HEALTH AND FITNESS JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL (HFJI) Published By: HEALTH AND FITNESS ASSOCIATION OF NIGERIA Vol. 3, No. 1 JUNE 2002 ISSN – 1595 – 4013 EDITOR Editor-in-Chief - Professor E.A. Ogunsakin, Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Managing Editor - Dr.A.E. Talabi, Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. E-mail Address: Advisory Committee Professor L. Emiola - University of Ilorin Professor O. Oshodin - University of Binin Professor S. Jimoh - University of Ilorin Dr. S. Umoh - University of Ilorin Professor .A. Adewoye - University of Ilorin Dr. Danladi Musa - Bayero University, Kano Professor A. L Toriola - University of the North, South Africa. Editorial This is the fifth edition and we on the edition board are glad and appreciate your continued support for the journal. It is our wish to keep improving the quality of the Journal. We sincerely believe that your share our view the fitness is an important variable in superlative health. “He who has health has all” (Elders’ Proverb) EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Prof. Ogunsakin, E.A. VOLUME 3 NO.1 ARTICLES CONTENTS 1. 2002 PAGES Anthoropometric Somatotype of Nigerian University Male Judokas Ajayi-Vincent, O.B & Adesina, M.O 2, 1 Women’s Health Issues and Sustainable Development Adeyanju, F.B. & Haruna, F.R 3. 7 Determinants of Aggressive Behaviour Among Professional Soccer Players in Benue State. Euver, Jonahan N. 4. 21 The Relationship between Strength of the Limbs And Shooting Ability of Basketball Players – A Case Study of Niger Potters Team Dominic, O.L 5. 34 Nutritional Knowledge Among Adolescent Student in Pankshin Area Inspectorate of Education Kajang, Yakubu Boro & Maxwell, Gudam Boro 43 6. An Investigation into the Level of Awareness of the Gains of Recreation Activities Among Academic Staff of Higher Institution in Kwara State. Bakinde Surajudeen .T. 7. Contemporary Mental Health Problem: Causes and OLaitan O. Lanre Prevention 8. 62 The Injury Pattern of Squash Players in Nigeria Talabi, A.E. 9. 53 74 Effectiveness of Electronic Teaching Material on Pupils’ Sex Education Knowledge Achievement at Primary School Owojaiye Sunday & Oyerinde O.O 82 CONTEMPORARY MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS: CAUSES AND PREVENTION OLAITAN, 0. ‘Lanre DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA. ABSTRACT This paper reviewed the causes and prevention of contemporary mental health problems, which include neurological and psychosocial disorders. It also dealt with government action in preventing these disorders. Mental and neurological disorders, behaviour injurious to health and condition of life that lead to disease were highlighted. Proposal for action, such as measures to be undertaken by the health sectors, measures against abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances, crisis intervention in primary health care, prevention of iatrogenic damage, minimizing chronic’ disability as well as action at the community level and in other social sectors were briefly discussed. Instructions in family planning, sex, child development and nutrition have been recommended for inclusion in the school curriculum to help curb these menaces of social health problems in our society. INTRODUCTION Mental, neurological and psychosocial disorders constitutes an enormous public health burden. Even today we know so ‘little about such disorder as schizophrenia, parkinsonism and senile dementia that we cannot design programmers for their prevention (Katona, 1989). In the schizophrenias affective disorders, the frequency with which there is troublesome behaviour or a chronic mobility of patients to look after themselves can be reduced if the health team, community and family respond promptly and constructively. The public should be educated about the nature and extent of mental health problems and, where possible, about their treatment and prevention. MENTAL AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS Mental Retardation: The prevalence of severe mental retardation below the age of 1 8 is 3-4 per 1000; that of mild mental retardation is 20-30 per 1000 (Eisenberg, 1987). In some developing countries faulty delivery method may lead to birth traumas, which may in turn lead to mental retardation. Acquired Lesions of the Central Nervous System: Any damage to brain resulting from trauma, infection, malnutrition, hypertensive, encephalopath, pollutants, nutritional deficiency and other factors are a major source of impairment (Roberts, 1990). It has been estimated that 400 million persons suffer from iodine deficiency; their offspring are at. risk of brain damage in utero (I-letzel & Orley, 1985). Particular attention must be paid to the debilitating effects of cerebrovascular accidents secondary to undebilitating effects of cerebrovascu lar accidents. secondary to uncontrolled hypertension. Cerebrospinal meningitis, trypanosomiasis and HEALTH AND FITNESS JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL VOL.3, NO 1 2002 cysticercosis are major causes of brain damage. Persistent infections, even when the brain is not directly invaded, impair cognitive efficiency (KoIb & Brodie, 1982). Peripheral Nervous System Damage: Inadequate or unbalance diet, metabolic diseases, infection, traumas and toxins can’ cause incapacitating peripheral neuropathies with numerous social and psychiatric consequences (KoIb & Brodie, 1982). Psychoses: The prevalnce of severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, affective disorders and chronic brain syndromes is estimated to be not less than 1%; somewhat more than 45 million mentally ill persons suffer compromised social and occupational function because of these condition (Eisenberg, 1987). Schizophrenia incidence in the population aged 15-54 years is approximately 0.1 per 1000, whereas the rate of deiiressive disorders is several times higher (Eisenberg, 1987). Dementia: This can be caused by metabolic, toxic, infectious and circulatory diseases (Katona, 1989). The burden on health services is that, this dementia to the older ages makes them vulnerable to senile dementia of theAlzheimer’s type (Bruno, 1989). Epilepsy: Bruno (1989) defined epilepsy as a disorder in which pathological functioning of the brain causes a variety of symptoms such as seizures, odd actions, and altered state of consciousness. He further said that, it is a neurologic disorder, not a mental one. He therefore examined four basic kinds of epilepsy which are Grandma!, Petitmal, Jacksonian and Psychomotor. Emotional and Conduct Disorder: Eisenberg (1987) opined that such disorders are estimated to affect 5-15% of the general population. He further said that not all cases require treatment but some can lead to major impairment. Disorders of conduct which are common among school children and interfere with learning in the classroom and with social adjustment, often respond well to simple treatment (e.g. behaviour therapy and the counseling of parents), although recurrence is common. Learning disorders, whether or not they are associated with other psychiatric symptoms, require special help in the classroom in order to avoid secondary emotional problems and occupational handicaps. BEHAVIOUR INJUR1OUS TO HEALTH Alcohol-related Problems: Increase in alcohol consumption have been noted to precipitate alcohol-related problems such as cirrhosis of the liver, difficulties at work and home, and alcohol-related traffic accidents. Alcohol abuse by the individual has devastating effects on the family. Furthermore, a particularly tragic consequence of drinking during pregnancy is the fetal alcohol syndrome (Lewis et al, 1988). As increase in alcohol consumption precipitates alcohol-related traffic accidents, Olaitan (2002) opined that, road traffic accident (RTA) is the major cause of fractures which when mal-managed could be injurious to one’s general health status. Drug Abuse: Hughes (1983) bçlieved that, drug abuse and dependence have increased in most countries: The cannabis users, coca loaf chewers, opium and heroin dependants respectively are higher. Cocaine abuse is widespread and increasing. Amphetamines, barbiturates, sedatives and tranquilizers are consumed in most countries. This consumption have made large regions dependent on the income derived from growing cannabis, the opium poppy and the coca shrub, and this adds to the difficulty of imp lementihg control measures (Julien, 1978). Tobacco Dependence: Smoking is a social dependence on nicotine. It causes a high proportion of cases of cancer, chronic bronchitis and myocardial infections (Lewis et al, 1988). Premature deaths, innumerable cases of debilitating diseases, such as chronic obstructive lung diseases, are caused by smoking. The proportion of women of reproductive age who smoke regularly have been increasing rapidly in the developing world. CONDITIONS OF LIFE THAT LEAD TO DISEASE Violence: Violence, including accident, homicide and suicide, is one of the main causes oldeath in most countries. Psychosocial factors and mental disturbance play an important role in its occurrnce. Child abuse and wife battering are among the particularly dramatic indicators of violence in the family (Eisenberg, 1987). Family Breakdown: Family breakdown interferes with the upbringing of children. A household headed by a woman is more likely to be below the poverty threshold than one headed by a man, adding to the mothers difficulty in raising a family. Weakened family units also contribute to community disorganization and a variety of psychosocial and otherhealth problems (Eisenberg, 1987). Somatic Symptoms Resulting from Psychosocial Distress: Many patients who consult primary health care workers either have no attainable biological abnormality or. if they have one, complain disproportionately about their discomfort and dysfunction. Eisenherg (1987) opined that unless psychosocial sources of physical symptoms are recognized, the people affected are likely to be inappropriately investigated and treated. He further stresed that the inclusion of basic mental health care at primary health care level reduces cost of treatment and improves its outcome (Eisenberg, 1987). Proposals for Action on Prevention Prenatal and Perinatal Care: Eisenberg (1987) opined that in order that the foetus and the newborn childwould be protected and provided optimum conditions for development, and given high mortality and morbidity associated with prematurity and low birth weight. the collowing are recommended thus: High priority should be given to the provision of adequate food and to education about nutrition to all pregnant women; Direct counselling of pregnant women should be practiced to reduce the prevalence of development anomalies and low birth weight caused by cigarette smoking and the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy; In areas where neonatal tetanus is prevalent, pregnant women should receive tetanus toxoid after the first trimester and birth attendants should be trained in sterile techniques for cutting the umbilical cord; In iodine-deficient areas, women of chil.dbearing age should be given iodized oil injections or iodized salt in order to prevent the congenital iodine deficiency syndrome; Birth attendants should train to recognize high-risk pregnancies and to refer deliveries that are expctëd to be complicated to specialist facilities, since the prevention of obstetrical complications can reduce the number of children with central nervous system damage; The promotion of breast-feeding should be an integral component of primary health care. Programmes for Child Nutrition: This should be a major component of prevention because malnutrition can impair cognitive and social development (UNICEF, 1989). Immunization: The immunization of children against measles, rubella, mumps, poliomyelitis, tetanus, whooping cough, and diphtheria could make an important contribution to the prevention of brain damage (WHO, 1 993). Family Planning: Imogen (1.994), is of the opinion that child development is adversely affected when mothers have too many children at unduly short intervals or when they are too young or too old. Education on family planning and access to effective means of contraception are therefore essential elements in maternal and childcare. Measures against and Dependence of