DEPENDENT CLAUSES Adverb Clauses: Adverb clauses modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, or entire clauses. They begin with subordinating conjunctions (p. 131 of Writers’ Choices). Because Molly loves grammar, she looks forward to every day of English 104. The house was ruined after John threw himself a graduation party. My son will soon be taller than I. (elliptical) The children were excited that Grandma was coming for a visit. Relative (Adjective) Clauses: Relative clauses modify nouns. Relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that Ex: The young teacher, who has just moved here from New York, is having a difficult time. Relative Adjective: whose Ex: Aunt Carolyn, whose cherry pie won an award at the county fair, will be baking all of the Thanksgiving desserts. Relative Adverbs: when, where, why, before, after Ex: Last year, my parents visited the small town where they met. Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses: Ex: The novel that I’m reading for my English class is fascinating. (restrictive—identifies the novel) Ex: Frankenstein, which I’m reading for my English class, is fascinating. (nonrestrictive—comments on the novel) Noun Clauses: Noun clauses function as nouns (as subjects, delayed subject, direct objects, delayed direct object, retained direct objects, objects of prepositions, subject complements, and appositives). Nonfunctioning subordinators: that, whether, if Ex: It is not clear whether I will pass biology. Noun clauses as appositives come after words such as fact, idea, realization, rumor, belief, theory, etc. Ex: Randy’s realization that he’d never be a kid again devastated him. Functioning Subordinators: Pronouns (function as subjects, direct objects, subject complements, or objects of prepositions in noun clauses): who, whom, which, that, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever Ex: You can have whatever you want. Adjectives: which, whose, what, whichever, whatever Ex: My friends told me whose class I should take. Adverbs: when, where, why, how Ex: The teachers don’t know when they will get a raise.