Document 15755222

Trevor Gilligan
Pols 315
Prof. Chadwick
Section A.
The reason that I chose this graph was that it shows Japan and its relationship to
the key players of global power. It also accurately depicts the way Japan has settled into
a comfortable role of superiority without becoming exhibiting overwhelming dominance.
This could be a result of Japan reaching the top level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs,
self-actualization. This was accomplished by first overcoming the needs of survival,
security, community and status. They did this through appropriate and sound political,
economic and social policies. As the CEO lead representative of Japan, we promote a
high level of international trade and a peaceful, defensively based military.
This concept also fits right into the GDA model, where Japan would be at the
actualization stage as well. Japan is not achieving any major goals on the global power
scene, nor are they drifting away from anything that they have accomplished. Japan is
currently the fourth highest power in the world behind China, India and the United States.
Over the next twenty years, they are projected to remain fourth with China and India
slightly growing and the U.S. gradually coming down. The self-actualization of this is
that Japan has found a niche in the world of power among states and have currently
settled right where they want to be. Thanks to the actualization of their role in the global
power scene Japan has been able to focus its attentions on other aspects other that
becoming a world power. This again is one of the reasons that Japan has been able to
become one of the leaders of international trade and is currently the top nation in the
world in globalization, as the next graph illustrates.
This graph also goes along with Japan’s isolationist nationalism. It is apparent in
the graph because Japan does not gain or loose power over the next twenty years. They
cover their domestic obligations before worrying about what other people in other
countries are doing to each other. Japan feels that domestic concerns are more important
than becoming the number one world power.
This graph was chosen because it shows Japan as the leader in Globalization and
continuing to lead into the future. Economic globalization is one of Japan’s top priorities,
thus it is a major goal in Japanese policy. Social globalization, on the other hand, is met
with more of challenge and is not widely supported within the current policies. This
graph is based with economic globalization in mind not social, therefore Japan is at the
top for the duration of it. Easton’s model of decision making supports the way in which
Japan has come to be in favor of economic globalization because the policy and political
environment are responding to the country’s demand for world involvement and is
support by international trade. The same would be said for social globalization except
the demands for it are stifled by Japan’s nationalism.
Another way to look at this graph would be through Richardson’s reaction curve
model. Every country on the graph is inevitably increasing in globalization and chasing
after one another, with Japan leading the way. Within the next twenty years there is not
one state over the top one percent of power that reaches a state of equilibrium, even as
Japan climbs to the top of the graph. This is not necessarily a good thing for the world.
The reason for this is because globalization is dichotomous; it dilutes cultures and
exacerbates corporate monopolies.
Section B.
Japan is a key player in the world today; they are fourth in global power and the
world leader in globalization. Most countries around the world look up to Japan because
of their success with international trade and for developing a sound economy. Other
countries such as the United States need Japan to keep up in setting a fast paced global
economy. International relations, on the other hand, could use a little work because there
is still bitterness between Japan and the countries that it occupied prior to World War II,
not to mention the Chinese. The security as well is an envy of many countries around the
world, though it does not have nuclear capabilities and is heavily defense orientated it
does have the protection of the United States, which is by far the greatest military force in
the world.
In the future Japan will be trying to strengthen international relations, especially
with other Asian countries. It will continue to be a leader in international trade and
globalization due to its current position in the global economy. Japan is lucky because it
can focus more money and effort on trying to better their economy and trade due the
security that the United States provides. Other countries do not have this luxury and must
worry about defense, usually as a number one priority.
Section C
Japanese policy is a complex system based around three issues, international
relations, foreign trade and defense. In this simulation I expect Japan to be challenged in
all three areas. As the CEO I will be coordinating and motivating the rest of the group to
improve upon these three issues.
With international relations Japan needs to improve on its relations with the Asian
countries. Prior to World War II Japan occupied Taiwan, Korea, and the Kuril islands
which is now apart of Russia. They also invaded China during World War II and used
rather unethical means of war. Due to all of this many East Asia countries still have
bitterness towards Japan. During the simulation I would like to set up an Asian Union
very similar to the European Union. This would not only help strengthen the
relationships with neighboring countries around Asia but it would also help out the
countries that are in need of assistance, such as Russia’s economy, or Indonesia’s foreign
trade. Uniting the Asian countries would boost Japan in almost every facet of the issues
prior discussed. The support that this idea would have to have would be the support of
the key players in East Asia. China and Russia mostly, but South Korea and Taiwan
could be deciding factors in the Asian Union becoming a reality. Outside countries like
the United States and Germany would probably be the only opposition because there
would be a potential power shift on the international stage.
