Pre CH14 HW for Silberberg Followings are what you will find at the end of the chapter in your textbook. For LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Highlight the main idea for EACH objective. Ready carefully so you don’t highlight everything. For MASTER THESE SKILLS: Highlight the main idea for each skill. Ready carefully so you don’t highlight everything. For KEY TERMS: Make sure you can define it and/or give an example of it. Pick TWO terms of your choice and actually write the definition or an example. For KEY EQUATIONS AND RELATIONSHIP: Next to EACH, define each term. Be very specific. CHAPTER REVIEW GUIDE Learning Objectives Relevant section (§) numbers appear in parentheses. Understand These Concepts Note: Many characteristic reactions appear in the “Reactions” section of each group's Family Portrait. 1. How hydrogen is similar to, yet different from, alkali metals and halogens; the differences between ionic, covalent, and metallic hydrides (§14.1) 2. Key horizontal trends in atomic properties, types of bonding, oxide acid-base properties, and redox behavior as the elements change from metals to nonmetals (§14.2) 3. How small atomic size and limited number of valence orbitals account for the anomalous behavior of the Period 2 member of each group (§14.2) 4. How the ns1 configuration accounts for the physical and chemical properties of the alkali metals (§14.3) 5. How the ns2 configuration accounts for the key differences between Groups 1A(1) and 2A(2) (§14.4) 6. The basis of the three important diagonal relationships (Li/Mg, Be/Al, B/Si) (§14.4–14.6) 7. How the presence of inner (n – 1)d electrons affects properties in Group 3A(13) (§14.5) 8. Patterns among larger members of Groups 3A(13) to 6A(16): two common oxidation states (inert-pair effect), lower state more important down the group, and more basic lower oxide (§14.5–14.8) 9. How boron attains an octet of electrons (§14.5) 10. The effect of bonding on the physical behavior of Groups 4A(14) to 6A(16) (§14.6–14.8) 11. Allotropism in carbon, phosphorus, and sulfur (§14.6–14.8) 12. How atomic properties lead to catenation and multiple bonds in organic compounds (§14.6) 13. Structures and properties of the silicates and silicones (§14.6) Page 609 14. Patterns of behavior among hydrides and halides of Groups 5A(15) and 6A(16) (§14.7, 14.8) 15. The meaning of disproportionation (§14.7) 16. Structure and chemistry of the nitrogen oxides and oxoacids (§14.7) 17. Structure and chemistry of the phosphorus oxides and oxoacids (§14.7) 18. Dehydration-condensation reactions and polyphosphate structures (§14.7) 19. Structure and chemistry of the sulfur oxides and oxoacids (§14.8) 20. How the ns2np5 configuration accounts for halogen reactivity with metals (§14.9) 21. Why the oxidation states of an element change by two units (§14.9) 22. Structure and chemistry of the halogen oxides and oxoacids (§14.9) 23. How the ns2np6 configuration accounts for the relative inertness of the noble gases (§14.10) Key Terms Page numbers appear in parentheses. Section 14.4 diagonal relationship (577) Section 14.5 bridge bond (581) Section 14.6 allotrope (584) silicate (587) silicone (587) Section 14.7 disproportionation reaction (593) dehydration-condensation reaction (595) Section 14.9 interhalogen compound (604) Answer the following questions. Show your work. (a) What is diagonal relationship? Give one example. (b) What is bridge bond? Give one example. (c) What is allotrope? Give one example. (d) What is disproportionation reaction? Give one example. (e) What is dehydration-condensation reaction? Give one example. (f) What is interhalogen compound? Give one example.