• Two main subdivisions, by location

advertisement
Let’s Talk Bone Anatomy Next: Divisions of the Skeleton
• Two main
subdivisions, by
location
• Axial skeleton
(brown)
• Appendicular
skeleton (yellow)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Skull
Thoracic cage
(ribs and
sternum)
Vertebral
column
Sacrum
Cranium
Facial bones
Clavicle
Scapula
Sternum
Rib
Humerus
Vertebra
Radius
Ulna
Carpals
Phalanges
Metacarpals
Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
(a) Anterior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges
Figure 7.1a
Bones of cranium (cranial vault)
Coronal
suture
Squamous
suture
Lambdoid
suture
Facial
bones
(a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 7.2a
The Skull: External View, Right Side
Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Coronal suture
Parietal bone
Ethmoid bone
Temporal bone
Lacrimal bone
Lacrimal fossa
Lambdoid
suture
Squamous
suture
Occipital
bone
Zygomatic
process
Occipitomastoid
suture
External acoustic
meatus
Mastoid process
Styloid process
Nasal bone
Zygomatic
bone
Maxilla
Alveolar
margins
Mandible
Mental foramen
Mandibular condyle
Mandibular notch
Mandibular ramus
Mandibular angle
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Coronoid process
Skull: Bones of the Face and Forehead
Mental foramen
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Skull: Posterior View
Sagittal suture
Parietal
bone
Sutural
bone
Lambdoid
suture
Occipital bone
Superior nuchal line
External
occipital
protuberance
Occipitomastoid
suture
(b) Posterior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
External
occipital
crest
Occipital
condyle
Mastoid
process
Inferior
nuchal
line
Figure 7.4b
Skull, Inferior View
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Superior View of Skull With Calvaria Removed
Ethmoid
bone
Cribriform plate
Crista galli
Frontal bone
Olfactory foramina
Anterior cranial fossa
Optic canal
Sphenoid Lesser wing
Greater wing
Hypophyseal fossa
(sella turcica)
Middle cranial
fossa
Temporal bone
(petrous part)
Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Internal acoustic
meatus
Jugular foramen
Hypoglossal canal
Posterior
cranial fossa
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Foramen magnum
View
The Butterfly Bone and Cock’s Comb: The Sphenoid & Ethmoid
Ethmoid bone
Optic canal
Lesser wing
Superior
orbital fissure
Greater
wing
Hypophyseal
fossa of
sella turcica
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Foramen
ovale
Nasal cavity with septum in place, Left Interior View
Ethmoid
bone
Crista galli
Cribriform
plate
Sella turcica
Sphenoid
sinus
Frontal
sinus
Nasal bone
Perpendicular
plate of
ethmoid bone
Septal cartilage
Palatine
bone
Hard Palatine process
palate of maxilla
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Vomer
Alveolar margin
of maxilla
Temporomandibular
joint
Mandibular notch
Mandibular
condyle
Mandibular fossa
of temporal bone
Coronoid
process
Mandibular foramen
Ramus
of
mandible
Alveolar
margin
Mental
foramen
Mandibular
angle
Body of mandible
(a) Mandible, right lateral view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 7.11a
Paranasal Sinuses
Frontal
sinus
Ethmoidal
air cells
(sinus)
Sphenoid
sinus
Maxillary
sinus
(a) Anterior aspect
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(b) Medial aspect
Frontal
sinus
Ethmoidal
air cells
Sphenoid
sinus
Maxillary
sinus
The Hyoid Bone
• The only bone that
does not articulate
with another bone
• Serves as a moveable
base for the tongue
• Connects via muscles
to the styloid process
and tongue
Figure 5.12
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bone Growth, Repair, and Axial Skeleton
• Appositional Growth and Bone Remodeling
• Normal Calcium Deposition and Removal
• Conditions That Stimulate Bone Remodeling
• Types of Bone Fractures
• Stages of Bone Healing
• Hormone Imbalances and Bone Density Problems
• Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
• Axial Skeleton: The Skull
• Axial Skeleton: Vertebrae and the Spine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Vertebral Column
C1
Cervical curvature
(concave)
7 vertebrae, C1–C7
Spinous
process
Transverse
processes
Thoracic
curvature
(convex)
12 vertebrae,
T1–T12
Intervertebral
discs
Intervertebral
foramen
Lumbar curvature
(concave)
5 vertebrae, L1–L5
Sacral curvature
(convex)
5 fused vertebrae
sacrum
Anterior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae
Right lateral view
Structure of a Typical Vertebrae
Posterior
Transverse
process
Spinous
process
Superior
articular
process
and
facet
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Anterior
Vertebral
arch
Vertebral
foramen
Body
(centrum)
Figure 7.18
Median section of three vertebrae, illustrating the composition
of the discs and the ligaments
Intervertebral
disc
Transverse process
Sectioned
spinous process
Inferior articular process
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sectioned body
of vertebra
Figure 7.17a
Bone Growth, Repair, and Axial Skeleton
• Appositional Growth and Bone Remodeling
• Normal Calcium Deposition and Removal
• Conditions That Stimulate Bone Remodeling
• Types of Bone Fractures
• Stages of Bone Healing
• Hormone Imbalances and Bone Density Problems
• Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
• Axial Skeleton: The Skull
• Axial Skeleton: Vertebrae
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column
Cervical Vertebrae: C1-C2
Cervical Vertebrae: C3-C7
Atlas and axis combined, superior view
Superior and lateral view of
C3-C7
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column
Median sacral crest
• Sacrum and Coccyx
Five fused
vertebrae
/posterior
3-5 fused
vertebrae
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Bony Thorax
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Transverse costal facet
(for tubercle of rib)
Angle
of rib
Superior costal facet
(for head of rib)
Head of rib
Neck of rib
Tubercle of rib
Sternum
Crosssection
of rib
Costal cartilage
(a) Vertebral and sternal articulations of a
typical true rib
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 7.23a
The Skeletal System: Bones and Axial Skeleton
• Overview
• Bone Functions
• Classification of Bones
• Long Bone Structure
• Bone Formation,Growth
• Bone Fractures
• The Skull
• The Vertebral Column
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Download