Eng 99 Essay 2: Outlining entire

Eng 99
Essay 2: Outlining
Now that you have a working thesis, you should make a plan for your entire paper before you start writing. You
want to be sure you can fulfill the entire assignment before you proceed. An outline is an excellent way to plan
your paper (and save you time!). Think of an outline as a road map: it has the beginning and end points, with very
specific stops in between. If you stay on the path of your outline, your essay will remain focused, it will be
balanced, and it will be organized in an academically appropriate way.
The traditional college essay has 5 parts: an introduction, 3 body “chunks” (each chunk will be 1-2 paragraphs
long), and a conclusion. Each of these parts is one of the main points of your outline. For peer review next week,
your priorities should be the thesis statement and the body chunks. I strongly urge you not to spend a lot of
time on your introduction at this point. (If you do, it will probably change before the final draft!)
I. Introduction
A. (Wait til later on Part A:) Set up your situation. Give your readers any background information they
need and lead them to the ad/experience/representation.
B. Last, make a forecast for your essay (your thesis statement).
II. Analysis
A. Discuss the audience for the essay.
B. Describe the “text” (aim for 3 examples that point to your thesis) and explain what, within the text or
its environment, is aimed at that audience (see below).
 What’s in the ad that
pertains to your thesis?
 First, brainstorm everything
you can think of.
 Then, see what elements
seem linked or could be
contained under a bigger,
main idea “umbrella.”
 How does the celebrity’s
presence in the ad change
the ad? What does the
celebrity’s image add to the
ad? How might the
celebrity connect to your
“umbrella” idea above?
The celebrity’s image
needs to connect with the
elements of the text you’ve
mentioned, and all of those
things need to fit under the
umbrella of your thesis.
 Make the connections for
your reader.
What happened that made
you/this person a
First, brainstorm every
celebrity-like action/reaction
you can think of. This is the
necessary evidence.
Then, see which of those
ideas you can fit together –
which elements could be
contained under a bigger,
main idea “umbrella.”
Which elements can work
together to lead to some sort
of meaningful statement in
your next section?
The events you choose to
write about should connect
to your thesis and lead
readers to your
“interpretation” section.
Make the connections for
your reader.
 Explain how this person
is represented in the
media: which parts of
his/her life do we, the
public, get to see? Which
elements of this person’s
life are emphasized, and
which parts do we know
nothing about?
 Question why we see those
parts of the celebrity’s life
– why not others?
 How does seeing only
certain parts of this
person’s life shape our
interpretation of the
 How does the media’s
portrayal of this celebrity
lend itself (or hurt) a
certain population, of
which you are part?
 Make the connections for
your reader.
III. Interpretation
A. This section of the paper is not objective analysis. It’s your interpretation, your opinion, based on the
evidence you described in the “Analysis” section above.
 What is the purpose of the
 Now, go deeper: state the
purpose and think about
how it connects to what
you wrote about in the
“Analysis” part of your
 What kind of underlying
message is the celebrity
lending his/her name to, or
contributing to? This is not
just the product – it should
be deeper than surface
 What kind of statement can
you make about the
audience or society in
general based on this
advertising strategy?
What meaning can you find
within this experience?
 What does it reflect about
the society from which it
came? Think about
McGarvey’s essay: although
the bulk of it is about the
experience his class went
through, woven throughout
is the commentary about
how visual images affect us
deeply and even distract us
from the true meaning of
McGarvey goes much deeper
than the class experience: he
asks which is more real: the
image or the “real thing”?
He asks how we really define
ourselves – through what we
are or through what we see?
He marvels over the
influence of “celebrity.”
 What does the popularity
of this person tell us
about the group s/he
represents or our world
 Think about Steele’s essay.
Although its focus is hip
hop and artists today, the
author makes an
unexpected, and much
deeper, connection
between these artists and
alienated, white American
 Consider the celebrity
you’ve chosen to write
about, your “group,” and
what kind of message that
celebrity is sending or
what kind of need that
celebrity is fulfilling within
your group.
B. Describe how what we see/experience at first might change once we examine the
C. The above prompts will help you to formulate an answer to the questions, “So what? Why should we
pay attention to this?” Why is what you’re writing about important to you and to the rest of us? What
can you, a college writer, tell us about our world?
IV. Evaluation
A. Discuss whether or not the “text” is/was a success
 Does the ad, in your
What was the end result of
opinion, succeed or fail in
this experience?
achieving its purpose?
Was this moment of celebrity
Describe how.
and what it brought to
you/this person beneficial or
harmful or X? Describe
 Is the message/need/etc.
that you discussed in your
evaluation section helpful
or harmful? Describe why.
B. Discuss why you chose this particular “text,” your personal response to it, and why you responded this
V. Conclusion (don’t worry about this for the first draft. You may write one if you’re on a roll, of course, but
you’re not required.)