Chapter 2 The nature of approaches and methods in language teaching Approaches and Methods • An approach or method refers to a theoretically consistent set of teaching procedures that define best practice in language teaching • Particular approaches and methods, if followed precisely, will lead to more effective levels of language learning than alternative ways of teaching • The quality of language teaching will improve if teachers use the best available approaches and methods • Different approaches and methods have very different characteristics in terms of goals, assumptions about how a second language is learned, and preferred teaching techniques, have in common the belief that if language learning is to be improved, it will come about through changes and improvements in teaching methodology. • The active period of approaches and methods was from the 1950s to the 1980s. • 1950s-1960s--- Audiolingual Method and the Situational Method--- Communicative Approach • The same period– the Silent Way, the Natural Approach, Total Physical Response • 1990s---Content-Based Instruction and TaskedBased Language Teaching, Cooperative Learning, Whole Language Approach, Multiple Intelligences Definition of Approach, Method, Technique • Edward Anthony (1963) identified approach, method, technique as: • Approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefs about language and language learning are specified, also refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning . • Method is the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skills to be taught, the content to be taught, and the order in which the content will be presented • Technique is the level at which classroom procedures are described • The level means level in which objectives, syllabus , and content are determined, and in which the roles of teacher, learners, and instructional materials are specified. Approach • Approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefs about language and language learning are specified, also refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching. • There are at least three different theoretical views of language and the nature of language proficiency. 1. The structural view: the mastery of elements of phonological units, grammatical units, grammatical operations, lexical items… 2. The functional view: semantic and communicative dimension. A notional syllabus would include not only elements of grammar and lexis but also specify the topics, notion and concepts the learners needs to communicate about, for example, ESP. 3. The interactional view: It sees language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals. Language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of soical relations.