Focusing on international trade as the main concern of the Asian Union, Asia as a
whole will receive an economic lift. Since Japan in one of the leaders in international
trade currently, they should be able to increase their status as an important contributor to
the global economy. Also due to Japan’s multitude of trading partners less developed
countries would be greatly aided by the formation of an Asian Union. This would bring
the support of Indonesia and Taiwan who are both looking to improve their international
trade but do not have as much to offer the global market as more developed countries that
have been working on this issue for years.
A defense committee would be created to provide security for all of the countries
that are in the Asian Union. This would be greatly enhanced by the United States
because of their military backing of Japan. This would only occur if the United States
were in favor of the union in the first place. If not the combined military forces and
technologies of Russia, Korea, China and Japan would allow the union to compete with
anyone in the world, with the exception to the United States. The defense commission
would be able to hinder the operations of Asian based terrorist, such as Al Queda in
Indonesia. It also would be a deterrent for any outside country that has reason to attack
anyone country with in the union.
One may say that there is already an organization like this set up in Asia that is
true, but not entirely. There is the ASEAN, Association of Southeastern Asian Nations,
but that only includes ten countries from Southeast Asia; Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia,
Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
( Japan has no role in the ASEAN and this is precisely why a new
union must be created to bring all of the Asian countries together or at least all of the
Eastern Asian countries together. The ASEAN posses another problem to the idea of
having an Asian Union, because all of these countries are going to be hesitant to just give
up what they have worked for and start something new because Japan wants in on it.
The formation of an Asian Union would not only allow Japan to improve in their
three main areas of interest, but it would also help other Asian countries in those same
areas. The main issue that will arise will be the division of power within the union. This,
however, is impossible to predict what will occur because I do not know of the intentions
nor the character of the other countries in this simulation.
ASEAN Secretariat, The. Jakarta, Indonesia: 2003,
Ashley Kaono
Prof. Chadwick -POLS 315
Source: (
Source: (
Sestion A.
Since Japan’s economy is one of the largest in the world, perhaps it is important
to pay close attention to its place in the global market. “Globalization refers to the
worldwide phenomenon of technological, economic, and cultural change, as brought
about by expanding facilities for intercommunication and interdependency between
traditionally isolate cultures”.
( The first graph above projects Japan’s trends concerning
globalization. And the second presents Japan’s national deficit. In all areas presented,
there seems to be a general increase, especially in the area of policy and sustainability.
With regard to the Japan’s foreign policy, it is important to have a good understanding of
all economic affairs, in connection with globalization and with relation to its nation
deficit/government spending. It is projected in the graph above, that Japan will be rid of
its deficit by the year 2010.
With a strong yet stable economy, Japan has more possibilities in all areas,
especially in its ability to change current foreign policies if necessary. Moreover, the
relatively new phenomenon, globalization, is one led by new technology and economic
power; Japan is well recognized in both of these areas. According to the most recent
economic report released by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, “corporate profits
are improving and business investment is increasing.”(
Increases in profit and investment are indicative of a strong economy and fiscal position.
To begin, Japan’s strong economy and relative lead in the global market puts it in a very
good position to change its current foreign policy, perhaps become more independent or
assertive in its foreign policies. In the early 1980’s, “Japan became the world's largest
creditor, an increasingly active investor in the United States, and a major contributor to
international debt relief, financial institutions, and other assistance efforts.”
( However, a move to become independent,
especially of the United States and other western powers will place Japan in poor favor
with these countries. I expect that its foreign policy will adjust to better reflect its strong
economy and the favorable position it holds as the world’s largest creditor.
Source: (
The third graph that is shown above forecasts Japan’s power index in the coming
years. There seems to be a considerable decrease in the coming years and this poses,
perhaps not an immediate threat but definitely one to beware of. Although it is important
for other countries to pay attention to Japan’s growing economic power, it is also
important for Japan to develop and/or maintain strong foreign relations. “During the
1950s and 1960s, foreign policy actions were guided by three basic principles: close
cooperation with the United States for both security and economic reasons; promotion of
a free-trade system congenial to Japan's own economic needs; and international
cooperation through the United Nations (UN)--to which it was admitted in 1956… In the
1970’s there was growing domestic pressure on the government to exercise more foreign
policy initiatives independent of the United States, without, however, compromising vital
security and economic ties.” ( Much of Japan’s
economic success could probably be partially attributed to the United States, however
with the changes in the 1970’s and Japan becoming less reliant on Western powers for
resources, such as oil, the current relationship and policy with the United States is what
most prominently stands as an issue to be addressed and perhaps adjusted to secure
Japan’s status abroad. I think that there will be a move toward not only a greater
economic independence but also more emphasis placed on the “financial and
development needs of other countries, especially those that provide Japan with vital
energy and raw material supplies.” ( To help deter
or moderate the loss of power, as suggested above, Japan must develop and maintain a
more assertive and independent foreign policy with those countries that supply Japan,
and/or perhaps with allies of the United States.
Section B.
