REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM I Chapters 1-3 BIOL&241 Introduction, Cell Structure and Function, Genes, Mitosis 1. Define anatomy and physiology. Identify the levels of organization found in the human body, from the chemical level to the organism. 2. Explain the principle of complementarity, or ‘form fits function’. 3. Define homeostasis. Understand negative and positive feedback loops. 4. Identify the three subatomic particles. Know their respective locations within an atom, and electrical charges. 5. Understand ionic, covalent, polar covalent, and hydrogen bonds. Be able to give an example of each. 6. Define solute, solvent, solution. Explain why water is considered a good solvent. 7. Understand the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. 8. Define an acid and a base. What is pH a measure of? Understand the pH scale, state a typical pH value for a strong acid, a strong base, and a neutral solution. 9. Describe the chemical characteristics and cellular functions of the following organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (and ATP). 10. Identify examples of: simple sugars, double sugars, complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. State the basic function(s) of each of these classes of molecules/macromolecules. 11. Define an enzyme. Describe the role of enzymes in metabolism. 12. Describe the properties of cell membranes including composition, structure, function, and the fluid mosaic model. Be able to give examples of some of the functions of membrane proteins. Describe tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions. 13. Understand membrane transport. Describe the processes of passive transport (facilitated diffusion, simple diffusion, osmosis), active transport, endocytosis (pinocytosis and phagocytosis), and exocytosis. What are the factors that determine if a particle can diffuse through the plasma membrane or not? 14. Define and explain the terms: hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, hemolysis, and crenation. Explain the importance of these terms with respect to cells. 15. Describe the location, structure, and function of each of the following organelles/structures: nucleus, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes, centrioles, cilia, flagella, and microvilli. Identify the 3 major cytoskeltal fibers. Be able to identify all of the above organelles/structures in a diagram, on a model, or in a micrograph. 16. Diagram the cell cycle and explain the key events in each phase: G1, S, G2, and M (mitotic) phase. What is the G0 phase? 17. Diagram and state the stages of mitosis and cytokinesis, and describe the events that occur in each stage (PMAT). Be able to recognize (or sketch) a cell in each phase of mitosis. 18. Understand the processes of DNA replication and transcription, including the KEY enzymes required. Understand the chemical compositions of DNA and RNA. 19. Describe how proteins are synthesized including the role of mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, amino acids, and the ribosomes. Discuss the nature and the importance of the genetic code. 20. Understand the definition of cancer and the mechanisms that can lead to its formation.