Psychoactive Substances Lewis, et al (1988) suggested that, primary health care workers should routinely counsel patients against smoking. Although only 3-5% will respond by stopping smoking, there is a large gain from the public health standpoint because of the high prevalence of the habit. Repeated efforts to quit have cumulatively higher rates 01 SUCCCSS and a low initial response should not discourage subsequent efforts. Health workers can be trained to recoghize the early stages of alcohol and drug abuse. Brief counselling can help a significant number of patients to alter their behaviour before dependence and irreversible damage occurred. Crisis intervention in Primary Health Care In the event of acute loss (eg. the death of a spouse), there is some evidence that group and itidividual counselling of the bereaved can diminish risk. Self help and mutual aid groups can improve health at minimum cost to the health services. Well-trained crisis intervention units can handle a variety of acute mental health problems and thus prevent chronic difficulties (Kolb & Brodie, 1982). Prevention of latrogenic Damage Blbom (1984) stressed that failure to diagnose and correctly treat psychosocial disorders results ,in iatrogenic damage, Thus, it is wrong to use potentially toxic drugs when what is needed is social support, or to rely on institution care for patients who can be restore to function while in the community. Health workers can be trained to inquire routinely about psychosocial problems in the course of evaluating new patients. This enables then to recognize the symptoms early enough and where necessary, referral to social welfare or mental health workers can significantly diminish the number of clinic visits (KoIb & Brodie, 1982). Katona (1989), said that measures to prevent dementia must await the results of further research, Cognitive impairment resulting from depression and infection can be reversed by prompt treatment. The difference between dementia and depression in the elderly is not recognized by the family doctor in four out of five cases. A training of physicians and other health workers to improve their diagnostic skills in this area is advocated. Minimizing Chronic Disability Education of primary care workers in the recognition of sensory and motor handicaps in children, the use of prosthetics devices to minimize handicaps and the referral of handicapped children to the educational authorities can prevent both cognitive under achievement and social maladjustment. Properly, fitted spectacles and hearing aids can reduce the likelihood of mental and social handicap in children. Health workers should be trained generally on different types of cases so as to known the appropriate approach to them accordingly. Action at Community Level and in other Social Sectors. Better day care for children: Hodson & Truog (1989), said that, retarded mental development and behavioural disorders among children growing up in families that are unable to provide suitable stimulation can be minimized by early psychosocial stirñulation of infants and by daycare programmes of good quality, particularly if the parents participate. However, the daycare must be ofadequate quality. Among useful measures that could be taken are: Surveys existing daycare facilities and assessment of the need for them Establishñ-ent of quality standards and appropriate regulatory measures; Setting of targets for quality and for training staff in the psychosocial development and needs of children. Self help groups and support services: Self-help groups organized by lay citizen, are effective in reducing the chronicity of certain disorders (e.g. Alcoholics Anonymous) in enabling the handicapped to improve their functional ability (e.g. societies that help epileptics), in educating the community about the nature of disorder and in advocating changes in legislation, better resources allocation, and satisfaction of the needs of people with specific disorder. Furthermore, community self- organization for local development has been shown to reduce the 5sychopathology associated with anomie (a state of alienation from the community) and helplessness (Eisenberg, 1980). Schools: The progressive extension of compulsory schooling provides a new opportunity to broaden people’s understanding of how they cañ protect their health. At the same time it leads to identification of child health problems not previously known to health authorities. Education for parenthood may well have to become a public responsibility. Creches and nursery school can be sited next to secondary schools, whose students can be assigned to work in them under supervision. Trained leaders for groups of new mothers can guide discussion of child- rearing and thus provide a valuable form of self-help (Eisenberg, 1987). Instruction about family planning, sex, child development, nutrition, accident prevention and substance abuse are among the subjects that are most frequently recoiii mended for inclusion in school curricu k. Public Health Measures for Accident Prevention: Every member of the community should cultivate the habit of accident prevention. The Media: Radio, television, newspapers and comic strips can play a major role in public health education. Cultural and Religions Influences: A knowledge of cultural and religious forces can be applied by health workers in their efforts to reduce damaging practices. Above all, arms of government not only the health sector should embark on action to make the prevention work. Health eduators should involve themselves in this preventive measure. In the area of prevention, government actions in various spheres may have implications for health e.g. housing projects may worsen mental health because of bad design; industrial development projects may destroy local culture and lead to family disruption, child, neglect and substance abuse (Lewis et al, 1988). The institution involvçment in the developing countries in multi-centre research, research training, courses and information exchange should be used to create and/or strengthen the basis for a further growth of knowledge in this field. 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