To begin, the first graph presented on Globalization, was perhaps not the most
important of the graphs chosen but indeed one that must be well-explained. It is
important to distinguish Globalization and Globalism, which is “a market based ideology
endowing globalization with neoliberal ideas, values and meanings.”(Steger) While the
first graph presents the future globalization level index in Japan, it’s important to not only
mention that this level is rising but also to suggest that there is a change or transition in
how the people of Japan are thinking and acting as producers and consumers in a global
market. What they may be expecting of their government and what their government may
or may not be doing to meet the demands of this transition begins, I think, with their
foreign policy/relations.
The Five Claims of Globalism, according to Steger are as follows:
1. Globalization is about the liberalization and global integration of markets.
2. Globalization is inevitable and irreversible.
3. Nobody is in charge of globalization.
4. Globalization benefits everyone (in the long run…)
5. Globalization furthers the spread of democracy in the world.
For Japan to truly succeed and maintain their place among the global economy in this
period of globalization, strong foreign relationships and policies are more than imperative
and must be a top concern. With regard to Steger’s claims, “nobody is in charge of
globalization,” and the “global integration markets,” I feel that our relationships domestic
and aboard are going to be our greatest concern.
Abraham Maslow’s “basic needs” theory is about relationships and positions. Japan’s
post- war development, regaining its sovereignty in 1952 and reentering the international
community as an independent nation placed them in a difficult position between the East
and the West. Although Japan was independent at this time, it became an ally to the U.S.
which essentially made them a dependent on United States. “Japan’s foreign policy goals
during most of the early postwar period were essentially to regain economic viability and
establish its credibility as a peaceful member of the world community. With respect to
the world at large, the nation avoided political issues and concentrated on economic
goals. Under its omni directional diplomacy, it sought to cultivate friendly ties with all
nations, proclaimed a policy of “separation of politics and economics” and adhered to a
neutral position on some East-West issues.”(
Abraham Maslow’s “basic needs” theory begins more or less with survival, “satisfaction
of immediate physiological needs to maintain life being met.”(Maslow) After World War
II, it was then necessary for Japan to reconcile, regain, or even create their relationships
with other countries and prove that it could be a “peaceful member of the world.” In
order to continue, grow, and prosper as a country, they had to remain a dependent ally of
the U.S. and maintain a neutral position in terms of global politics. Once having at least
developed and maintained their position among other nations and continuing to meet the
“basic needs’ of security, community and responsibility, I believe that it is perhaps time
for Japan to begin working on their own fulfillment or self-actualization which is
characterized by their status, their anticipated roles and an all-around ideal position that it
hopes to achieve, present-day.
I think it is important to have our present position and ideal position in mind at all
times, whatever it may be. Positions are based on interests, real or perceived and in order
to self-actualize and achieve a favorable position or a particular goal, we must always
know what we have, need, desire and what it is we value. The Power Index graph given
above is important to keep in mind because it doesn’t provide a particularly promising
out-look. According to this particular graph, our power index level drops significantly in
the coming years. Our position presently is to develop policy and relationships abroad to
avoid this severe decrease. Moreover, according to the GDA model, “Power is the ability
to attain goals against resistance.” (Chadwick) And, currently, our actual position is that
we are a dependent ally to the United States, we have the second largest economy in the
world and that we remain relatively neutral in our position/relationships among the other
nations. I think that this, in fact, does or will create an aggravation of sorts because I
believe our most fundamental goals at this point are to maintain and grow with our strong
economy, become less dependent on the United States and develop stronger, more
profound relationships abroad and perhaps even change our disposition among our
present allies and counterparts.
Section C.
Stronger foreign relationships and the facilitation of trade are key concerns for
Japan. Up to this point Japan’s foreign policy best reflects a desire “to reconcile its Asian
identity with its desire for status and security in an international order dominated by the
relationships with other countries, especially the Asian nations is essential. Our strong
economy combined with the present economic changes taking place today, Japan, now
and perhaps more than ever is able to truly take an independent stance on the world stage
and achieve a more self-sufficient, sovereign foreign policy. I’d like to propose a move
away from those we were once dependent on, such as the United States. And in
proposing that I mean we should focus less on our relationship with the U.S. and its allies
and more one developing our own relationships which are more suitable to our interests.
Doing this will better enable us to develop stronger foreign relations and focus more of
our attention to the financial needs and developments of other countries, specifically
those that have provided Japan with energy and raw material supplies.
First, I’d like to form an alliance of sorts. One in which we have China, Taiwan
and Russia, and perhaps Indonesia. In 2000, Indonesia was ranked 17th among world oil
producers, accounting for 1.9% of the world’s population of daily oil production. Also in
2000, Japan made up 36% of their export market.( Redirecting
out attention to Indonesia’s economy and materials, as well as developing better relations
with China and Russia to facilitate trade and better business relationships, will certainly
place Japan in a move favorable position among other nations.
