairly high number of athletes (71 respondents or 39.7%) in federal schools are smokers. Besides, the number of cigarette-smoking athletes exceeded the number of non-athletes (14.5%, as against 9.4%) in federal government schools. In all, the subjects from state-owned schools showed a weaker tendency towards Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete smoking- only 29 (16.2%) of athletes and 33 (18.4%) of nonathletes from state-owned schools were smokers. The calculated X2 of 15.44 is greater than the table value of 7,81. Table 2: Smoking status of male student athletes and nonathletes by school type Athletes Non-athletes Federal Slate federal State 71 29 46 33 39.7 14.5 16.2 5.6 25.7 9.4 18.4 6.8 94 30.4 19.2 165 59.1 85 27.5 17.1 114 40.9 52 16.8 78 25.2 10.6 98 46.9 16.9 111 53.1 ROLU X2 tofal Smokers NonSmokers 17937 30963 15.44 d/3 significant at p<0.05. Table 3. Smoking status of female student athletes and nonathletes by school type Athletes Non-athletes Item Federal State Federal State Rou; Smokers 11 15 14 40 8015.7 13.75 2.16 18.75 2.95 17.5 2.75 50.00 7.89 Non- 109 115 107 97 428 Smokers 25.46 21.45 12048 26.86 22.63 1 3052 25.00 21.06 22.66.2 19.09 13753 508100 Xs total Column 12147 Total d/.3 significant at p<0.05 The data in table 3 show a significant difference in the smoking habits of female athletes and non-athletes in federal and state- * 25.89 Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete owned schools. In other words, female athletes and non-athletes from state schools smoke more than their peers from federal schools - 2.95% of non-athletes female' students in federal schools are smokers. However, table 3 further indicates a generally lower number of cigarette smoking female athletes than non-athletes -15.74% of them smoke, as compared to 84.25% of non-smokers. Also the data revealed that the hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference in the smoking habits of female athletes and non-athletes in federal and state-owned schools was rejected, as the calculated chi-square of 25.89 at p<0.05 is greater than the table value of 7.89. The results of the study were consistent with those of Horn (1963), Lewis (2001) and Martin et al. (2009), who analysed the syndrome of interrelated measures in smoking behaviours and concluded that the failure to achieve peer group status, satisfaction and scholastic goals could predispose adolescents to smoking. The explanation also applies to male students from federal schools who, after gaining admission into these schools, soon discover that they have to compete with a lot of brilliant students from others states. When these students discover that they cannot measure up, they resort to such activities as smoking to 'maintain' their locus standi. Anderson (1970), Jcifery (2001) and Chanlal (2006) found that, when adolescents recognize that they are not superior to their peers and/or they are found to possess certain inadequacies, they begin to consider the notion of behavioural change. Horn (1963) and Lewis (2001) asserted that expected behavioural changes range from cigarette smoking to drug addiction, sexual variance, truancy and other forms of delinquency. Conclusion and Recommendations From the results of the study, the following conclusions are made: 1. Students from federal government schools do not differ significantly from students who attend state schools in their smoking habits. 2. Male athletes and non-athletes in federal and stateowned secondary schools, especially in western Nigeria, differ significantly in their smoking habits. Smoking Behaviour of Student Athletes and non-Athlete 3. Female athletes and non-athletes from federal and stateowned secondary school will behave differently with regard to cigarette smoking. Based on the findings and conclusion, the following are recommended to control the prevalence of smoking among Nigerian secondary school students: 4. Government should intensify campaigns and public enlightenment programmes to educate people, especially adolescents, on the hazards of cigarette smoking. 5. The ministries of education and health, in collaboration with the West African Examinations Council, should set up machineries to complement the teaching of drug cessation counselling set out in school curricula. 6. Sports handlers in both federal and state-owned secondary schools should adopt sports and recreation programmes in schools for smoking cessation among students. References Akindele, M.O. (1974). Students and drugs: A study of 39 problem eases. Paper presentation at a conference of the Nigerian Medical Association. Anderson, C.L. (1970). 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