Rural Crime & Justice Center A University Center of Excellence Minot, North Dakota Routes of administration • Smoked • Injected • Snorted • Ingested • Absorbed Meth & the brain • A powerful central nervous system stimulant • Neurotransmitters affected are Dopamine - pleasure system, motor control Epinephrine - appetite, mood, “fight or flight” Serotonin - mood, sleep Norepinephrine - sleep, mood • Normal reuptake is inhibited Meth & the brain Immediate Effects • Euphoria • Increased heart rate • Increased metabolism • Blood vessels constrict • Pupils dilate • Increased body temperature Following normal stimulation, the body should return to normal. Methamphetamine sustains these effects for hours, which places an extended burden on the nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems leading to further adverse effects. US HHS, CSAT 1999, NIDA 2002 Short-Term Effects • Increased state of alertness • Inflated sense of confidence • Decreased appetite • Hyperactivity • Tremors and/or dizziness • Palpitations • Hyperthermia • Seizures Long-Term Effects • Lowered resistance to all types of ailments • Intense body odor • Extreme weight loss • Insomnia • Mood instability • Amphetamine psychosis • Severe depression • Stereotyped activity to include persistent, compulsive and repetitive behaviors Effects by ROA Orally Severe tooth decay. Intranasal (snorting) Sinusitis, loss of sense of smell, congestion, atrophy of nasal mucosa, nosebleeds, perforation or necrosis of the nasal septus, hoarseness, problems swallowing, and throat ailments. Hoarseness, problems swallowing, throat ailments, and a productive cough with black sputum. HIV, hepatitis, tuberculosis, lung infections, pneumonia, bacterial or viral endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart), cellulitis, wound abscesses, sepsis (the toxic spreading of infection), thrombosis (blood clot), renal infarction (partial or whole kidney death), and thrombophlebitis (inflammation of a vein wall). Smoking Injecting CA Dept of Alcohol & Drug Programs Warning Signs • Changes in attitude & persona • Dramatic changes in appearance • Lack of motivation or interest in school • Avoiding family & friends • Changes in sleep & eating patterns • Lying/dishonesty • Increase in borrowing money/stealing • Evidence of drug paraphernalia www.TargetMeth.com www.theantidrug.com The Partnership for a Drug-Free America Other Signs & Effects Rotten Teeth Teeth Grinding Dr. A.N. Morton, DDS Washington State DOC Other Signs & Effects “Crank Bugs” “Meth Mites” Drug use over time This is a series of arrest photographs of the same woman taken over the course of 10 years that graphically shows the changes to the human body. Year Year Year Year Year Year YearSeven Three Eight One Two Four Nine Five Ten Six Any Questions?