I’d also like to suggest that we develop a council similar to the present-day Pacific
Economic Cooperation Council with government support. Their purpose would be the
same as the PECC, “to serve as a forum for cooperation and policy coordination to
promote economic development in the Asia-Pacific region.” ( This
would not only achieve the objective of developing better foreign relations, but would
also allow nations, obviously including Japan, to help analyze and promote economic
growth. Through “trade, joint ventures, mutual aid and other forms of linkage, when
developed in a spirit of partnership, fairness, respect and genuine cooperation, strengthen
the foundation needed for a prosperous, progressive and peaceful Pacific Region.”
Obviously I expect that there will be consequences for wanting to act more
independent of the United States. I don’t particularly expect that our relationship will
become better or stronger throughout the course of the simulation. However, I do
anticipate support from countries such as China, Taiwan and Russia. I believe there will
remain a common goal or economic growth among these countries, either maintaining or
developing it. Perhaps, I also believe that with economic growth, political stability will
arise in other countries, such as Russia and Indonesia.
Lastly, assuming there will be an organization similar to the United Nations, I’d
like to put forward the intent to secure a permanent position on the United Nations’
Security Council. Japan is an important economic world power and a major donor to the
U.N.’s programs and their peacekeeping efforts. I imagine, however, that this will be
something to reconcile with China, which cites that Japan has done little to acknowledge
its aggression in WWII.
Works Cited
Chadwick, Richard. Global Politics:International Relations. Course home page.
Aug.2005-May 2006. Political Science Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 1
Mar 2006 <>
Chadwick, Richard. Global Politics:International Relations. Course home page.
Aug.2005-May 2006. Political Science Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 1
Mar 2006
Country Studies. 2003. United States Library of Congress. 1 Mar 2006
“Globalization.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Feb 2006. 1 Mar 2006
International Futures. Barry B. Hughes. 2004. Graduate School of International Studies
University of Denver. 1 Mar 2006 <
Indonesia Business Directory. 2000. Hendriawan and Rekan. 1 Mar 2006
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Kasumigaseki. 1 Mar 2006
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council. The PECC International Secretariat. 1 Mar 2006
Steger, Manfred B. Globalism: The New Market Ideology. Rowman and Littlefield.
Jason Say
POLS 315
R. Chadwick
March 2, 2006
Section A
I am the CBO/CTO of Japan in the world simulation and I have chosen some
graphs below to help analyze the future of Japan. These graphs will assist me in creating
policies that will be beneficial to the Japanese economy and people. By recognizing the
direction that the country is headed in, it will be easier to decide whether to continue
currently policies or to abandon them and construct more efficient policies.
The prospect of our future exports looks relatively flat according to the graph
above. From about 2020 and on China seems to surpass all nations in exports by a huge
margin. Japan is behind the curve not only of China but of Germany and the United
States as well. The only way to counter this is to rely on our strengths and develop new
technologies and products that are ground-breaking to the rest of the world, therefore they
would have to trade with Japan in order to acquire the new technology. This would give
Japan unparalleled leverage in the global trade market and may help us narrow the gap
among the other world powers. We need technologies that are sought-after by powerful,
wealthy nations like: China, the Untied States, and Germany.
This graph above shows that the average income of Japanese citizens is expected
to rise steady well into year 2020. My policies as CTO/CBO will be strongly geared
toward progressing this trend by encouraging more foreign investment in Japan. With
more desirable and profitable businesses operating in Japan our citizens will see their
choices of top level jobs increase and their income will grow along with it. Having a
stable income and strong economy will help Japanese citizens satisfy Maslow’s second
hierarchal need of safety. Financial security is extremely important to Japanese society
and providing this to the people is a top priority. Once this basic need is taken care of
citizens will be able to undertake to satisfying Maslow’s other needs such as community,
responsibility and eventually fulfillment.
Above is a graph that details the energy demands of Japan in the future. As you can see
unlike other nations, Japan’s energy needs will actually start to decrease within the next
20 years. To me this can mean either two things. The first is that the Japanese
population will use less energy consuming technologies. The second, which to me is
more probable, is that the Japanese will develop more efficient ways to use energy so that
it will require less of it to run its machines and other technologies. Look at the huge
difference between Japan and the other nations in energy dependency. These other
countries, especially China, will be at a huge economic disadvantage if Japan can
continue to both conserve energy and develop more efficient ways to utilize
The last graph I will be analyzing deals with the future infrastructure of Japan
compared with those of the other projected powerful states of the future. The graph
shows that Japan has one of the best infrastructures and it is projected to get better in the
future. This is critical in satisfying Maslow’s most basic need of survival. Domestic
institutions such as hospitals, schools and police stations must be efficient if the state is to
prosper. The infrastructure of a society is vital to both its domestic and foreign success
and a lot of energy must be focused into making Japan the most secure, comfortable, and
enjoyable place to live in the world.
