You should have an idea of what bacteria causes what disease. There are the Enterobacteriaceae, diarrheal diseases—Salmonella typhimurium and enteriditis, E. coli, Shigella. These are Gram negative rods: contain LPS (lipid A is responsible for endotoxic activity) Not all bacteria have all the same virulence genes. Toxins, adherence/alteration of host, cell invasion are commonly used. You should also know how they are passed (fecal-oral, aerosols, touching) Are E. coli usually pathogenic? When it is pathogenic, what kinds of disease(s) can it cause? How is toxin production related to disease? What is the role of the pedestal? How is Shigella like E. coli EHEC? Are these high or low dose inoculums? Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Enteriditis cause what? Are they specific to humans? How does Salmonella manage to stay in the gut? What is the role of the T3SS? Salmonella Typhi causes typhoid fever. What is the main difference between Typhi and other Salmonella strains? What does infection with Vibrio species cause? What is the main “look” of Vibrio cholerae diarrhea? Where are Vibrio usually found? What can Vibrio vulnificus infect? What is Vibrio’s role in shellfish food poisoning? How is Yersinia pestis transmitted? What disease does it cause? How dangerous is Y. pestis when treated and when untreated? What is pneumonic plague and how is this related to bioterrorism concerns? How does Helicobacter pylori survive in the stomach? How are they related to ulcers (and how did we find this out)? B. pertussis, bacterial pneumonia, and TB all cause respiratory distress. B pertussis causes an extremely serious cough (what is this called?), and can lead to pneumonia. Where do they infect? Bacterial pneumonia is caused by a variety of organisms. Causes fevers, coughing and fluid to fill the lungs TB causes granulomas in the lung (and can be antibiotic resistant). Does everyone who gets TB, get sick? Why is it so hard to treat (especially in developing countries)? What does Leigonella pneumophila cause and how is it contracted? Why is it relevant that free-living amoeba and our macrophages are so similar? Clostidial species live in the environment and can be quite resistant to antibiotics (such as C. difficile). What is one treatment we’ve discussed for C. difficile infections? What are the diseases caused by Clostridial species? (I.e. gas gangrene, tetanus, etc). Listeria monocytogenes usually affects the immunocompromised, elderly, infants and pregnant women. It can contaminate meat products such as cold cuts (and other foods like cantaloupes). Why is storing deli meats in the fridge ineffective against preventing listeriosis (the disease caused by listeria)? What diseases can T. pallidum cause? Why can’t it be grown in pure culture? Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are Gram positive cocci that can cause different diseases. Streptococci usually grow in chains and are catalase negative (which Gram + cocci is catalase positive?). Comprised of multiple species, including GAS What kinds of diseases can GAS cause? GAS can make superantigens that can activate over 20000 times more T cells that are normally activated during infection. Why would this be bad? S. aureus causes very similar diseases to GAS. Can have different virulence genes (like E. coli). Enterotoxin is responsible for what symptoms? Exfoliatin? When do we use coagulase tests in the lab? S. aureus is very antibiotic resistant. What are some alternative treatments?