Section B
The Japanese economy is one of the strongest in the world. Its annual GDP of
$3,867,000,000,000 is second to only that of the United States. Some of Japan’s main
exports are cars, electronic devices, computers, and fish. Japan’s automobile industry is
the second largest in the world trailing the United States by a very small margin. The
electronics industry in Japan is the one of the most innovative in the world. Japanese
fishing fleets account for 15% of the global catch. Japan’s most important and largest
trading partner is the United States which imports 22.7% of all Japanese goods. The next
largest importer of Japanese goods is China accounting for 13.1%, followed by South
Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Japan relies on imports from other countries to provide
for most of its raw materials such as oil, food products, and wood. Its largest supplier is
China which accounts for 20.7% of all Japanese imports, next is the United States at 14%
followed by South Korea, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and the UAB. Japan
currently receives 83% of its oil from the Middle East. The largest industries in Japan are
manufacturing, construction, distribution, real estate, services, and communications. The
Japanese economy had a really bad decade in the 90’s in which its national debt grew to
170% of its GDP. This has caused for massive reforms in the banking, insurance, and
services industries. In 2004-2005 the economy showed promising growth easing many
concerns about deflation. Japan spends only 1% of its GDP on its military which has been
partly attributed to the recovery.
Section C
The welfare of Japan and its citizens depends largely on its economy. As both the
CBO and CTO of Japan my mission will be to continue to advance foreign trade within
the global economy as well as develop a stronger infrastructure for businesses at home to
improve the economic situation of not just the country but of every single Japanese
As of 2005 Japan’s international debt is at 1.545 trillion dollars. I will work to
lower this debt by forming new trade agreements with countries that Japan owes money
to such as the United States and China. Our public debt per capita is also among the
highest in the world at 170%. Compare this with the average United States rate of 64.7%
and you can see the problem.
Japanese exports are our lifeline and there are many countries out there that we
have not penetrated. The European Union is growing larger, stronger, and ever more
influential in the global market and I will make sure that Japan increases its trade with
them. Japan is already one of the leading exporters of advanced technologies. Our
products from Sony, Toshiba, and other large corporations can be found in virtually all
corners of the world. Keeping this industry among the most advanced and innovative in
the world will be a top priority. The fishing industry in Japan is another area where I
hope to increase production and revenue. Currently, Japan produces about 15% of the
world fish market and my goal is to increase that export by at least 10%. Large
pharmaceutical companies in the United States like Merck bring billions of dollars to it’s
economy every year. This industry is growing at a rapid rate and will be around forever
so it is imperative that Japan strengthen its role in the pharmaceutical drug industry. I
will try to increase drug research facilities in Japan which will provide more desirable
jobs to the citizens.
The world is also becoming more aware of global warming and fossil-fuel
conservation. Japan is already a world leader in this department by taking the lead in
developing alternative energies that are both economical and efficient. Japan’s hybrid car
market is the largest in the United States with Toyota and Honda outselling all American
brands. My plan is to make the technology even better and to increase the influence of
Japanese hybrids into China, Europe, and South America.
Using this information I want to help my teammates make Japan a more powerful
and prosperous nation. I hope to implement smart, beneficial economic policies at home
and abroad that will lead to greater revenue for the people and for the government. This
extra revenue can be used to further enhance Japan’s infrastructure and to strengthen
Japan’s military. I expect the other members of my team to work with me both
politically and militarily to make sure that the economic and trade agreements that I make
are carried out at home and abroad. As for members of the other nations, I will work
with them to make the world economy more equal and accessible to all countries. My
mission will be to create new trade agreements with other countries that will be mutually
beneficial and lead to higher standard of living for everyone.
The graphs above detailed how closely Japan will resemble countries like China
and India in the future. My goal is to resolve economic disputes diplomatically and I will
work hard to make sure the economic playing field is level. By working together with
my fellow teammates and the members of other countries I hope to make Japan and the
whole simulation world more safe, profitable, and enjoyable.
References Cited
“Economy”. Retrieved on February 4, 2006 from
Lopez, Joe. “Japan stakes its claim to Iraq oil and gas”. January 26, 2004. Global
Policy Forum. Retrieved on February 4, 2006 from
“The World Fact Book”. Japan. Central Intelligence Agency.
Retrieved on February 4, 2006 from
Brianna Wilson
Professor Chadwick
Pols 315
March 2, 2006
Section A
Both the Freedom House freedom indicator bar graph and Globalization level
index bar graph are based on the Security First scenario for the country of Japan.
In this graph the overall globalization index for Japan increases greatly between
2000 and 2020. This makes Japan an even greater economic power in the world, for the
reason that it could help to strengthen the military and trade alliances with the United
States and other countries throughout the world.
The biggest problem with the Freedom House indicator is the security index. But
index levels do rise in every other area such as policy, markets, and working. Security is
the second step in Maslow’s theory of basic needs. With the low security level index it
could create a very dangerous security and community concern.
Section B
Japan is a very unique country in the fact that it is an economic and political
powerhouse in the world, plus at one time it was also known for it’s aggressive military.
But ever since the creation of their “Peace Constitution” in 1947, after World War II,
Japan’s military has become highly pacifist, the military institutions have become more
defensive oriented instead of concentrating on offense. No military forces have been
allowed out of the borders of Japan since the end of World War II, that was until the War
Against Terrorism began. But according to the Freedom House Indicator, Japan’s biggest
problem is the dramatic lowering of it’s Security Index. If the government could
Section C
This could definitely help to raise the status for Japan as one of the top global
powers in the world, perhaps alongside the United States and China. Making Japan a
stronger global power is a main goal for us during the simulation. Through the
globalization process we hope to gain some real power over countries like the United
States and China. I’m guessing that these countries will also be the one’s most strongly
opposed to the rise of globalization in Japan because of the direct competition. The
United States will definitely help provide military protection and supporting the wake of
any terrorist or other. But with globalization on the rise, this could create a problem of a
higher amount of terrorist threats as well. Therefore, security of the country must also be
heightened in order to counterbalance this problem.
It could put a strain on the military alliance between Japan and the United States
with the low levels of democracy. This is a trend that we would like to halt by perhaps
getting the public more involved in military expenditures and so on. The United States
will be showing much interest in the security index issue and probably try to get involved
as much as possible.
Japan is known as a “Pacifist Nation” ever since the end of World War II when
they enacted a Pacifist Constitution. This basically said that they would not use their
military powers outside of their borders.
Works Cited
< >
Amy Logan
POLS 315: Chadwick
March 2006
Section A
Graph Showing Average Birth Rates for Japan in Various Alternative Futures
Graph Showing Life Expectancy for Japan in Various Alternative Futures
Decreasing birth rates and increasing life expectancy is not a phenomenon that is
unique to Japan. However, it can still pose large threats to the economy and general well
being of the state if not dealt with. The most obvious effect of this trend is that, in the
future when walking down the road in Tokyo, one will notice there aren’t many young
people around. More serious results will likely mean a decline in employment and
economic productivity, and an increase in dependency ratio. Older people are also less
likely to be hired, which could pose a problem with the aged population and their abilities
to support themselves. Although relatively small compared to other global north
countries, homelessness in Japan is on the rise.
Maslow’s most basic necessities of life are being threatened for many in Japan
and this in turn is going to have an adverse effect on the nation as a whole. Cultural
hesitance to employ “old-aged” workers (as young as about 35 years) starts a rough fall
down the needs chain. The near impossibility of finding a job has major effects on selfesteem and a sense of belonging. Many unemployed people feel the loss of a sense of
identity and self worth due to their inability to participate in day-to-day capitalist society.
The average unemployed person feels alienated and unproductive. Another result of
prolonged unemployment is a loss of security and being able to support ones most basic
needs. This phenomenon is clearly shown in Japan with the growing amount of homeless
Using Easton’s model, there is clearly a demand, coming from the need to sustain
economic growth, for a solution to a decreasing employable workforce and an increasing
dependency ratio. In his speech at the Australia Japan Economic Outlook Conference in
December of 2004, Kazumasa Iwata, Deputy Governor of the Bank of Japan offered
three ways to prevent the decline of economic growth: 1. Increase the fertility rate; 2.
Increase labor participation rate (i.e. encouraging women and elderly to work); and 3.
Increase labor efficiency and production. At this stage, the most obvious solution would
be to promote a working environment that makes it easy for couples to have children.
While the amount of women in the workplace and at universities has increased steadily
over the last decade, Japan seems stuck between tradition and meeting its needs. The
common working life of a woman in Japan is to enter the workforce after leaving high
school, leaving the workplace in their mid-late 20s to get married or have children, and
re-entering much later when children no longer require as much care. Add this to the fact
that employment for people from their late 30s onwards is incredibly hard to find, and the
increasing divorce rate in Japan, and you find that women are the fastest growing poverty
group in the country (GLOCOM Platform, Jan 2005). Many young women are choosing
to forgo marriage and children altogether, choosing to concentrate on their careers
(Washington Post, Aug 2004). The government in Japan has recently implemented a
policy, which encourages women to re-enter the workplace faster after having children
and hopes to bring more gender equality to the workplace. However, it is also really
important to support single-parent families, which are increasing rapidly. The average
annual income for female-headed families is 2.16 million yen (about USD 16,615), about
a third of the average annual income of households in general. While there are taxexemptions for single mothers, pensions available to single mothers put them in the same
category as double-income households and restricts their income drastically. Pension
policies need to be changed to support single-parent families and retiring workers.
As the opposition leader in this simulation, my stance at the beginning of the
simulation is that we cannot be internationally competitive if our domestic issues aren’t
dealt with. I will be pushing for more social and employment benefits for women and
families, and initiatives for homeless people.
Section B
At the end of World War II and American Occupation, the United States wrote
the constitution of Japan, which forbids the nation to have “land, sea and air forces, as
well as other war potential,” the Japan Self-Defense Forces (Jieitai) were created shortly
after the end of the post World War II American Occupation. The Treaty of Mutual
Cooperation and Security was also signed between Japan and the US, which allows Japan
to rely on the US for defense, and hosts many American military bases. “The Jieitai is
among the most technologically advanced armed forces in the world and Japanese
military expenditures are the seventh highest in the world.” (Wikipedia). The Japanese
Government, the Diet, is currently debating whether or not to make an amendment to the
constitution which would allow Japan to maintain a proper military. The move is U.S.
backed and would have major effects on the political climate in the region, particularly in
the event of war between the U.S. and China over Taiwan (Washington Post, Nov 2005)
The Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) is pro-pacifism and against any changes
proposed in the constitution by the government to do with military. The aim is to develop
friendly relations with other parts of the world – especially China and Russia through
assertive and friendly diplomacy. The basic reasoning is that Japan should be able to be
an active member on the world stage and not need a military to use for anything other
than defense and humanitarian aid (Basic Policies, Democratic Party of Japan Website).
Also, the implementation of a fully fledged military could result in delicate relations
between Japan and other countries in the region such as China. While diplomatic
relations have been developing steadily since the early 1970s, in the past the two
countries have had a tumultuous relationship with many wars. Japan building a stronger
military, which could be used against them should there be disputes with the United
States could sew seeds of mistrust and suspicion between the two nations.
It would be unlikely for the Diet to change the constitution and then not actually
form a military proper once the amendments have been made. For this reason it is
important to think about the sustainability of such a change, considering the population
demographics. The employable work force is decreasing steadily and although there have
been no major adverse effects as yet, that is not to say there will not be in the near future.
The Diet must consider where the military will come from and the effects it will have on
different sections of the economy.
Although it is assumed it would be incredibly hard to gain membership to the
United Nations Security council without a standing military, this seems to be a position
the DPJ is unwilling to compromise on, promising in its basic policies to “participate in
United Nations peacekeeping operations to the utmost extent allowed by our
Section C
In this simulation I think a lot of pressure will be put on me to vote for the
changing of the constitution, however at the moment I am convinced there are far more
important areas and policies that need development, for which I will be pushing for also.
In order to have a military you need young and able people, something that Japan is
slowly losing. It would be far better for a country such as ourselves, which has always
had strong technological and trade industries to focus on developing those areas. It is also
important to focus on stabilizing the workforce before looking to compete in such areas
internationally. Following are the policies I am aiming to implement during the course of
the simulation.
1. Reformation of the Pension System to suit a diverse amount of life-styles which
ensure support of single-parented families, retired and elderly citizens, and those
with both physical and mental disabilities.
2. Support and encouragement of entrepreneurs and development of new businesses
that create employment opportunities.
3. Further develop gender equality laws in the workplace to support women with
children and enforce equal pay initiatives.
Sources for Japan
Summary of speech given by Kazumasa Iwata at Australia-Japan Economic Outlook
Conference December 2004:
Democratic Party of Japan Website:
BBC News Website:
GLOCOM Website:
Washington Post Website:
Benjamin Bomberry
Pols 315
March 2, 2006
Section A
I chose these graphs based on two components that I thought were keys interests
of the Chukaku-ha and the Japanese Red Army. Both of these groups have the same goal
of overthrowing their respective governments in favor of a communist government. The
first graph is the Freedom House freedom indicator in which the lower the number the
more democratic the society is perceived as. The graph indicates that Japan will hit the
highest number measurable of the graph thus showing that Japan will becoming
increasingly more undemocratic and is already a nation that is not that democratic. With
the goal of overthrowing the government in favor of a world wide revolution I see both
groups using this information as justification for their actions. Using Maslow it can be
shown that a terrorist group such as the Japanese Red Army could see the decrease in
democratization of Japan as a threat to survival of Japan and that alliances with countries
such as the United States have served to weaken Japan in international political power as
shown in the second graph. So both the perception and anticipation would spring these
groups to reach and plan for both immediate gratification and planning for future
gratification. Japan has always been dominated politically by the Liberal Democratic
Party since World War II and even the splinter of the Liberal Democratic Party via party
factionalism has not shaken the extremely conservative government that is currently in
power. Thus this graph could be used to justify the terrorist actions of both the ChukakuHa and Japanese Red Army. I envision that both these terrorist groups would be looking
to overthrow the current government in Japan in favor a communist regime. This goal
would culminate also with both groups trying to ignite a world wide communist
revolution which is the stated goal of both groups. So my vision for Japan is one of
political and social change as both groups seek to overthrow the current and existing
I think the GDA model is best for explaining the actions taken by any terrorist
group. In this case Japanese terrorist groups would use graph one as the facts (actual) that
Japan is an undemocratic society and that its role in international politics is shrinking.
The drift would consist of alienation, disempowerment, and frustration would all be key
factors in pushing these terrorist groups to commit acts of terrorism as both are rather
small groups in comparison with the total population of Japan and thus represent fringe
groups that have no power to change their situation besides terrorism. These groups are
alienated for being completely on the opposite spectrum politically in Japan, they are
disempowered greatly due to their small size and this leads to frustration as they are
powerless to create social change by conventional means such as politics. So both the
drift and actual would feed each other to help justify the actions taken by these groups as
they try to reach their goal of overthrowing the government.
The second graph shows the international political power index. Japan’s world
influence is shrinking and thus once again another opportunity for the justification of
terrorist actions can be made. This justification would be to keep Japan strong there has
to be a shake up in the government as the graphs show that with the continued fall of
freedom that Japan is headed for disaster. Of course other graphs such as GDP and other
economic factors point to otherwise but in pushing a communistic regime change these
facts would be ignored.
Section B
Japan is a country that has been dominated for years by a conservative proAmerican government since World War II. The establishment of the Liberal Democratic
Party and its subsequent reign as Japan’s dominate political party has maintained Japan’s
extremely conservative government. The political situation for terrorist groups such as
the Japanese Red Army and the Chukaku-ha is one in which capitalism and democracy
are operating. The idea of democracy in Japan though has been skewed some what by the
dominance of the Liberal Democratic Party. Even the break up and removal of the
Liberal Democratic Party from power for a few years was not a major change in the
Japanese political landscape as it was led by factions that had split from the Liberal
Democratic Party during numerous intra-party power struggles. Thus even the perceived
political change that occurred was nothing more than the same people in power with just
different political party names. The Liberal Democratic Party has taken back control of
the Diet and real political resistance and change seems to be a thing of the past. Thus
nearly all political power has been monopolized by the Liberal Democratic Party leaving
communist groups on the outs and mostly powerless in this current political realm.
As a terrorist organization with a goal of a terrorist attack that would bring
international focus to the goals of these terrorist groups I foresee that most countries will
steer clear of supporting or condoning any of my actions in the simulation. As with most
terrorist groups as see them becoming the political pariahs of the simulation with support
coming only from pariah nations such as North Korea.
Section C.
The Japanese Red Army
People of Japan wake up! We are living in the most undemocratic society in the
modern world! Our government has betrayed us by making us the lackies of the United
States! Look around you and you will see that the free market has only brought us further
and further under the thumb of the United States! There is only one solution to this
erosion of Japanese sovereignty and that is a social and economic revolution! Join us
comrades as we seek to regain the dignity and respect of the international community by
expelling the foreign devils who have corrupted all of our governmental institutions! The
time for talking is over! As long as the United States continues to enslave us politically,
economically, and militarily Japan will never be truly sovereign!
As we speak right now the existing government has trampled on the rights and
privileges of its citizens. This case is especially true with the jailing of our great leader
Fusako Shigenobu has been illegally imprisoned for her supposed role in a kidnapping
and attempted murder. These allegations are slanderous at best and have been brought up
merely as an attempt to silence the voices that refuse to be silenced. The Japanese Red
Army demands the immediate release of Fusako Shigenobu. Any delay in meeting this
demand will force the Japanese Red Army to retaliate against the corrupt government that
seeks to maintain its illegitimate reign.
Comrades of the world please support us as well. We are fighting the good fight
against the demonic and evil forces of the free market, capitalism, colonialism, and
oppression used by our so called ally the United States and it allies. We seek to
overthrow these foreigners and usurp their power but to do so requires aid in the form of
weapons, cash, and manpower. Fellow communist nations we need your help in starting
the next worldwide revolution! In order to awaken our people to the need for total social
change we need your support!
In closing we want to reiterate our concerns and demands. First the current
government has done nothing but make us the lap dogs of the corrupt and contemptible
United States. We seek to shake the colonial yoke of the United States from Japan via a
revolution that will inspire other nations to do the same. We also demand the release of
our leader Fusako Shigenobu who is now a political prisoner in Japan and has been jailed
for the sole reasoning of silencing the voices of our people. Finally we seek the support
of our fellow communists in helping us awaken the people’s conscience and helping them
recognize that the only hope for a strong and truly sovereign Japan is a communist
Works Cited
Gerald Curtis, The Logic of Japanese Politics, (New York: Columbia University Press,